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Arnold 

A history of Methodism In 

Kentucky . 



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BISHOP II. II. KAVANAIKJH 



A 
HISTORY OF METHODISM 

IN 

KENTUCKY 

BY 

REV. W. E. ARNOLD, D. D. 

Member of the Kentucky Conference of the 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

VOLUME II 
From 1820 to 1846 



HERALD PRESS 

LOUISVILLE, KY. 

1936 



COPYRIGHT, 1936 

BY 
WM. E. AENOLD 



DEDICATION 

To the Memory of the Saintly, now Sainted 
REV. EDWARD LUSCH SOUTEBGATE, D. D. 

Under Whose Ministry I was Converted, and 

Who to the End of his Life was my 

Counsellor and Friend 

is 
This Volume Dedicated 

By 
The Author 



PREFACE 

The favorable reception accorded to Volume I of 
this History of Methodism in Kentucky is very gratify- 
ing to the author. The Methodist people of the State 
have shown a deep interest in such a History and have 
given the author many tokens of their appreciation of 
his work. 

In submitting the present volume to the kindly 
consideration of our readers, I must be allowed to say 
that I have been greatly embarrassed by the limitations 
set by myself for the series I have planned. The num- 
ber of volumes cannot be extended indefinitely, and I 
find materials enough for many. The question has not 
been, What shall I put in? but, What can I leave out? 
I have had a great desire to give mention to every man 
who has sacrificed and suffered in order to carry for- 
ward the glorious work begun by our pioneer fathers. 
These men are worthy of having their names enrolled 
on the pages of the History of their beloved Church. 
But a great many were received on trial in the Ken- 
tucky Conference between 1820 and 1846, In trying to 
give recognition to all, I am painfully aware that the 
references to some have been very brief and unsatis- 
factory. Yet I trust there has been presented enough 
of incident and heroic achievement to carry interest to 
the end of the volume. With this ardent hope the fol- 
lowing pages are released. 

THE AUTHOR. 

Winchester, Kentucky. 
October 1, 1936. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

L The Kentucky Conference Established 1 

II. The Conference Gets Going 27 

III. Finishing The First Quadrennium 65 

IV. Difficulties in State and Church 88 

V. Struggling Forward 112 

VI. From 1828 to 1832 128 

VH. From 1832 to 1836 165 

VIII. From 1836 to 1840 199 

IX. The Calm Before the Storm 232 

X. Methodist Unity Destroyed 269 

XL Enter the Methodist Episcopal Church, 

South 294 

XII. Appendix 317 



A HISTORY OF METHODISM IN KENTUCKY. 

VOLUME II 
CHAPTER I 

THE KENTUCKY CONFERENCE ESTABLISHED 

In a former volume we sketched the History of 
Methodism in Kentucky from 1783, the year the first 
Methodist "Society" in the State was organized, to 
1820, the year the Kentucky Conference was author- 
ized by act of the General Conference. Thirty-seven 
years had intervened between these events, and these 
years had witnessed many changes in both Church and 
State. In 1783, when Francis Clark gathered together 
"less than a dozen members" in the home of John Dur- 
ham, there were but a few hundred people in all the 
West,* In 1820, the population in Kentucky alone had 



*Since writing Vol. I of this History, the following has been 
placed in my hands by my friend, Mr, Fletcher Mann, late of 
Lexington, Ky.: "Perhaps one of the first (Methodist local 
preachers) to come to Kentucky was Nicholas Reagin, who, with 
his family, were of those who settled at Bryan's Station, in Fay- 
ette county, Ky., in 1779. George Bryan, in his "Story of 
Bryan's Station," relates: "April 18th (1780) was the first mar- 
riage at Bryan's Station. I myself married Miss Elizabeth Rea- 
gin, daughter of Nicholas Reagin, a Methodist local preacher. I 
thought I could not have her own father to marry us, and Par- 
son Eastin, afterwards of Paris, Kentucky, was there, and I got 
him to perform the ceremony." In a note he says: "Nicholas 
Reagin and his son George both settled on Davis Fork of Elk- 
horn." If this be correct, then Nicholas Reagin preceded Rev. 
Francis Clark to Kentucky by three years, and was, perhaps, 
the first Methodist in the State. 



Methodism in Kentucky 



risen to 564,317. In 1783, Kentucky was still a part of 
the State of Virginia. Nine years later it took its place 
in the Union as a separate State, and for twenty-eight 
years the machinery of State government had been in 
successful operation. Then, the people of Kentucky 
were smarting from the defeat administered by the 
Indians at the disastrous battle of the Blue Licks, 
fought only the year before. Now, the power of the 
Indian tribes was forever broken and there was no 
further danger of a savage invasion. 

Still the country was new. In proportion to the 
size of the State, the population in 1820 was sparse- 
Much of the soil was yet unoccupied. Towns were 
small. Very few could boast of as many as a thousand 
inhabitants. Louisville and Cincinnati were little more 
than mere villages. No turn-pikes had been built. The 
only roads were dirt roads bad at any time, but al- 
most impassable in wet weather. A few stage coach 
lines had been established, but the palmy days of that 
once popular mode of travel had not yet arrived. It 
was fifteen years before the first railroad in Kentucky 
was put in operation. Steamboats were just now 
plowing their way along the placid Ohio, There was 
but little commerce in the State. The soil yielded 
bountifully, but practically the only market for its rich 
products was by way of the Mississippi to New Or- 
leans. Nearly everything the people used was grown 
in their own fields or manufactured in their own 
homes. The spinning wl:eel, the loom, the knitting 
needle, the shoe-maker's bench, the tannery, the cabi- 
net and blacksmith shop were familiar objects to the 
people of that day, 

The financial and political conditions in Kentucky 



Methodism in Kentucky 



have seldom been worse than they were in 1820, Fi- 
nancial affairs were chactic. During and following 
the second war with Great Britain, cheap money had 
induced extravagance and wild speculation. As always, 
this was followed by depression and panic. Every- 
body was in debt. Everybody needed money and few 
had it. Banks failed. Their notes became worthless. 
People were in dire distress. The Legislature, at- 
tempting to enact measures of relief, made laws that 
were either futile or unconstitutional. The courts, 
when called upon to pass judgment on these laws, were 
compelled to declare many of them Invalid. The dis- 
tressed people, in their desperation, then wanted to 
abolish the courts. Even the Constitution itself was 
endangered. The constitutional provision for the crea- 
tion of the Court of Appeals was set aside by a mere 
act of the Legislature, and a new court established. 
Of course this was illegal and was strenuously resisted. 
Old and New Court parties took the field, and for a 
time the distinction between Whig and Democrat was 
forgotten and only New and Old Court parties were 
known. Seldom has there been a more bitter political 
controversy in a State that is noted for such contro- 
versies, 

It was in the midst of such turmoil and strife that 
the Kentucky Conference came into being. The Church 
in Kentucky had grown as well as the State. There 
were now sixteen thousand Methodists in Kentucky, 
and the Church was organized and in position to go 
forward to even greater victories than those that 
crowned her efforts in the past. Four large Districts 
were well manned, and strong men were in charge of 
thim thirty circuits, with a corps of able young 



Methodism in Kentucky 



men and local preachers as helpers. Many local preach- 
ers, not employed as assistants on circuits, were scat- 
tered over the State, ready for any service they could 
render. The congregations were divided into classes, 
each under the care of a leader who would look after 
the welfare of the souls of his class, and lead them in 
their efforts to save others. No more effective system 
of spiritual culture and evangelism was ever devised 
than that of early Methodism. It was an organized 
and disciplined force, seeking to save the lost, and 
nurturing young converts like a mother nourishes her 
child. 

The Methodist membership of that day was almost 
wholly a converted membership. The doctrine of as- 
surance was cardinal among early Methodists. They 
believed with all their hearts that when one passed 
from death unto life he ought to know it. They firmly 
believed that the wonderful gift of salvation ought so 
to thrill the heart of the saved that they would imme- 
diately want to tell the good news to others. Most of 
them could say with the Psalmist, "I have not hid thy 
righteousness within my heart; I have declared thy 
faithfulness and thy salvation: I have not concealed 
thy lovingkindness and thy truth from the great con- 
gregation." Preachers and class-leaders were unwill- 
ing to allow a seeker to stop short of this conscious 
experience of saving grace, and they expected a glad 
testimony from the person who was thus saved. The 
six months of probation required of all before admis- 
sion into full membership sifted out the merely im- 
pulsive and unstable, and gave to Methodism a eon- 
verted membership, conscious of a new life in Christ, 
and burning with zml to win others to a like experi- 
ence, 



Methodism in Kentucky 



The religious life and habits of these early Method- 
ists are worthy of note. They prayed more than most 
people. Nearly all of them would pray when called on, 
whether in prayer- or class-meetings or in the public 
congregations. Very many of them had their places 
of secret devotions to which they resorted daily in 
order to commune with God. In building his mansion, 
a wealthy Presbyterian in Central Kentucky built a 
prayer-room, into which he went every day for a sea- 
son of prayer. These early Methodists had but few 
mansions and there was but little room in their cabin 
homes for prayer closets ; but a place in a canebrake or 
in the depths of a forest answered the needs of their 
devotional life. Dr. Hinde, the grandfather of Bishop 
Kavanaugh, built little bark houses at different places 
over his farm, which became known to his grandchil- 
dren as "grandpa's prayer houses." Valentine Cook 
beat a path from his home at Bethel Academy to the 
shelving rock on the bluff of the Kentucky river, and 
left the print of his knees in the ground where he daily 
wrestled with the Lord. Nearly every Methodist home 
had family prayers. Night and morning they called 
the children and servants about the family altar to 
worship. Preachers usually went to the churcn from 
their knees* and when they entered the pulpit always 
knelt for prayer, while the congregation almost inva- 
riably bowed for a moment of silent devotion before 
taking* their seats. Levity and loud talking were en- 
tirely out of place in the house of God. When the con- 
gregation was called to prayer, the members kneeled 
down, as did the saints of God in Bible times. 

The service of song was inspiring. The people 
sang. The singing may not at all times have been in 
accord with the rules, but, like the negro spirituals, it 



Methodism in Kentucky 



was melody. If the books were few, the preacher 
lined" the hymn, and the people sang. There were no 
choirs. There were no organs. In so far as we have 
information, the first organ to be installed in a Meth- 
odist Church in America was at Portland, Maine, in 
1836. The editor of The Western Christian Advoaate 
in a long editorial bitterly laments "such departures 
from the Discipline," and expresses himself as having 
thought "that there was no congregation of Method- 
ists in the Union who would tolerate such a glaring 
invasion of the institutions of ^ur Church."* Most of 
the preachers of that day sang, and usually led the con- 
gregations in this service. If not, some good man or 
woman would be selected as leader. For the most part 
the hymns were stately, dignified, spiritual, and ex- 
pressive of deep religious emotion and profound theo- 
logical truth. But the point we wish to emphasize is, 
that the Methodists were a singing people, a people 
with a "new song" in their mouths, "even praise unto 
God." 

The doctrines held by the Methodists appealed to the 
common sense of the people. God was not a whimsical, 
heartless Being, loving ;and wishing the salvation of a 
few, and consigning all others to eternal damnation, 
merely because He did not will to save them. The God 
preached by the Methodists was a God who loved all 
men and "was not willing that any should perish," 
The reason why men were lost was because they "would 
not/' They preached a Christ who died for all, and 
whose atonement was sufficient for all, of they woiM 
only come to him. Man, according to their teachings, 
when created by the Almighty, was endowed with free- 

*Westem Christian Advocate, Sept, 9, 1836. 



Methodism in Kentucky 



dom of choice, and it was possible for Mm "to choose 
life and live," or to choose death ,and perish. Christ 
had power to save to the uttermost all that came unto 
God by him. These teachings met a responsiveness on 
the part of men who knew that they were responsible 
for their sins, and that they were unsaved because 
they had rejected the Savior. 

The organization of the membership into classes 
and the class-meeting were distinctive features of 
Methodism when the Kentucky Conference began. At- 
tendance upon the class-meetings was obligatory. 
William Burke had over one hundred names stricken 
from the rolls of the Danville circuit for non-attend- 
ance upon the class-meetings. The coming together 
of small groups for the purpose of talking over their 
religious experiences, of praying for and exhorting one 
another, and of receiving instruction in the way of 
godliness from their more experienced leaders, was in- 
deed a school of religious education that has never been 
surpassed among any people. 

"But," asks the reader, "were they not emotional, 
and noisy? Were not the preachers vehement and 
loud? Were not the people given to shouting and to 
other demonstrations of various kinds?' 5 In many in- 
stances, Yes. But these things were not confined to the 
Methodists. Indeed, the Methodists were more moder- 
ate and held their emotions under better control than 
some others. What the world calls "extravagances" 
almost invariably appear where there is deep spirit- 
uality. It was so in Bible times ; it is so now. Relig- 
ion stirs the emotions as few other things do ; yet it is 
not the only thing that stirs the emotions. We have 
never known a camp meeting where there were as 
much noise and excessive demonstration as in a politi- 



8 Methodism in Kentucky 

cal convention, nor have we seen religious fervor ex- 
ceed the fervor of a horse race or a foot-ball game. Deep 
feeling naturally seeks to express itself through physi- 
cal manifestations, and there was deep feeling on the 
part of the early Methodists This fact cannot be de- 
nied, and no apologies are necessary for it In the. 
great revival at the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, shouting and physical demonstrations and other 
so-called extravagances, were just as common among 
Baptists and Presbyterians as among the Methodists. 
But let this be said : among these early Methodists re- 
ligion was not merely an emotionality; a very high 
standard of ethical living was set bef oro the people and 
Methodists were expected to conform their lives to 
these high standards. 

It is true that Methodist preachers were sometimes 
vehement and loud. "Small thunder and bronchitis" 
were not uncommon among them. These natural ex- 
pressions of earnestness were sometimes indulged too 
far, but the zeal and anxiety to win souls which were 
back of this vehemence could not be doubted. Then 
again it must be remembered that these men were la- 
boring among an emotional and untutored people; and 
those who know human nature know that such a people 
are reached only through some display of emotionality. 
If those who have so persistently sought to discredit 
Methodism, and have so decried "perspiration" and 
"tears," had put a little more of these things into their 
preaching they would have been more successful in 
awakening sinners and leading men to Christ! Un- 
doubtedly there were in those early days of our Church 
some fanaticism and extravagance which are to be de- 
plored; but we of this day are in far greater danger of 
low temperature than of high. Freezing i$ more to b6 



Methodism in Kentucky 



feared than fervency I 

Though there had been great progress in both 
Church and State, serving circuits in Kentucky in 1825 
was still difficult and dangerous. There were still great 
stretches of unbroken forests through which the circuit 
rider must make his w&y as best he could. These for- 
ests were threaded with bridle paths, which frequently 
forked in various directions, and often a new preacher 
was at a loss to know which road to take. It was * 
custom in those days for him to carry with him a 
hatchet or a "marking iron" with which to blaze th* 
trees so as to find his direction the next time he made 
his round. During the first year of his ministry, 
Bishop Kavanaugh, traveling the Little Sandy circuit, 
is said to have got his marks confused, and on more 
than one occasion took the wrong road, and got lost in 
the woods! The fare was hard and the accommoda- 
tions poor. An old preacher who traveled a circuit in 
1825, told the writer of sleeping next to the wall in a 
log house, where the cracks between the logs were 
without chinking. During the night it rained and froze 
as it fell. In the morning a solid cake of ice covered 
his beard ! He also told of feasting on the flesh of a 
young panther, and of waiting until a man killed and 
dressed a hog before he could have his breakfast. In 
many places not only was the fare hard, but the salar- 
ies were distressingly low. In 1821, Benjamin T. 
Crouch, a young man who stood in the very front rank 
of the Conference, received in all only thirty-eight dol- 
lars for his year's work. Henry B. Bascom, for eight 
.months on Madison circuit, received twenty-five dol- 
lars. The highest salary paid that year was paid to 
Peter Cartwright, $236. Very frequently the preacher 
was paid in produce, or something made in the home 



10 Methodism in Kentucky 

wheat, corn, linen, linsey woolsey, bear skins,^ otter 
skins all are listed as payments on the salaries of 
preachers in old records of the Church. Hardship and 
sacrifice were still the lot of the Methodist itinerant 

Few men could, for more than a few years, endure 
the strain upon their strength. To become an itiner- 
ant preacher in 1820 was, to many, a sure road to 
martyrdom. Yet, men dedicated themselves to this 
work, gladly enduring the afflictions and counting not 
their lives dear unto themselves, if they could only 
reach and save the lost. It was heroic. It was a 
magnificent devotion to a great cause. Washington 
and his ragged, hungry men at Valley Forge exhibited 
no greater heroism than did these men. The foreign 
mission field never required greater sacrifice or more 
heroic devotion than did this field in th expanding 
West 

As already stated, there were about thirty circuits 
and stations in Kentucky at the time the Kentucky 
Conference came into being. The State is now divided 
into one hundred and twenty counties. This was an 
average of four of our present-day counties to the 
circuit. Btit some of these circuits were much larg*er 
having as many as thirty preaching places each. Many 
of these preaching places were in private houses, or 
halls, or schoolhouses. Courthouses were popular 
places of worship. Open air meetings were common 
when the weather would permit. Nor was there al- 
ways an organized "society" where there was a preach- 
ing place. The preachers were still pioneers, and when 
there was* an opening in any new community, & regular 
appointment was made in the hope that at some future 
time an organization could be effected. This was true 
in Frankfort and in other towns. There was regular 



Methodism in Kentucky H 

Methodist preaching in Frankfort long before there 
was a Methodist Church in that place. In fact there 
was no meeting house of any kind in the Capitol of the 
State until 1812., when a "union" church was built out 
of the proceeds of a lottery authorized for the purpose 
by the Legislature of Kentucky! 

The following statement from Dr. Steven's History 
61 the Methodist Episcopal Church, throws light upon 
the condition of the Church throughout the United 
States in 1820. He says: 

The Church now advanced with increasing prosperity. The 
statistical exhibit of Methodism in 1820 astonished not only the 
Church, but the country. It was evident that a great religious 
power had, after little more than half a century, been perma- 
nently established in the nation, not only with a practical sys- 
tem and auxiliary agencies of unparalleled efficiency, but sus- 
tained and propelled forward by hosts of the common people, 
the best bone and sinew of the republic and that all other re- 
ligious denominations, however antecedent, were thereafter to 
take secondary rank to it, numerically at least, a fact of which 
Methodists themselves could not fail to be vividly conscious, and 
which might have a critical effect on that hum'ble devotion to 
religious life and work which had made them thus far success- 
ful. Their leaders saw the peril, and incessantly admonished 
them to "rejoice with trembling." The aggregate returns show 
that there were now 273,858 members in the Church, with be- 
tween nine and ten hundred itinerant preachers. In the sixteen 
years of this period there was a gain of no less than 158,447 
members, and of more than 500 preachers. In the twenty years 
of the century the increase was 208,964 members, and 617 
preachers; the former had much more than quadrupled, and the 
latter much more than trebled. 

The General Cbnforence which met in Baltimore, 
May 1, 1820, was a notable session. Several of the 
measures then adopted must receive brief notice in 
these pages as they vitally affected the work in this 
State. But the act which first concerns us was the act 
establishing the Kentucky Conference. As the reader 
of our first volume is aware, Kentucky had, for eight 
years, been divided between the Ohio and Tennessee 



12 Methodism in Kentucky' 

Conferences. So great was the growth of the work in 
the West that further division was imperative. The 
Ohio Conference had sent up a petition asking for this 
further division. The Committee on Boundaries rec- 
ommended, and the General Conference adopted, the 
following: 

The Kentucky Conference shall include the Kentucky, Salt 
Eiver, Green River, and Cumberland Districts, and that part of 
the State of Virginia, including the Green Brier, and Monroe 
circuits, heretofore belonging- to the Baltimore Conference, and 
the Kanawha and Middle Island circuits, heretofore belonging 
to tbe Ohio Conference. 

This method of defining the boundaries by Districts 
and circuits, gives one a very imperfect idea of the 
geographical limits of the new Conference. A study of 
these districts and circuits reveals the fact that the 
newly formed Kentucky Conference embraced all the 
State of Kentucky, a large part of Middle Tennessee, 
and approximately half of the present State of West 
Virginia. Dr. McFerrin, in his History of Methodism 
in Tennessee, says this division "left all that part of 
the State of Tennessee north of Cumberland river in 
the Kentucky Conference; so, also, Dover and Dickson 
circuits, lying between the Cumberland and Tennessee 
rivers/' The Guyandotte circuit was already a part of 
the Kentucky District and this, together with the four 
other very large circuits in West Virginia, put fully 
half of that State in the Kentucky Conference. 

The total membership of the new Conference is 
given as 17,254 white, and 2,113 colored members. Of 
these there were in the State of Kentucky, 14,035 
whites, and 1,635 colored persons. 

The boundaries of the four Districts that mad up 
the greater part of the Conference were determined 
chiefly by water courses. The Kentucky District em- 



Methodism in Kentucky 13 

braced all of the State lying between the Kentucky and 
Ohio rivers, included the Big Sandy Valley, and reached 
far out into West Virginia. It extended from Carroll- 
ton, Kentucky, on the west, to the vicinity of Charles- 
ton, West Virginia, on the east. Besides the five cir- 
cuits in Virginia, it included the Newport, Licking, 
Lexington, Mount Sterling, Hinkston, Limestone, Flem- 
ing, Little Sandy, John's Creek, and Georgetown cir- 
cuits and Lexington Station. 

The Salt River District, roughly speaking, included 
all between the Kentucky River on the north and east, 
and the Salt River on the south and west. It extended 
from Garrollton to the mouth of Salt River, at West 
Point, and took in the Cumberland River section about 
Harlan, Barboursville and Williamsburg, tnus reaching 
entirely across the State. It included the Cumberland, 
Madison, Danville, Salt River, Shelby, Jefferson, Frank- 
lin, and Louisville circuits., 

The Green River District lay west of Salt River, 
and besides the Breckinridge, Hartford, Henderson, 
Livingston, Hopkinsville, and Christian circuits in 
Kentucky, reached far enough south to take in the Red 
River, Dover, Dickson, and Tennessee circuits, in Ten- 
nessee. 

The Cumberland District lay chieily along the mid- 
dle Cumberland River, embracing Somerset, Wayne, 
Goose Creek, Fountain Head, Bowling Green, Barren, 
Green River, and Roaring River circuits, thus cov- 
ering a large territory in both Kentucky and Tennessee. 
From this the reader may get some idea of the location 
and extent of the new Conference. 

The General Conference of 1820 was both interest- 
ing and exciting. Quite a number of things transpired 
that were of moment to our work in Kentucky. Be- 



14 Methodism in Kentucky 

sides creating the Kentucky Conference, the Book Con- 
cern in Cincinnati was established. Prior to this time 
all our publishing interests were in New York ; but the 
Book Concern in Cincinnati brought a large part of 
this business to the West, much to the convenience of 
the people of this growing section. Martin Euter was 
elected Agent of the new Concern, thus bringing to 
the West this very -extraordinary man, whom we shall 
frequently meet as we advance with our narrative. 
Our own Marcus Lindsay was the contending candidate 
for the new agency, and was defeated by only two 
votes. 

The preparation of a new Hymn and Tune Book 
was ordered. The Hymnal which was put out in obe- 
dience to this order served the Clurch for many years. 

Another measure evidenced the aggressiveness and 
forward-looking spirit of the Church. A resolution 
was adopted, calling upon each Annual Conference to 
take up the work of establishing educational institu- 
tions within its bounds. These were greatly needed. 
Our public school system was riot then developed. 
There were no public high schools, and very few pri- 
vate schools of higher grade. It was in response to 
this resolution that Augusta College was brought into 
being. 

Again, the Church was becoming missionary con- 
scious* Prior to this time Methodism was itself a mis- 
sionary movement. Following close upon the heels of 
the pioneer, the circuit rider carried the gospel to the 
farthest outposts established by the white man. As 
early as 1785', a collection was taken with which to 
send two preachers into Canada, and the following 
year fifty-four pounds were expended, a part of which 
was used to defray the expenses of Haw and Ggden as 



Methodism in Kentucky 15 

missionaries to Kentucky. Work had been done among 
the negro slaves, and Coke, Asbury, and a few others 
had occasionally preached to the Indians: but no or- 
ganized and systematic effort had been made by the 
Church as a whole to establish and maintain missions 
to any but our own people who had moved into new 
territory. In 1819, following up the work of the mu- 
latto, John Stewart, the Ohio Conference had begun 
its work among the Wyandotte Indians, but this was 
purely a Conference enterprise and did not enlist the 
efforts of the whole Church. Under the lead of Bishop 
Coke, missionary societies had been established among 
the Wesleyans in England for the purpose of sending 
the gospel to foreign parts, and other denominations in 
this country were beginning work among the Indians ; 
but the Methodist Church was only now awaking to 
its duty in this respect. A year before this General 
Conference met in Baltimore, a "Missionary and Bible 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Amer- 
ica" had been organized by the Methodists in New 
York City. Dropping that part of the title referring 
to the publication of Bibles, (which work, for the time, 
was turned over to the American Bible Society), this 
General Conference approved and adopted as its own 
the Constitution of the New York Society, and made 
that Society the Parent Society of the whole Church. 
It also adopted resolutions urging that auxiliary socie- 
ties be organized in each Annual Coference. The re- 
sponse to this was prompt and enthusiastic through- 
out the Church, and from that day the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in America has been a missionary 
Church. The movement was on a purely voluntary 
basis, no assessments or apportionments being made- 
All funds were raised by voluntary offerings and mem- 



16 Methodism in Kentucky 

bership fees. The payment of two dollars a year con- 
stituted one a member oi the Society, and twenty dol- 
lars paid at one time made one a life membsr. 

This General Conference also provided that a Dis- 
trict Conference should be held annually in each Pre- 
siding Elder's District. It was not, however, the Dis- 
trict Conference with which we are familiar. It was 
rather a local preachers' Conference, composed of local 
preachers who had been licensed as much as two years, 
and concerned itself only with local preachers' affairs. 
Prior to this time, the power to grant and renew 
licenses; to recommend for local orders and for admis- 
sion on trial in Annual Conferences * ai;d to pass upon 
the character and conduct of local preachers, was 
vested in the Quarterly Conference, a body composed 
largely of laymen stewards, trustees, class-leaders, 
etc. Many of the local preachers were men of age and 
experience, often having se/ved as members of Annual 
Conferences, and there was a good deal of dissatisfac- 
tion because their ministerial standing was not in the 
hands of men of ther/ own official grade. It was to 
meet this dissatisfaction that this District Conference 
was devised. But the plan did not work well Local 
preachers themselves were not pleased with it, and 
later it was set aside entirely. Yet for nearly two 
decades all the preachers admitted into our Confer- 
ences came recommended by these District meetings of 
local preachers. 

But the most exciting issue before the body was the 
ever-recurring Presiding Elder question. The Presid- 
ing Eldership has been a veritable apple of discord in 
American Methodism. Scarcely a session of the Gen- 
eral Conference has been held since the Church was 
organized that has not had this question before It in 



Methodism in Kentucky 17 

some form. In 1800, "Brother Ormond moved, that 
the yearly Conference be authorized by this General 
Conference to nominate and elect their own president 
elders," which motion was "negatived/ 7 In 1804, "af- 
ter a Ions debate, the motion That there be no Presid- 
ing Elders/ was lost." In 1808, "the vote being- taken 
on the motion for electing presiding elders, there were 
ayes, 52 ; nays, 73. Lost/' In 1812. a more formidable 
effort was made to mke the ofSce elective, and was de- 
feated bv the t!ose vote of 45 to 42. In 1816, the ma- 
jority against the measure was more decisive, 63 to 38. 
In 1820, the question reached its acutest stage, and oc- 
casioned on-a of the bitterest controversies that ever- 
occurred in a General Conference. 

In this Conference, quite a large number of strong 
men, especially from the East, were :n favor of electing 
the Presiding Elder in the Annual Conference, and a 
resolution was brought forward to this effect. A hot 
debate, running over several days, ensued. Much feel- 
ing was manifested, and a split in the Church seemed 
imminent. Finally, a committee was appointed to see 
if the matter could not, in some way, be accommodated, 
and this committee brought in what was called a com- 
promise measure, providing that whenever a Presid- 
ing Elder was needed, the Bishop should nominate 
three men for the place, and the Conference should 
elect one of the three to be the Presiding Elder. Under 
the plea that this was a compromise measure, that it 
would satisfy the so-called "radical" element, and thus 
secure peace and unity In the Church, a goodly number 
who were opposed to the change were induced to vote 
for it, and the measure was adopted. 

But Bishop McKendree and Joshua Soule were yet 
to be heard from. On account of seriously impaired 



18 Methodism in Kentucky 

health, Bishop McKendree was not able to remain in 
the Conference room, but was in the country seeking 
quiet and rest Peter Cartwright tells of visiting Ms 
room immediately after the measure was adopted, and 
says that the Bishop wept and declared that the Church 
was ruined unless the action of the General Conference 
be changed. Joshua Soule had been elected to the office 
of Bishop a few days before, but had not yet been or- 
dained. It was he who had written the Restrictive 
Rules limiting the powers of the General Conference, 
and, confident that this measure violated the third Re- 
strictive Eule, felt that he could not conscientiously 
carry out the unconstitutional measure, and promptly 
notified the Conference to this effect. Bishop McKen- 
dree returned to the city, called the other Bishops to- 
gether, and declared to them his opinion that the en- 
actment was unconstitutional Bishop Roberts was of 
the same opinion. "Bishop George chose to be silent/' 
McKendree then took up the matter with the General 
Conference, and, according to the statement of Jacob 
Young, 

At the request of Bishop McKendree, the Conference re- 
solved itself into a committee of the whole, and the Bishop took 
the floor as a debater, and advanced such arguments as no one 
attempted to answer. At the close of Bishop McKendree's 
speech, a motion was made by some one voting in the majority, 
to reconsider the vote by which the resolution passed the Gen- 
eral Conference. This was powerfully resisted by some of the 
strongest men on the floor, and when they found it would pre- 
vail, they left the house and broke the quorum. It was a most 
trying hour for the Conference. The next day the^subject came 
up again, and several of the members who were in favor of a 
reconsideration, "being absent when the vote was taken, it was a 
tie .... and the motion was lost. 

It was now fully ascertained that there was a clear majority 
opposed to the resolution, and they were determined not to be 
over-ruled by the minority, therefore they moved to suspend the 
resolution for four years. This raised such a tumult that the 
vote could not 'be taken. During the confused scene a brother 
took his pencil and paper, passed through the whole Conference, 



Methodism in Kentucky 19 



receiving all the names that were in favor of suspension, and 
while there were three or four on the floor speaking at the same 
time, he held up his paper, and cried with a loud voice, "Here 
are forty-seven names in favor of suspension!" This stilled 
the tumult, and the members all resumed their seats. The vote 
was then taken, and passed by a large majority. Bishop Soule 
tendered his resignation, which was accepted the Journals 
were read, and the Conference adjourned sine die. 

Peter Cartwright, who was a member of this Gen- 
eral Conference and an active participant in the con- 
troversy, confirms these statements of Mr. Young. He 
says : 

Motion after motion was made, and resolution after resolu- 
tion was introduced, debate followed debate, for days, not to say 
weeks. . . . Finally, they (the "radical" element) concentrated 
all their arguments to make presiding elders elective; but on 
counting noses, they found we had a majority, though small; 
and rather than be defeated, they moved for a committee of 
compromise. Strong men from each side were chosen; they 
patched up a sham compromise, as almost all compromises are, 
in Church and State. The committee reported in favor, when- 
ever a presiding elder was needed for a District, the Bishop 
should have the right to nominate three persons and the Con- 
ference have the right to elect one of the three. . . ; . This 
report having passed, the radicals had a real jubilee. It was the 
entering wedge to many other revolutionary projects; and they 
began to pour them in at a mighty rate. ... In the meantime, 
I visited the room of Bishop McKendree, who was too feeble to 
preside in the Conference. He wept, and said this compromise 
would ruin the Church forever if not changed, and advised that 
we make a united effort to suspend these rules or regulations 
for four years, and we counted the votes, and found we could 
do it, and introduced a resolution to that effect. And now the 
war began afresh, and after debating the resolution for several 
days, the radicals found that if the vote was put we would carry 
it, and they determined to 'break the quorum of the house, and 
for two or three times they succeeded. Bishop Ro'berts at length 
rebuked them sharply, and said, "If you cannot defeat the 
measure honorably, you ought not to do it at all. Now," said 
he, "keep your seats and vote like men." This awed several of 
them, and they kept their seats; the vote was put and carried, 
and these obnoxious rules were suspended for four years. 

Thus for the time being, the General Conference 
disposed of one of the most irritating questions that 
ever came before it. But it was only for a time. The 



20 Methodism in Kentucky 

"suspended resolutions" were before two subsequent 
General Conferences, and were, together with other "re- 
form" measures, the occasion of the organization of 
the Methodist Protestant Church in 1830. We shall 
meet with the question again and again. The Church 
is still tinkering with it. The present generation should 
know something of the history of this perennial con- 
troversy. The movement to make the Presiding Elder 
subject to election by the Annual Conference was clear- 
ly unconstitutional and subversive of a fundamental 
principle which underlies all ideas of responsibility. 
Under our system of government, Bishops are amena- 
ble to the General Conference, and are the only persons 
responsible to that body for the administration of its 
laws and the carrying out of its program. The Gen- 
eral Conference has no other agents whom it can hold 
responsible for these things. There is no one else to ex- 
ercise a general superintendency throughout the 
Church. From the beginning, long before the delega- 
ted General Conference was provided for, the Bishops 
had exercised this general superintendency by means 
of the presiding elders. The Bishops were few in num- 
bers, and clearly they could not personally be In every 
part of the expanding Church to see that the rules and 
regulations of the General Conference were carried 
out. They could do this only by means of agents who 
were responsible to them. The presiding elder was 
the Bishop's agent. Appointed by the Bishop, he was 
exDected to do in his District exactly what the Bishop 
would do if present. He was responsible to the Bishop 
for his administration, and thus the Bishop- could be 
held resDonsible to the General Conference. One can- 
not justly be held accountable for the acts of one whom 
he has not appointed his agent and who is not respon.* 



Methodism in Kentucky 21 

sible to him. To transfer the power of appointment 
from the BishoB to the Annual Conference clearly 
makes the Presiding Elder the agent of the Annual 
Conference and not of the Bishop, and the General 
Conference cannot hold the Bishop responsible for the 
administration, in the Districts, of persons who are not 
responsible to him. This "changes the plan of our itin- 
erant general superintendency," a plan which had 
been in operation for twenty-four years when the third 
Restrictive Rule was adopted, which forbids the dele- 
gated General Conference from doing this. According 
to McKendree's view, this breaking down the constitu- 
tion of the Church would destroy the whole system of 
the Church's government. 

An incident or two occurring about this time must 
close this chapter. Every Kentuckian is familiar with 
the name of Simon Konton. As one of our great old 
pioneers, he ranks next to Daniel Boone. While Hen- 
derson and Harrod were founding Boonesboro and 
Harrodsburg, Kenton and his companion, Thomas Wil- 
liams, were planting corn in Mason county. They 
cleared a piece of ground not far from Maysville, 
planted corn, and it Is claimed that, "as a result of this 
planting, Kenton and Williams ate the first roasting- 
ears ever grown and eaten in Kentucky by white men." 
Kenton later established "Simon Kenton's Sation," 
three miles southwest of Maysville, and became the 
most renowned Indian fighter and protector of the 
whites in that part of the State. In his Autobiography, 
James B. Finley says : "He was truly the master spirit 
of the times in that region of country. He was looked 
up to by all as the great defender of the inhabitants, 
always on the qui vive, and ready to fly at a moment's 
warning to the place of danger, for the protection of 



22 Methodism in Kentucky 

the scattered families in the wilderness. Providence 
seems to have raised up this man for a special pur- 
pose; and his eventful life, and the many wonderful 
and almost miraculous deliverances* in which he was 
preserved amid the greatest perils and dangers, are 
confirmatory of the fact that he was a child of Provi- 
dence." 

While everybody knows of Simon Kenton, the 
pioneer, not so many know of his religious experience. 
The old man had removed to Ohio and settled in, or 
near, Urbana. In the fall of 1819, he attended a camp 
meeting on the waters of Mad River, where he was glo- 
riously converted. Finley tells the story as follows: 

Simon Kenton was tlie friend and 'benefactor of Ms race, and 
lived respected and beloved by all who knew Mm. In the latter 
part of his life he embraced religion; and it may not be im~ 
proper here to relate the circumstances of his conversion. In 
the fall of 1819, Gen. Kenton and my father met at a camp 
meeting on the waters of Mad river, after a separation of many 
years. Their early acquaintance in Kentucky rendered this in- 
terview interesting to both of them. The meeting had been in 
progress for several days without any great excitement until 
Sabbath evening, when it pleased God to pour out his Spirit in 
a remarkable manner. Many were awakened, and among the 
number were several of the General's relatives. It was not long 
till their awakening was followed by conversion. The old hero 
was a witness to^ these scenes. He had faced danger and death 
in every form with an unquailed eye and unfaltering courage, 
but the tears and sobs of penitence, and the outbursts of rap- 
turous joy from "souls renewed and sins forgiven," proved too 
strong for the hardy veteran and the tear was seen to kindle the 
eye and start down the furrow of his manly cheek. 

On Monday morning he asked my father to retire with him 
to the woods. To this he readily consented, and, as they were 
passing along in silence and the song of the worshipper had died 
upon their ears, addressing my father he said: "Mr. Finley, I 
am going to communicate to you some things which I want you 
to promise me you will never divulge." My father replied, "If 
it will not affect any but ourselves, then I promise to keep it 
forever," By this time they were far from the encampment in 
the depths of the forest. They were alone; no eye could see 
them and no ear could hear them, but the eye and ear of tho 
great Omnipresent. Sitting down on a log, the General com- 



Methodism in Kentucky 23 



menced to tell the story of Ms heart and disclose its wretched- 
ness; what a great sinner he had been, and how merciful was 
God in preserving him amid all the conflicts and dangers of the 
wilderness. While he thus unburdened his heart and told the 
anguish of his sin-stricken soul, his lip quivered and the tears 
of penitence fell from his weeping eyes. They both fell to the 
earth, and, prostrate, cried aloud to God for mercy and salva- 
tion. The penitent was pointed to Jesus as the Almighty Sa- 
vior; and after a long and agonizing struggle, the gate of eter- 
nal life was entered, and 

"Hymns of joy proclaimed through heaven 
The triumphs of a soul forgiven." 

Then from the old veteran, who immediately sprang to his feet, 
there went up a shout toward heaven which made the woods 
resound with its gladness. Leaving my father he started for the 
camp, like the man healed at the Beautiful Gate, leaping, and 
praising God, so that the faster and farther he went, the louder 
did he shout glory to God, His appearance startled the whole 
encampment; and when my father arrived, he found an immense 
crowd gathered around him, to whom he was declaring the good- 
ness of God, and his power to save. Approaching him, my 
father said, "General, I thought w;e were to keep this matter 
secret I" He instantly replied, "0, it is too glorious for that. If 
I had all the world here I would tell of the goodness and mercy 
of God." 

Finley adds: "At this time he joined the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, and lived a consistent, happy- 
Christian, and died in the open sunshine of a Savior's 
love." In a semi-centennial sermon preached before 
the Kentucky Conference of the M. E. Church, at Mays- 
ville, Kentucky, September 30, 1881, Eev. John G. 
Bruce relates this affecting incident concerning Simon 
Kenton* Said he: 

In 1833, 1 attended a camp meeting iu Logan county, Ohio, at 
which were about one hundred and fifty Wyandotte Indians; 
among them Mononcue, a local preacher. Special services were 
held for them in the afternoons. The communion was admin- 
istered at 3 o'clock on Sabbath, at the close of which Mononcue 
was asked to make an address to the white people. This had to 
be done thro"ugh an interpreter. Sitting in the pulpit was Gen- 
eral Simon Kenton, an old man, leaning on his staff, and carry- 
ing on his body the scar of many a wound received at the hands 
of these red men, who had tracked him in blood and by him 
been tracked in blood. Mononcue spoke in a somewhat elevated 
and nervous style, of the influence of the gospel, and its happy 



24 Methodism in Kentucky 

effects upon those who embraced it. Turning: with a grand ab- 
ruptness to the women seated on his left, he said, "The time 
was, my white sisters, when you trembled at the sound ol 
Mononcue j s step. It was well! for Mononcue came with toma- 
hawk and scalping knife, knowing only the war-song and dance; 
but these men, (turning to the preachers behind him) found us 
in the depths of my native forest, worshipping in the temples of 
my fathers; they told me of the cross of Christ 'by which the 
enmity of man to man is destroyed. I ran to that cross and 
buried the tomahawk and scalping knife, and today you greet 
Mononcue as a brother!" General Kenton, who was all atten- 
tion, bathed in tears, sprang to his feet shouting, "W hat ha ^ 
God wrought! Who could have thought it!" caught Mononcue m 
his arms, and these old warriors, who had each struggled on the 
plains, or in the copse for each other's life, subdued by the 
truth, stood in tender embrace, "reconciled by love divine. 

It was while returning- from the General Confer- 
ence of 1820 that Peter Cartwright had one of tho&e 
unique experiences that could occur with no one else. 
He and Jesse Walker were traveling together making 
the journey from Baltimore on horseback, and had 
spent the night at Crab Orchard, Kentucky. The next 
day they separated, Walker going into Tennessee to 
visit some friends, and Cartwright continuing his 
journey toward his home in Christian county. We 
shall let him tell the story : 

Saturday night came on and found me in a strange region of 
country, and in the hills, knobs, and spurs of the Cumberland 
Mountains. I greatly desired to stop on the approaching Sab- 
bath, and spend it with a Christian people; but^was now in a 
region of country where there was no gospel minister for many 
miles around, and where, as I learned, many of the scattered 
population had never heard a gospel sermon in all their lives, 
and where the inhabitants knew no Sabbath, only to hunt and 
visit, drink and dance. Thus lonesome and pensive, late in the 
evening I hailed a tolerably decent house, and the landlord kept 
entertainment. I rode up and asked for quarters. The gentle- 
man said I could stay, but he was afraid I would not enjoy my- 
self very much as a traveler, inasmuch as they had a party 
meeting there that niffht to have a little dance. I inquired how 
far it was to a decent house of entertainment on the road; he 
said seven miles. I told him if he would treat me civilly and 
feed my horse well, by his leave I would stay. He assured me 
I should be treated civilly. I dismounted and went in. The 
people collected, a large company. I saw there was not tiauch 



Methodism in Kentucky 25 

drinking going on. 

I quietly took my seat in one corner of the house, and the 
dance commenced. I sat quietly musing, a total stranger, and 
greatly desired to preach to this people. Finally I concluded 
to spend the next day (Sabbath) there, and ask the privilege 
to preach to them. I had hardly settled this point in my mind, 
when a beautiful, ruddy young lady walked very gracefully up 
to me, dropped a handsome courtesy, and pleasantly, with win- 
ning smiles, invited me out to take a dance with her. I can 
scarcely describe my thoughts or feelings on that occasion. 
However, in a moment I resolved on a desperate experiment. I 
rose as gracefully as I could; I will not say with some emotion, 
but with many emotions. The young lady moved to my right 
side; I grasped her right hand with my right hand while she 
leaned her left arm on mine. In this position we walked on the 
floor. The whole company seemed pleased at this act of polite- 
ness in the young lady, shown to a stranger. The colored man, 
who was the fiddler, began to put his riddle in the best order. I 
then spoke to the fiddler to hold a moment, and added that for 
several years I had not undertaken any matter of importance 
without first asking the blessing of God upon it, and I desired 
now to ask the blessing of God upon this beautiful young lady 
and the whole company, that had shown such an act of polite- 
ness to a total stranger. 

Here I grasped the young lady's hand tightly, and said, "Let 
us all kneel down and pray;" and then instantly dropped on my 
knees, arid commenced praying with all the power of soul and 
body I could command. The young lady tried to get loose from 
me, but I held her tight. Presently she fell on her knees. Some 
of the company kneeled, some stood, some fled, some sat still, 
all looked curious. The fiddler ran off into the kitchen, saying, 
"Lord a marcy, what de matter? What is dat mean?" 

While praying some wept, and wept out loud, and some cried 
for mercy. I rose from my knees and began an exhortation, 
after which I sang a hymn. The young lady who invited me on 
the floor lay prostrate, crying for mercy. I exhorted again. I 
sang and prayed nearly all night. A'bout fifteen of that com- 
pany professed religion; our meeting lasted next day and next 
night, and as many more were powerfully converted. I organ- 
ized a society, took thirty-two into the Church, and sent them a 
preacher. My landlord was appointed leader, which post he held 
for many years. This was the commencement of a great and 
glorious revival of religion in that region of country, and sev- 
eral of the younor men converted at this Methodist preacher 
dance became useful ministers of Jesus Christ. 

It goes without the saying that only a Peter Cart- 
wright could carry through such a "desperate experi- 
ment/' To have attempted such a thing would have 
been, in any other man, the very acme of folly. But 



26 Methodism in Kentucky 

Peter was a psychologist. He correctly estimated his 
crowd. He says himself that "in some conditions of 
society I should have failed ; in others would have been 
mobbed; in others I should have been considered a 
lunatic/' But in a community like this, the people un- 
sophisticated, impressionable, and not gospel hardened, 
such a bold and unexpected attack on the sinful, car- 
ried out by a masterful man like Cartwright, might 
hope for success. But without a strong" conviction 'of 
divine leadership, we would not advise any other man 
to try the experiment. 



CHAPTER II 

THE CONFERENCE GETS GOING 

There was no session of the Kentucky Conference 
held in 1820. The act creating this Conference was 
passed on May 18th, and the General Conference ad- 
journed on May 27, 1820. According to a principle 
long recognized among us, an act of a General Confer- 
ence, unless it is specifically stated otherwise, becomes 
effective upon the adjournment of that Conference.* 
According to this principle, the Kentucky Conference 
was a separate entity after May 27, 1820. Evidently 
Bishop RobertSjWho presided over the Ohio Conference 
in August that year, so regarded it, for the Ohio Con- 
ference took no account, either in its statistics or in its 
appointments of the territory that had been transferred 
from it to form a part of the Kentucky Conference. 
But, on October 4th. a session of the Tennessee Confer- 
ence was held at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, which took 
jurisdiction over -all the territory assigned to both the 
Tennessee and Kentucky Conferences. McFerrin in 
his History of Methodism in Tennessee, tells us that, 

No Bishop being- present, Marcus Lindsay was elected Presi- 
dent, and conducted the deliberations with ability and impar- 
tiality, for which he received a vote of thanks. This, let it be 
remerribered, was in the autumn of the same year in which the 
General Conference resolved to divide the Tennessee Confer- 
ence into two. All the members met at Hopkinsville, according 
to previous appointment. The question arose as to the legality 
of the meeting, some one introduced a resolution that those 
preachers who intended to identify themselves with the Ken- 

*The Episcopal Decision, made in 1879, that "A General 
Conference law becomes effective, not from the time of its pas- 
sage, but from the adjournment of the General Conference,'*" did 
not establish, but only gave legal expression to, a principle that 
has* long been recosrnized 

27 



28 Methodism in Kentucky 

tueky Conference should meet in a body to themselves. This 
resolution was overruled by the President, and the business was 
conducted as usual. . . . Several efforts were made to organize 
a Kentucky Conference, or to ascertain who would constitute tne 
new Conference or where it should be held, but the President 
and a majority were firm, and held the body together till the 
hour of adjournment, reading out the appointments for each 
Conference as though nothing had transpired to change the 
boundaries. The Conference proceeded to fix Joy ballot the place 
of holding the next session of the Tennessee Conference, but the 
President fixed the place of holding the Kentucky Conference. 
McFerrin's History, Vol. Ill, P. 180-181. 

There are some errors in thv statement which need 
not be pointed out here. At this distance and in the 
light of present-day usage, some of the things done 
seem high-handed and wholly without warrant of law. 
The Minutes show that it was a session of the Tennes- 
see Conference, not a joint session of the two. Yet the 
President appointed preachers who were not, and 
never had been, members of the Tennessee Conference, 
to charges that were not, and never had been, a part 
of that Conference! He also assumed control over 
territory that had belonged to the Baltimore Confer- 
ence. Together with two or three circuits that were 
already a part of the Kentucky District he mad-e a new 
District out of the circuits that had hitherto belonged 
to the Ohio and Baltimore Conferences and called it the 
Kanawha District. It was unfortunate that no Bishop 
was present at this session. McKendree's health was 
such that he could not be there, and Bishops Roberts 
and George, traveling as they did on horseback, could 
not reach all the Conferences. They were all present 
at the session held in Lexington in 1821, and very kind- 
ly corrected the administration of President Lindsay 
at other points, but did not pass on the legality of ti*a 
Hopkinsvilte session. 

Some things done at this Conference at Hopkins- 



Methodism in Kentucky 29 

ville demand our attention. What is known as "Jack- 
son's Purchase" had been added to the territory of 
the United States but a short while before, and, by res- 
olution, the President was instructed to send two mis- 
sionaries into this field, one of them to fall hereafter 
into the Tennessee, and the other into the Kentucky 
Conference. He appointed Lewis Garrett, Jr., who at 
the end of the year fell into the Tennessee Conference ; 
and Hezekiah Holland, who fell into the Kentucky 
Conference. For some reason Holland did not go to the 
mission, and Benjamin Peeples was sent in his place. 
(Memoir of Benjamin Peeples, General Minutes,, 
1883).* 

Steps were taken leading to the organization of a 
Missionary Society in the Tennessee Conference, but 
no move was made toward forming one in the Ken- 
tucky Conference until tbe next year. 

In response to the resolutions of the General Con- 
ference requesting that educational institutions be es- 
tablished, the Presiding Elders of the Tennessee Con- 
ference were instructed to "make inquiry with respect 
to the most eligible site for erecting a seminary/' and 
to take other steDs necessary to founding such an insti- 
tution. A committee was appointed "to confer with 
the trustees of Bethel Academy, at Nicholasvllle, Jessa- 
mine county, Kentucky/* and instructed "to enter into 
such measures as may seem best in their judgment, to 
employ a teacher as soon as the present session con- 
cludes/' John Metcalf, who had been Principal of 
Bethel Academy, who had removed its furnishings to 

*Benjamin Peeples was the father of five sons who were 
Methodist preachers, and three of his wife's brothers, who grew 
up in his home, were also Methodfst preachers. Two of his sons, 
John R. Peeples and Samuel W. Peeples, were for many years, 
members of the Kentucky Conference* 



Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

Nicholasville, and had been teaching there for more 
than seventeen years, died only a few weeks before 
this. Evidently this was a move to recover, if possible, 
the control of the school. But nothing came of it. 

At this session thirty-one preachers were received 
on trial "thirteen from Kentucky, thirteen from Ten- 
nessee, and five from Virginia/' Sixteen of these were 
sent into the territory of the Kentucky Conference. 
Some of these did not remain long. At the end of one 
year on the Licking circuit, John Evans was charged 
with unfaithfulness and partiality in the administra- 
tion of discipline, and, though exonerated by a commit- 
tee, he requested and received a discontinuance. Will- 
iam Martin, after a year on the Madison circuit, was 
discontinued at his own request. The Minutes of 1821 
contain the following record : " Allen B. Dillard, hav- 
ing married during the course of the past year, and 
having changed his dress and conduct for the worse, it 
was moved and seconded that Brother Dillard be re- 
proved by an address from the secretary, stating the 
disapprobation of this Conference to the above con- 
duct Voted and carried. Brother Dillard was discon- 
tinued." He was one of those admitted at Hopkins- 
vilte, and had served the Danville circuit during the 
year. 

D'avid Oray was a most exemplary and promising 
young man. He came into the Conference from the 
church at Maysville and was assigned to the Franklin 
circuit in Franklin county. He was then sent for two 
years to the Guyandotte circuit, in Virginia, but on 
May 21, 1823, he died in great peace and in joyous hope 
of eternal life. 

Aquila Sampson traveled the Cumberland and 
Hartford circuits, but, in 1823, there was some trouble 



Methodism in Kentucky 31 

over an account for books he had sold, and further 
charges being preferred against him, he was expelled. 

Isaac Reynolds labored in the Kentucky Conference 
three years on the Little Sandy, Big Kanawha, and 
Middle Island circuits, all in what is now the Western 
Virginia Conference; then was transferred to the 
Pittsburgh Conference, where he was acceptable and 
useful until 1830, when he located. 

William Young was admitted, and traveled succes- 
sively the Salt River, Cumberland, and Middle Island 
circuits, but unable to stand the strain of such hard 
itinerating, located. He was readmitted in 1824, and 
assigned to the Shelby circuit; but on August 5, 1825> 
an attack of bilious fever ended his useful career. His 
last words were, "Glory to God !" 

At this session, two brothers, from what is now 
Allen county, sought admission William M., and John 
W. McReynolds. They were sons of Robert and Mary 
McReynolds, a most excellent couple who came from 
Virginia about 1804, and adopted Allen county as their 
home. The sons had been converted during the great 
revival which swept that section of Kentucky and 
Tennessee in 1818 and 1819. Both were superior men, 
polished in manners, popular both in and out of the 
pulpit, zealous, aixd highly useful. William McDaniel 
McReynolds, elder of the two, was a man of excellent 
character and of fine ability, but possessed a roving 
disposition which prevented his achieving the best re- 
sults in his ministry. He was sent this year to Chris- 
tian circuit as the colleague of Peter Cartwright. The 
next year he was at Middle Island, in Virginia ; then he 
was assigned to Blue River, In Indiana ; then to Mount 
Carmel, Illinois; thence back to Kentucky, where he 
traveled successively the Danville, Hinkstone, and Lit- 



32 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

tie Sandy circuits. He then was assigned to Hopkins- 
ville station, then to Shelby circuit, then to Bards- 
town station. He remained in charge of Bardatown 
for two years. After a year on the Salt River circuit, 
he was, in 1832, appointed Superintendent of Bards- 
town Female Academy. He located in 1833, and emi- 
grated to Ohio. After a few years here, he went to 
California, then back to Kentucky, where he had 
charge of a girls' school -at Glasgow. After thit 1 he re- 
turned to Ohio, re-entered the Conference, was sent to 
Portsmouth, where he died suddenly, March 4. 186&. 
The late Rev. Hiram Baker, who was his colleague on 
the Little Sandy circuit, once irave the winter the fol- 
lowing account of the man : 

William McReynolds was a most agreeable man, very popu- 
lar both in and out of the pulpit. He was well educated, a fine 
preacher, and had traveled about seven years. He had been 
tossed about quite a good deal, having already preached in five 
different States. While in Indiana, one of his preaching places 
was at the home of Bishop Roberts, When at home the Bishop 
was one of the best listeners he ever had; simple as a child, and 
receiving the gospel with eager gladness. He wept and prayed 
and enjoyed the services as any other Christian might. While in 
Kentucky, McReynolds married, near Frankfort, a most accom- 
plished lady, then moved to Hillsboro, Ohio, where he started a 
high school. While here he was elected County Treasurer. But 
he unfortunately engaged in some legitimate speculation, used 
some of the County's money, and lost. He very promptly made 
acknowledgments and explained the situation. No one accused 
him of intentional wrong, or offered to prosecute him. On the 
contrary, they accepted his offer to go to California, make the 
money, and pay it back. This he did, paying every cent that was 
due. During the Civil War, he entered the Union Army as 
Chaplain, and was captured at Harper's Ferry. After getting 
back home, he re-entered the Conference and was sent to Ports- 
mouth. Not long after reaching that place, he preached three 
times on Sunday, seemingly in good health. That night he was 
taken ill, and died before morning, 

The younger brother, John W. Mclteynolds, spent 

his first year in the itinerancy on the Little Sandy 
circuit, wM-eifa lay in the northeastera part of tfa 



Methodism in Kentucky 33 

State, embracing Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and other 
counties in the Big Sandy Valley. The next year he 
was on the Goose Creek circuit, in Tennessee, but was 
compelled to locate at the end of that year. He re- 
moved to Illinois, which was at that time a sort of 
Mecca for many Kentuckians, re-entered the Confer- 
ence in that State, and served various charges there 
and in Indiana until 1841, when he was again granted 
a location. He took up his residence at Paris, Illinois, 
where he remained until his death in 1848. His labors 
were characterized by fervency and zeal, and he was 
the instrument of accomplishing much good. 

But little is known of Henry Gregg beyond the fact 
that he was admitted this year, served successively the 
Cumberland, John's Creek (in Big Sandy Valley), 
Bowling Green, Somerset, and Wayne circuits, and 
located in 1825. 

Luke P. Allen was a man of good, ordinary ability, 
"earnest, zealous and useful, exemplifying in his life 
the religion he professed." He filled acceptably his as- 
signments to Barren, Newport, Little Sandy, Goose 
Creek, and Greenville circuits, then was compelled to 
superannuate. Living in the bounds of the Goose 
Creek circuit not far from the Kentucky-Tennessee line, 
he remained a superannuate until 1837, when, the Con- 
ference, having disapproved of his selling a slave to "a 
common slave-trader/* he asked for and received a lo- 
cation. Hiram Baker, referred to above, was con- 
verted under his ministry while on the Little Sandy 
circuit. He describes him as "a Tennessean by birth, 
tall, pale, a powerful exhorter, and a very useful 
man." 

Another who was admitted this year gave sixteen 
years of faithful service to charges In what is now the 



84 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

Kentucky and Louisville Conferences chiefly the lat- 
ter. John Denham is described as "a plain but useful 
minister of the gospel/' He was gifted in exhortation 
and prayer. Nearly all these old preachers could ex- 
hort, and they could pray facts which account, in 
large measure, for their success in winning souls. Be- 
fqre entering the Conference, Denham rendered very 
effective service as a local preacher in the great revival 
in Southern Kentucky and Northern Tennessee in 
1818-49. After serving sixteen years, lie was superan- 
nuated, and died, in Hart county in 1843. 

Esau and Elisha Simmons were bnthsrs, from Bul- 
litt county, Kentucky. Esau was received at this Con- 
ference and assigned to the Shelby circuit. He con- 
tinued to travel until 1826, when he was superannua- 
ted, and continued in this relation until 1838, when he 
located. Bedford says that Elisha Simmons was re- 
ceived at the same time with his brother, but we do 
not find his name on any list of those received at this 
time, and various references to him in the manuscript 
Journal of the Kentucky Conference clearly indicate 
that he was received at an earlier date. We have but 
little information concerning Mm. 

Blachley C. Wood this year served the Roaring 
River circuit, lying in Tennessee, but a part of the 
Kentucky Conference. Be then traveled the Somerset, 
Barren, Bacon Creek, and Green River circuits, was 
superannuated for two years, and then appointed to 
the Christian circuit. At the end of one year on that 
charge, his health completely failed. He remained a 
superannuate until 1835, when he located. After this 
we lose sight of him, and do not know where he lived 
or when he passed to his reward. 

A name one very familiar to the Methodiats of 



Methodism in Kentucky 35 

Kentucky is that of Milton Jamison. We are not in- 
formed as to his early life, but he was a member of the 
class admitted in 1820, and his first charge was Middle 
Island, in Virginia. In 1821, he was sent to Danville 
circuit. Here he was married to Miss Light, and 
though he was afterwards preacher in charge of May&- 
ville station, Mount Sterling, Lexington, and Greens- 
burg circuits, a large part of his ministry was spent 
in the vicinity of Danville. Bedford says : 

Mr. Jamison was not a great preacher, yet all the ability lie 
possessed was at his command, and at any moment could be 
brought into requisition. As a polemic, he took rank with the 
ablest men in the Church. During the latter years of his min- 
istry in Kentucky, Camp'bellism was exerting every effort to 
entrench itself in the confidence of the people. Boasting of vic- 
tories won in other quarters, the evangelists of that Church, 
with unsparing hand, made Methodism the subject of their most 
bitter denunciations. They held up to public ridicule the doc- 
trine of divine influence, and spoke of "the witness of the Spirit" 
as a delusion; the "mourner's seat," the "altar of prayer," the 
prayers and tears of penitent sinners for mercy, the great doc- 
trine of justification by faith in the merits of the Redeemer, 
were all made the subjects of bitter invective. With this con- 
troversy no man was more familiar than Mr. Jamison, and no 
preacher in Kentucky did more to break the power and influ- 
ence of Camplbellism in his day than he. He met in debate the 
evangelists of that denomination, whenever an ^ opportunity of- 
fered, and on every occasion gained a decisive victory. He pub- 
lished a small book on Campbellism, that found its way into 
every county in the State, that did much to stay its tide. In 
controversy he was always calm and self -possessed, and so over- 
powering in argument, that long before he left Kentucky, no 
one, even among the ablest champions, would risk a discussion 
with him. 

The book on Campbellism was bound in blue cloth, 
and was known as '"the Blue Pill" Jamison held a de- 
bate with "Kaceoon" John Smith in Mount Sterling, 
and another with a man in Western Kentucky, the 
notes of which we have read. His discussion of the 
mode and subjects of baptism contained about all that 
later disputants used in their debates upon these sub- 



36 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

jects. A series of articles in The Gospel Herald in 
1830-31, presents very strongly the whole subject of 
baptism from the Methodist viewpoint. 

In 1838, Jamison located and went to lowta. He 
was for three years a meirber of the Iowa Conference 
of the M. E. Church, but i:i 1847, he transferred his 
membership to the Missouri Conference of the M. E. 
Church, South, and was appointed to Glasgow station. 
The next two years he was assigned to Weston, but 
after a year and a half here, he yielded to the excite- 
ment over the finding of gold in California, and started 
with his family across the plains to that State. While 
on the plains in Kansas, and while gathering fuel to 
replenish the camp fire, "he was accidentally shot by a 
pistol falling from his own bosom, and died of the 
wound on the 30th of May, 1850, and was buried some 
fifty miles east of Ft. Laramie." 

It is not often that emotions excited by some ca- 
tastrophe or convulsion of nature, are lasting. In 
1811, there was a series of earthquakes along the Mis- 
sissippi Kiver, which caused great excitement and 
alarm among the people.* Peter Cartwright tells us 
that, during the year of excitement occasioned by these 
earthquakes, hundreds united with the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, many of them sincere, but many who 
were moved simply by fear, soon fell away. One boy, 
Benjamin Drake, was awakened by the earth's tremors 
to a sense of his need of a Savior. Though not co<n~ 



*My wife's grandfather, Rev. George Strother, had begun to 
bum brick for a new residence. So many brick houses were 
damaged by these earthquakes that he changed his plan and 
erected a heavy framo 'building, most of tHe timbers bein^ 
hewed out with a broad axe. Eeel Foot Lake was formed by 
these convulsions, and the cctme of the Miaaiaaippi Kdvw was, 
in places* changed several miles. 



Methodism in Kentucky 37 

verted for some years afterwards, he was never able to 
shake off the conviction by which he was then seized. 
Born in North Carolina, he removed with his parents 
to Muhlenburg county, Kentucky, when only a child, 
Licensed to preach when barely nineteen, he rode the 
Henderson circuit under appointment of the Presiding 
Elder until the Conference of 1820, when he was re- 
ceived on trial and sent to the Fountain Head circuit 
with Rev. Samuel P. V. Gillispie. His health was poor, 
and at one time during the year "he went home to die/* 
Recovering in some measure, in the fall of 1821, Bishop 
George took him and John R. Lambuth (grandfather 
of Bishop Walter R. Lambuth) with him to Mississippi. 
Here his health was restored. He filled some of the 
most important stations in the Mississippi Conference, 
and built the first Methodist Church ever erected in 
New Orleans. "From this time forward, until his 
death, Mr. Drake's history is the history of the Mis- 
sissippi Conference/' In 1828, he was made President 
of Elizabeth Female College, the first Methodist school 
established in Mississippi. In 1852, the degree of D. D. 
was conferred on him by Centenary College, and he 
was subsequently elected President of that institution. 
He was a delegate to every General Conference for 
thirty years, and stood in the first rank as a member of 
that body. "Dr. Drake was one of the finest specimens 
of a true Methodist minister. In person he was tall, 
commanding, and of fine appearance. In, social man- 
ners he was warm, generous, and friendly, and exceed- 
ingly popular both in and out of the Church. His 
piety, from first to last, was of the most substantial 
and unfaltering character. In the pulpit he was pre- 
cise and dignified, his sermons being always edifyin? 
and apostolic/* A son, Rev. W. W. Drake, was an 



88 Methodism in Kentucky 

honored member of the Mississippi Conference, as was 
a grandson, Dr. W. W. Drake, Jr. 

One other name is found in this list with which we 
shall become quite familiar as we go forward with this 
history. We refer to the name of Edward Stevenson. 
We shall give but a brief sketch of him here as we 
shall have occasion to refer to him so frequently here- 
after. He was the son of Thomas and Sarah Steven- 
son, and was born in Mason county, Kentucky, October 
3, 1797. It was in his father's home, in Simon Ken- 
ton's station, in 1786, that Benjamin Ogden offered up 
the first prayer ever offered by a Methodist itinerant 
at a family altar in Kentucky. His father and mother 
were converted under the ministry of Robert Straw- 
bridge, in Maryland, and were members of the first 
society organized in America, In their cabin home 
O^den organized the first Methodist Society in North- 
ern Kentucky. 

Edward Stevenson was converted when about fif- 
teen years of age, and before he attained his manhood, 
was licensed to preach. His first sermon was delivered 
in his fathers' house. That was the regular preaching 
place for the small society in that community, and on 
this occasion the people had gathered for a prayer 
meeting. For some reason no one was present who 
was in the habit of leading the services, and an irre- 
ligious man insisted on young Stevenson preaching. 
He did so, and seven persons were converted in that 
service. In 1820, he was admitted on trial and ap- 
pointed to Lexington circuit with Nathaniel Harris as 
his senior, and with Samuel Demint as a colleague. 
Though he met with the usual tribulations of a young 
preacher, his rise in the Conference was rapid. He 
was stationed in most of the leading towns in the State 



Methodism in Kentucky 39 

Mount Sterling, Harrodsburg, Danville, Hopkins- 
ville, Kussellville, Bowling Green, Shelbyville, Frank- 
fort, Maysville, Lexington, and Louisville. All these 
shared his excellent ministry. Preachers remained but 
one or two years in a place in those days, and the fact 
that he served in so many places was not at all to his 
discredit. He was a member of the Oeneral Confer- 
ence of 1844, and also of the Louisville Convention 
which established the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, in 1845. In 1846, he was elected Missionary 
Secretary and Assistant Book Agent, and for four 
years was in charge of the Book Depository in Louis- 
ville. In 18SO, he was again elected Assistant Book 
Agent, and four years later was given full charge of 
the Publishing House at Nashville. In 1858, he ac- 
cepted the Presidency of the Russellville Female In- 
stitute, afterwards Logan College, and remained in 
charge of this institution until his death, July 6, 18-64. 
Few men have given the Church more valuable service 
than he. As his name will occur frequently in connec- 
tion with events to be related in this narrative, we 
leave him for the present. 

This year, 1820, a man came into the territory of 
the Kentucky Conference who had been received on 
trial in the Ohio Conference the previous year, and 
who became one of the leaders of our Conference. As 
stated hi his memoir, "his history is identified with the 
history of Methodism, Christianity, Morals, and Educa- 
tion for thirty^even years/' We refer to Benjamin T. 
Crouch. He was born in Delaware, July 1, 1796. His 
father, who had emigrated first to Maryland, then to 
Pennsylvania, had died before Benjamin was ten years 
of age, "leaving a widow with eight children to bring 
up under the disadvantages of cheerless poverty." Mr. 



40 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

Crouch joined the Methodist Church as a seeker in 
May, 1816, and was happily converted in August fol- 
lowing, while attending a camp meeting in Ohio. He 
was licensed to preach in April, 1819, and immediately 
commenced his itinerant career under the direction of 
the Presiding Elder, on Whitewater circuit. "As he 
had no horse, he started on foot with his saddle-bags 
on his arm, containing part of a Bible, a hymn book, 
and a few articles of clothing, but glowing with an in- 
tense desire for the salvation of his fellow-men." In 
1819 he was admitted on trial and appointed to the Ox- 
ford circuit In 1820, he transferred to Kentucky Con- 
ference territory and was sent to the Little Kanawha 
circuit in Virginia. Religious, zealous, a hard stu- 
dent, he rose rapidly in the Conference, and was soon 
filling leading appointments. He was not a strong 
man physically; was tall and very thin, and many jokes 
were current concerning his skeleton-like appearance. 
Yet he gave more than twenty years to the presiding 
eldership, was pastor of several leading stations of the 
Conference, was a member of seven General Confer- 
ences, and of the Louisville Convention in 1845. At 
the Conference of 1855, he made this notation in his 
diary: "This is the thirty-fifth session of the Ken- 
tucky Conference I have attended; have never been 
absent, or got to Conference too late, or left too early. 
Never was absent from Conference business but once, 
and then only for fif teen minutes, to have a tooth ex- 
tracted." After his superannuation in 1856, he con- 
ducted a school at Goshen, Oldham councy, for two 
years. He died suddenly from a stroke of apoplexy* 
April 26, 1858, while on his knees in prayer. His re- 
mains rest in the cemetery at LaGrange, Ky. 

In Methodist parlance, the word circuit indicates 



Methodism in Kentucky 41 

a group of congregations or preaching places, under 
the pastoral care of one minister, called the Prewher 
in Charge. Where the circuit is composed of a large 
number of preaching places, the preacher In charge Is 
frequently given one or more assistants, called jwwo* 
preachers, who labor under the direction of their 
senior. The word station indicates a single congrega- 
tion, served by a minister who devotes all his time to 
that congregation. The Methodists have always found 
the circuit system very effective in promoting the 
work of the Lord. Under it, every itinerant preacher 
is furnished constant work; he has no idle time while 
hunting a pastorate or awaiting a "call" Then again, 
it enables him to cover more ground and preacii in 
more places where the gospel Is needed than any other 
system. Further, it gives every church, even the weak- 
est, a pastor and regular services the year round. For 
many years the Church was so committed to this sys- 
tem that it was very slow in getting away from it and 
establishing stations. Until 182-0, there was but one 
station in the Kentucky Conference, and that wa 
small. Lexington was a station, and had only 113 
white, and 70 colored members. Lexington circuit, 
which lay around the city, had a membership of 811 
whites and 317 blacks. F'or some time the work in 
Louisville was conducted on the circuit plan. When 
there were as many as five or six preaching places, a 
preacher in charge, with two or more assistants, was 
sent to the city and expected to supervise the whole 
work. At the end of the year 1820, however, Louis- 
ville had a very small membership only 88 white and 
95 colored members, the colored membership out- 
numbering the white. At this Conference of 1820, 
Hopkinsville was made a station, with Andrew Monroe 



42 Methodism in Kentucky 

as the piaster, as was Maysville, under the ministerial 
care of Burwell Spurlock. 

Of the circuits lying in the State of Kentucky, two, 
the Little Sandy and the John's Creek, covered all the 
eastern end of the State. Tins embraced the whole of 
the Big Sandy Valley, together with Greenup, Carter, 
and Elliott counties. In after years, this section be- 
came a Methodist stronghold, and was the home of 
some of the leading Methodist families in Kentucky. 
A mere mention of some of these families will show 
what a large contribution this section has made to 
Methodism. The list is by no means complete when we 
mention the Moores, Mayos, Mayses, Hagers, Auxiers, 
Stewarts, Prestons, Savages, Rices, Burnses, Howeses, 
Leslies, Cecils, Poages and the Beerings. While the 
Kentucky Conference sent many of its preachers into 
the Big Sandy Valley, quite a number of Methodist 
preachers have come out of that section to enrich the 
Church. The Deering brothers, Richard and Seriah, 
and 'George B. Poage came into the Kentucky Confer- 
ence, while Samuel E<. Hajer has been one of the best 
missionaries of the M. E. Church, South, in Japan. 
Into the Western Virginia Conference have gone from 
this section, Rev. Zephaniah Meek, founder and editor 
of The Central Methodist; James Harvey Burns, J. 
BL Hager, John W. Hampton, and others; while the 
Kentucky Conference of the M. E. Church has received 
Charles J. Howes and his brother, George W. Howes, 
T. F. Garrett, T. B. Stratton, Frederick W. Shannon, 
W. C. Stewart, and others whose names we do not now 
recall. This rough and rugged region has been a fruit- 
ful field for Methodism. 

The circuits composing the great I&entucky District 
all had large memberships. The statistics of 1821 give 



Methodism in Kentucky 43 

the Lexington circuit a combined white and colored 
membership of 1128. Fleming reported, 1,026 whites, 
and 70 colored members. Hinkstone had slightly more 
than a thousand members, while Mount Sterling and 
Limestone each reported almost as many. Newport 
had 434 members, while Georgetown had only 70 white, 
and 100 colored. 

In the Salt River District the membership was 
smaller. Only the Jefferson circuit reported as many 
as 800 members. Danville and Salt River had some- 
thing over 500 each, while Cumberland, Madison, and 
Shelby had fewer still. As stated above, the city of 
Louisville had only 88 white members, and 95 colored. 
In the Green River District, the Christian circuit was 
numerically the largest, reporting 970 members: 
Breckinridge, 630; Hartford, 615; Henderson 470, and 
Livingston, 425. Dover and Dickson, lying in Ten- 
nessee, had respectively 495 and 346. The Red River 
circuit, partly in Kentucky and partly in Tennessee, 
reported a combined membership of 653. In the Cum- 
berland District, Fountain Head reported 966 mem- 
bers, Wayne, 709, Green River, 691, Barren, 665, 
Bowling Green, 641, Goose Creek, 612, Roaring River, 
539, and Somerset, 487. Knowing how the member- 
ship was distributed over the Conference, will, we 
think, be an aid to the reader as we o forward with 
our history. 

1821. The first session of the Kentucky Conference 
was held in Lexington, Kentucky, September 18-25, 
1821. The Methodist meeting-house in which the ses- 
sion was held was small, and the Masons kindly offered 
the Conference the use of their commodious lodge 
room; but the offer was respectfully declined, the Con- 
ference insisting that the church building was large 



44 Methodism in Kentucky 

enough for their accommodation. Resolutions were 
passed expressing appreciation of the kindly offer. 

All three of the Bishops McKendree, Roberts and 
tJeorge were present. Bishop George was the first 
to occupy the chair of the new Conference. The Jour- 
nal is signed by both Bishops George and Roberts, but 
Bishop McKendree, quite feeble, presided a short while, 
William Adams was the first Secretary, a position held 
by this excellent man for thirteen years. 

Seventeen members answered present at the first 
roll call, viz., Alexander Cummins, James G. Leach, 
Henry McDaniel, Samuel Brown, Marcus Lindsay, 
Jonathan Stamper, Peter Cartwright, William Adams., 
Samuel P. V. Gillispie, John Watson, Richard Corwine, 
William Holman, Benjamin Peeples, Edward Ashley, 
William C, Stribling, Elisha Simmons, and Jacob L. 
Bromwell. No roll of the Conference is given, but the 
Journal shows that there were twenty-five other mem- 
bers of the body, viz., Charles Holliday, Joseph D. Far- 
row, Josiah Whitaker, John Brown, John Ray, James 
Porter, Francis Landrum, Andrew Monroe, John John- 
son, Samuel Montgomery, John Daver, George W. Tay- 
lor, Allen Elliott, Burwell Spuriock, Joshua Butcher, 
Absalom Hunt, Henry B. Bascom, William Allison, Si- 
mon Peter, James Blair, Barnabas McHenry, Heze- 
kiah Holland, Benjamin Lakin, Leroy Cole, and George 
Locke. 

In addition to these, eleven who* had been on trial 
were admitted into full connection, William Peter, 
Martin Flint, William Gunn, Joshua Browder, Cheslea 
Cole, D'avid Dyche, John Kinney, Isaac Collard, Ben- 
jamin T. Crouch, John R. Keatch, and Nathaniel Har- 
ris. Zadock B. Thackston, George McNelly, George C. 
T.iViif. and Philit) Kennerly were re-admitted, while 



Methodism in Kentucky 45 

Thomas A. Morris and Abel Eobinson were received by 
transfer from the Ohio Conference; making, in all, a 
membership of fifty-nine. Of this number, however, 
Samuel Montgomery and George Locke located at this 
session; Absalom Hunt and Barnabas McHenry were 
placed on the supernumerary list; Simon Peter, John 
R. Keatch. Benjamin Lakin, and Leroy Cole were su- 
perannuated ; and James Blair was expelled. This left 
a working: force of fiftV members. 

In addition to these fifty active members, sixteen 
who had been received on trial at the Conference of 
1820 1 , were continued, while twenty-one new men were 
admitted this year. Those admitted were Hervey Saw- 
yers, Peter Akers, Simon L. Booker, John James, 
James Ross, George W. Robbins, Richard D. Neale, 
James Browder, Laban Hughey, John H. Power, Will- 
iam Farrow, Stephen Harber, Obadiah Harber. Green 
Malone, Thomas Joiner, Thomas Atterbury, Lewis 
Parker, John R. Lambuth, Caleb Grain, William Cham- 
bers, and Daniel Tevis. So the Conference began with 
fifty-nine full members and thirty-seven men on trial. 

It is said that *the predominant element in Church 
history is biography." This was certainly so at the 
time of which we write. We had no church papers in 
circulation at that time, and we have no files to con- 
sult. Quarterly Conference records and class-books 
have nearly all been destroyed, and we are largely de- 
pendent on brief and often very imperfect, memoirs 
and vagrant sketches for most of our information con- 
cerning the work of the Church at that period. Local 
traditions are exceedingly uncertain. The meager 
records of the Conference Journal and General Min- 
utes, with an occasional autobiography, are the chief 
sources from which history must be drawn. We would 



46 Methodism in Kentucky 

like to do justice to every faithful man who gave him- 
self to the work of the Lord in Kentucky Methodism, 
but it is obvious that, in a work like this, the space 
devoted to each one must be brief. Unless one was 
an outstanding character, we can do little more than 
mention his name. 

In the former volume we have given sketches of 
most of the men who composed the Kentucky Confer- 
ence at its beginning. There were strong men In its 
membership. It is not an overstatement to say that 
the Conference, in the abilities of its men, was the 
equal of any of the other Conferences then In exist- 
ence. Alexander Cummins was not brilliant, but was a 
man of good parts, steady and level-headed, a trusted 
administrator and greatly beloved as pastor and Pre- 
siding Elder. Dr. James G. Leach was somewhat ec- 
centric, but a man of more than ordinary intelligence 
and pulpit ability. Henry McDaniel was one of the 
most useful men of his day, and would have achieved 
success in any pulpit in any Church. For gifts as a 
revivalist, a debater, an orator, and leader, few men 
equaled Jonathan Stamper, who was just then rising 
into power. His influence was felt throughout the 
State and Church. Peter Cartwright was not only the 
daring and unique backwoods preacher he is com- 
monly supposed to be, but was a man of force, and 
stood in the front rank as a leader in Conference af- 
fairs. William Adams, the scholarly secretary of the 
Conference, while never a preacher of overwhelming 
power, was always a good preacher, averaging up to 
the best. William Holman had few equals as a pastor, 
and his success in the various fields he served was not 
surpassed by any man in the Church. Francis Lan- 
drum, during a ministry that was comparatively short. 



Methodism in Kentucky 47 

added five thousand to the Church. John Eay and 
Josiah Whitaker were unique characters but strong 
men. Charles Holliday, a universal favorite as a Pre- 
siding Elder, and of marked ability in the pulpit, was 
recognized by the General Conference and for two 
quadrenniums was elected Agent of the Book Concern 
in Cincinnati. William Stribling, though not without 
his peculiarities and somewhat careless in the matter 
of dress, had but few equals as a preacher. He ranked 
with Bascom, Kavanaugh, and other great preachers 
of his day. Andrew Monroe, after nine years of fruit- 
ful labor in Kentucky, went to Missouri and became a 
veritable Nestor of Methodism in that State. Benja- 
min Peeples went to Tennessee, where for sixty years 
he stood among the foremost men of his State. He 
was one of the two commissioners who, in 1858, were 
appointed by the Governor of Tennessee to run the line 
between that State and Kentucky. Richard Corwine 
was no ordinary man. He was not showy, but sub- 
stantial and dependable, and his life was a benediction, 
Marcus Lindsay would have been a leader anywhere. 
He was one of our strongest doctrinal preachers, a 
great administrator of the affairs of the several Dis- 
tricts he served, a man who wias respected and honored 
in every field in which he labored. While his career 
was marred by some rather bitter -antagonisms, his 
strength of character and the purity of his purposes 
cannot be questioned. H. B. Bascom is too well known 
to need any characterization here. John Johnson was 
a very able preacher. George W. Taylor, then a young 
man, was rapidly rising to a place of great influence in 
the Conference. Burwell Spurlock, the first stationed 
preacher in Maysville, was spoken of as a profound 
reasoner, a gifted pulpit orator, and an authority in 



48 Methodism in Kentucky 

Bible exegesis, 

No sketch has yet been given of Samuel P. V. Gil- 
lispie. He was admitted into the Baltimore Conference 
in 1814, but came West five years later and entered 
the Tennessee Conference. He was uniformly success- 
ful in his work and great revivals attended his minis- 
try everywhere he went. On the Logan circuit, it is 
said that "his labors gave to the Church an impulse it 
had never felt before in that section of the State/' Un- 
der the strain of a successful ministry, he broke down 
and was compelled to locate in 1825. He went to Lou- 
isiana, and for twenty-five years he was eminently use- 
ful as a local preacher. In the summer of 1850, he 
made a visit to old friends in the western part of Vir- 
ginia, where he had labored in the early part of his 
ministry, and while on this visit was taken sick and 
died. His death occurred In Gilmer county, Virginia, 
October 17, 1850. 

Of Abel Robinson, who was received this year from 
the Ohio Conference we have but little information. 
He had been a member of the Ohio Conference for sev- 
eral years, and remained with us until 1829, when he 
located. He seems to have been at least an average 
Methodist preacher, though he never took the highest 
rank in either Conference, 

Thomas A. Morris, who was transferred at the 
same time, was an able man, and in 1836, was elected 
one of the Bishops of the Church. He was born near 
Charleston, West Virginia, April 28, 1794. His parents 
were Baptists. Receiving "the full witness of the 
Spirit of his pardon and adoption" on Christmas night, 
1813, he soon after joined the Methodist Church and 
was licensed to preach. In 1816, he was admitted on 
trial in the Ohio Conference, This was the year that 



Methodism in Kentucky 49 

Conference met in Louisville, Kentucky, which, at that 
time, was not in its bounds. His first year in the Ken- 
tucky Conference was spent on the Christian circuit, 
one of the largest circuits in western Kentucky. The 
next year he was stationed in Hopkinsville, then trav- 
eled Red River circuit, Green River District, then Lou- 
isville station. He returned to Ohio in 1828. 

The sacrifices Dr. Morris was compelled to make 
while in Kentucky were amazing, and the necessity for 
making them is a cause of humiliation to the Method- 
ism in this State. In The Western Christian Advocate, 
he published quite a number of articles which were 
gathered into a book called Miscellanies, and in order 
that the present generation may know what the early 
Methodist preachers had to endure, we quote from one 
of these articles the following : 

I entered the itinerant ministry with a family, in my twenty- 
second year, having first sold my little farm, and invested the 
funds for safe-keeping, so as to go wherever appointed; and 
have been a man of one business for more than twenty-three 
years, not incumbered with any worldly business, which in any 
way interfered with my ministerial calling. The whole amount 
appropriated by the stewards during the first twelve years, as 
their books in the several circuits, will show, was about $1,700; 
and if to this foe added all my marriage fees and private pres- 
ents, the aggregate I received on every score, as a minister, was 
about $2,000. This is not guess work. My private accounts 
were kept with great care; and, though some of them are lost, 
my recollection of them is substantially correct. The average 
dividend is $166 66 2-3 per year, This was to pay house rent, 
buy fuel and provisions, and clothing for the entire family, en- 
tertain company, educate the children, pay doctor's bills, public 
and private charity, and provide myself with 'books, and horses, 
and riding equipment for the circuit, etc. . . . The year I was 
stationed at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, the stewards, with some 
difficulty, raised for me $30 quarterage, and $35 family ex- 
penses, or $65 in the year; my expenses the same year beinsr 
afoout $450, and nothing received from Conference .... Nor 
was this the worst year of my life, in reference to support. The 
Green Eiver District, to which I was appointed in the fall of 
1825, was about one thousand miles round, including the visits I 
made my family occasionally ibetween quarterly meetings. My 



50 Methodism in Kentucky 

way led through Henderson swamps and Jackson's . Purchase, 
and, consequently, across Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. My 
first quarterly meeting was one hundred and twenty miles from 
home, though I resided In the bounds of the District. Before I 
commenced this heavy work, I sold my pony and paid ^LOU lor 
an able horse, on which I traveled that year, by computation 
as exact as could be made without measuring, t>iree thousand, 
nine hundred miles. The same year, besides holding quarterly 
meetings, and administering the sacrament frequently, I deliv- 
ered near three hundred public discourses, and, by the blessing 
of Providence, never lost an appointment, winter or summer, 
day or night, sick or well. And now, gentle reader, what do 
you suppose I received for the whole year's work? It was ?bo 
and a few cents. 

He had invested his little patrimony in a humble 
home in Elkton and in a small farm near by, but was 
compelled to sell the farm to pay his debts. When, in 
1834, The Western Christian Advocate was established, 
Dr. Morris was selected to edit it. Two years later he 
was elected a Bishop, and served the Church in this 
high office for thirty-eight years. We shall have occa- 
sion to refer often to Bishop Thomas A. Morris. 

As already stated, four men were re-admitted this 
year. Philip Kennerly was very sick at the time the 
Conference met, and "was received on condition that 
he was alive and ready to enter into the work." He did 
not recover, but on the 5th of October breathed his 
last A sketch of him will be found on page 349 of our 
first volume. He is described as "a good preacher, 
filled with faith and the Spirit of Christ; so that while 
he exposed the errors of the heterodox, and the crimes 
of the wicked, with faithfulness and authority, he, for 
the most part, possessed himself of their confidence and 
good will." He wa<s the second of the preachers of the 
Kentucky Conference to pass through the gates of the 
eternal city. 

Zadok B. Thackston was for many years a great 
sufferer, Admitted into the Western Conference in 



Methodism in Kentucky 51 

1805, he served only a few years until he was forced 
to locate In order to care for his family. He was re- 
admitted in 1821, and assigned to the Bowling Green 
circuit. In 1824, he was placed In a supernumerary 
relation, and, in 1825*, was superannuated, and sus- 
tained this relation until his death in 1852. When the 
Louisville Conference was established, he fell into that 
body and died a member of it. "He was a man of great 
affliction for many years unable to walk for more 
than five years, and could not be moved without great 
pain; yet patience had its perfect work; not a mur- 
mur ever escaped from him, I suppose, in all his sor- 
rows." (Memoir). He professed sanctification, and 
died with the sentiment on his lips, "All is well 1" 

George McNelly was one of the Conference's best 
men. He had located in 1820, but was soon again in 
the itinerant ranks. Fruitful in his labors and much 
beloved by his brethren, he labored with fidelity until 
1838, when he was superannuated. He died previous 
to the Conference of 1840. "Notwithstanding the deep 
piety that distinguished our fathers in the ministry, 
none of them were more fully consecrated to God than 
George McNelly/' 

The fourth man readmitted this year was George C. 
Light, a most talented man. Born in Virginia, he re- 
moved with his family when yet a child to Maysville, 
Kentucky, where his boyhood was spent. The next 
move of his family was to Clermont county, Ohio. 
Here he was converted under the ministry of good old 
William Burke. He was then in his twentieth year. 
The following year he was admitted into the Confer- 
ence, but located after three years. During the time of 
his location, he lived in Ohio, "laboring on the farm, 
teaching school, acting as surveyor, serving as a repre- 



52 Methodism in Kentucky 

sentative in the Legislature, and filling other offices of 
trust and honor but never forgetting the obligations 
of the Christian ministry." After his return to the 
Conference he filled the pulpit at Maysville, Lexington, 
Louisville, Shelbyville, and Frankfort, and was Agent 
for the American Colonization Society for two years. 
He was then transferred to Missouri, where he filled 
important charges and Districts. In the autumn of 
1841, he returned to Kentucky and spent two years 
at Covington and one at M-aysville; then back to Mis- 
souri, and from there to Mississippi, where, after ten 
years of distinguished service, he died suddenly on his 
seventy-fifth birthday, February 28, 1860. "An able, 
useful, and successful minister of the New Testament. 
Many were the seals of his ministry ; great was his use- 
fulness in the Church." Dr. Bedford, who knew him 
well, speaks of him in highest terms. "Possessing tal- 
ents of a high order, with scarcely a rival in the pulpit 
in the State, his ministry was sought for in all the 
principal towns and cities of the Commonwealth. 
Whether as the fearless defender of the doctrines held 
by the Methodist Episcopal Church, or as the opponent 
of 'strange doctrines', his arguments were not only 
commanding, but irresistible. By nature an orator, 
and brought up under the rugged scenes of western 
life, there was a boldness amid his strokes of eloquence 
that invested his sermons with a beauty and power 
that has seldom been equaled. Success attended his 
ministry wherever he labored." 

Brief mention must be made of those admitted on 
trial this first year of the Conference. Hervey Saw- 
yers, Virginian by birth, converted early in life, spent 
three years in the Kentucky Conference, was then 
transferred to the Baltimore Conference, where he 



Methodism in Kentucky 53 

died, September 11, 1827. "He was a young man of 
deep piety, highly beloved and respected by all who 
knew him." 

Peter Akers was a converted lawyer, and one of the 
great preachers of his day. Located at Flemingsburg, 
he was considered one of the most gifted men at the 
bar. In the spring of 1821, his young wife died. Con- 
verted a short while before, her death was most tri- 
umphant. She and Mr. Akers had both been received 
into the Church by Dr. Anthony Houston shortly be- 
fore her death. He was licensed to preach almost as 
soon as his six months probation had expired. He was 
soon filling the most important charges in the Confer- 
ence, such as Lexington, Russellville, Louisville, Dan- 
ville, and Harrodsburg. In 1832 he was transferred to 
the Illinois Conference, where he almost immediately 
assumed leadership. He is said to have been a pro- 
found thinker and a great preacher, dealing with groat 
themes in a masterly way. When asked his opinion of 
Akers, Bishop Ames, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, replied, "He reminds me of Ajax, with ease 
tossing around stones which no other man can lift!" 
His sermons were often lengthy, but delivered with 
tremendous effect. They probably illustrated the say- 
ing of a celebrated preacher that "a sermon should be 
like the city John saw, of equal depth and breadth and 
length/' He was for some time President of McKen- 
dree College. Among his numerous writings was a 
work on Bible chronology. He was six times honored 
by election to the General Conference. His death oc- 
curred in February, 1886, when in his ninety-sixth 
year. At the time of his death he was said to have 
been the oldest Methodist preacher in America, if not 
in the world. 



54 Methodism in Kentucky _^ 

Simon L. Booker was born and died in Stevensburg, 
Virginia. Coining West soon after his conversion, he 
traveled the Monroe circuit, in Virginia, then Red 
River and Green River, and was stationed at Hopkins- 
ville. He was then transferred to the Baltimore Con- 
ference in 1825, and his last appointment was in the 
city of Baltimore, but he was never able to reach the 
place. Tuberculosis had laid its cold hand upon him, 
and in August, 1829, he died. Bedford says that "Mr. 
Booker was highly prized in Kentucky for his manly 
intellect, his consistent piety, his ardent zeal, and his 
abundant success." 

One of the most devoted, most loveable, and most 
loved men ever in the Kentucky Conference was John 
James. A plain man, with only an ordinary English 
education, unpretentious, but earnest and tactful, we 
have had few men who were more useful than he. He 
was born in Virginia. Coming to Kentucky with his 
family when about fifteen years of age, he settled in 
the Green River country. He was married to Mar- 
garet Taylor when twenty-one. Was converted, united 
with the Methodist Church, and felt his call to preach 
about the same time. Despite strong opposition from 
both his own and his wife's people, he soon began to 
exhort and then to preach. His father-in-law disin- 
herited his daughter because she was the wife of a 
Methodist preacher! He spent several years as a local 
preacher, and was thirty-nine years of age when rec- 
ommended by the Quarterly Conference of the Hart- 
ford circuit for admission on trial. He had traveled 
the Hartford circuit under the Presiding Elder, and 
that charge requested his appointment as their regular 
preacher, and their request was granted. He gave 
thirty-nine years to effective work as an Itinerant min- 



Methodism in Kentucky 55 

ister, serving such charges as Danville, Harrodsburg^ 
Covington, -and Lexington, filling most of them the 
constitutional limit of two years. It was said of him 
that he was "catholic in spiiit, punctual in his engage* 
ments, consistent in character, true to the Church, 
faithful as a friend, devoted as husband and father, 
attending conscientiously, as far as was in his power, 
to all the duties of a Methodist preacher." Several 
years before his active ministry came to an end, he 
moved his family to Millersburg, where they remained. 
Here, on January 14, 1869, he entered into rest. Be- 
fore his departure, he committed his wife to the care 
of his brethren of the Conference and sent them a 
message in which he said : "The doctrines of the Meth- 
odist Church which I have preached -all my life, 1 still 
believe to be true. Having devoted my life to the ser- 
vice of God, I do not now regret it. Had I to live it 
over asrain. I should devote it to his service/' At his 
grave in the "Old Cemetery" at Millersburg, his friends 
erected a graceful monument to his memory. 

After a year on the Shelby circuit, William Farrow 
was discontinued at his own request. Caleb Grain 
traveled Somerset and Goose Creek circuits and located 
in 1824. James Ross and James Browder each served 
four years ; Ross on the Cumberland, Henderson, Green 
River, and Licking; Browder on the Madison, Dover, 
Roaring River and Green River circuits. Both located 
in 1825v Laban Hughey was sent this year to the Jef- 
ferson circuit, then to Monroe and Guyandotte circuits 
in Virginia. At the end of his third year he was su- 
perannuated, and located two years later- 
Green Malone. son of Winn and Jane Malone, of 
Barren county, was admitted and assigned to John's 
Creek, in the east end of the State a rough, mountain- 



56 Methodism in Kentucky 

ous section. He was then sent to Limestone, Guyan- 
dotte, Bacon Creek, Goose Creek, and Henderson. The 
strenuous labors on these large charges was too much 
for his strength, and after a year on the supernumer- 
ary list, the inevitable location followed. He moved to 
Alabama, where he was faithful in the local ranks un- 
til the fall of I860, when he triumphed over death and 
received the crown of life. 

Obadiah and Stephen Harber were twin brothers. 
They were the products of old Ebenezer church, in 
Clark county, but at the time of their entrance upon 
the itinerant ministry, they lived in Madison county, 
and came recommended by the Quarterly Conference 
of the Madison circuit. Ooadiah spent nearly six 
years traveling successively the Red River, Greenville, 
Green River. Madison, Little Sandy, and the Cyn- 
thiana circuits, but while serving this last, death over- 
took him, and ended a useful career. It is said of him 
In his memoir that "'he died In the fullness of the Chris- 
tian faith and confidence/' Stephen Harber traveled 
until 1828, when a severe throat trouble compelled his 
superannuation. He did not again enter upon active 
service, though he preached frequently. He died in 
1845. No memoir was furnished for publication in the 
General Minutes. It is said of him that, "as a preach- 
er, he was plain and forceful: as a Christian, he was 
exemplary, though his piety was rather morose." He 
was never married. 

John Lambuth was the grandfather of Bishop Wal- 
ter R. Lambuth, of precious memory. He was this 
year admitted into the Kentucky Conference, but al- 
most immediately Bishop George took him to Missis- 
sippi. He and Benjamin Drake were co-laborers on 
the Fountain Head circuit, but the call for workers in 



Methodism in Kentucky 57 

Mississippi was insistent, and the Bishop determined 
to take both these young men with him to this more 
southern field. John Russell Lambuth was said to 
have volunteered to go as a missionary to the Creoles 
and Indians of -Louisiana, but he ranged over the States 
of Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama. "In 1830 he 
was holding a camp meeting in Greene county, Ala- 
bama. Suddenly, without warning, he left the meet- 
ing. When he returned, he made this unique an- 
nouncement : 'I was called home by the birth of a baby 
boy. In heartfelt gratitude to God I dedicated the 
child to the Lord as a foreign missionary, and I now 
add a bale of cotton to send him with/" (Pinson's 
Life of Bishop Lambuth) . The child was named James 
William, and he went to China in 1854. He became one 
of our greatest misionaries. Not long after he and Ms 
wife reached China, a son was born to them whom 
they named Walter Russell. He became a doctor, a 
preacher, a foreign missionary, a Secretary of the 
Board of Missions, and a Bishop. He was one of the 
greatest missionaries of modern times. He opened for 
us our missions in Japan, Africa, and Siberia. 

Daniel H. Tevis was a man of delicate health, but 
was admitted and traveled the Hinkstone circuit this 
year. His strength failing, he was discontinued in 
1822, but was readmitted later and gave seven years 
of successful service to the work. He located in 1833. 

William Chambers labored on the 'Wayne, Cumber- 
land, Red River, and Bowling Green circuits, then went 
to Illinois, where he located in 1836. 

Thomas Atterbury was for four years on the Liv- 
ingston, Henderson, Bowling Green, and Bacon Creek 
circuits, in the western part of the State. He was then 
sent to Salt River, that hard field in which so many 



58 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

good men had sacrificed their health or their lives. 
Here he was Invalided, and died before the next ses- 
sion of the Conference. 

Lewis Parker was a man of force, and blessed the 
Church with many years of useful labor. Born in the 
State of New York; the son of a local preacher (for- 
merly a Presbyterian minister) ; coming, at the age of 
seventeen, with his parents, first to Ohio> then to Ear- 
din county, Kentucky; converted in 1820, he at once 
began a course of reading and study which prepared 
him for the ministry. He was licensed and admitted 
into the Kentucky Conference in 1821, and was sent to 
Jackson's Purchase as the colleague of Benjamin T. 
Crouch, by whom he was highly esteemed. John's 
Creek, Wayne, Somerset, Danville, Logan, and Green- 
ville then shared his labors. While on the Wayne cir- 
cuit, in 1824, he was married to Miss Matilda Lockett, 
and in 1829, felt impelled to locate in order to care for 
his family. He established his home in Wayne county, 
and for forty years was a faithful and most laborious 
local preacher. He possessed a strong mind, was an 
acute reasoner, and an able defender of the doctrines 
and usages of his Church. He held frequent debates 
with the followers of Alexander Campbell, and pub- 
lished a pamphlet oh "The Mode of Baptism" which 
attracted favorable notice from eminent scholars. His 
house was a preaching place. His son, Lemuel D. 
Parker, was a Methodist preacher, ,and two of his 
daughters married Methodist preachers, Revs. Emer- 
son and Harrison, of the Louisville Conference. He 
died at Cedar Hill, Pulaski county, April 29, 1853. He 
left an impress for good upon all that part of the State 
in which so much of his life was spent. His son, Dr. 
J. W. F. Parker, lived at Somerset, Kentucky, and hav- 



Mettwcusm in Kentucky 



ing known Mm and other descendants, the writer can 
testify to the excellent character and high type of 
Christian citizenship they represented. 

The itinerant life of George W. Robbins was spent 
chiefly in what is now the Louisville Conference, on 
Bowling Green, Livingston, Greenville, Henderson, 
Breckinridge, and Christian circuits. After two years 
on the superannuate list, he located in 1838, then went 
to Illinois, then to Missouri. After five years in the 
Missouri Conference, he returned to Illinois and be- 
came a member of the Southern Illinois Conference. A 
man much beloved. 

We know but little of the antecedents of John H. 
Power. He came into the Conference this year from 
the Kentucky District, and, judging from his record as 
given in the General Minutes, he must have been a man 
of superior executive ability. After three years in the 
Kentucky Conference, he was transferred to Ohio, 
where for more than twenty years he was in charge of 
Districts. In 1848, he was elected Assistant Agent of 
the Cincinnati Book Concern. After four years in this 
position, he returned to the regular work of an itiner- 
ant, and later went to Iowa, where he was Presiding 
Eilder of the Keokuk District. 

In the religious experience of Thomas Joiner both 
geography and the calendar appear. A camp meeting 
at Ebenezer, Wilson county, Tennessee, was the place, 
and about the hour of midnight, September 18, 1820, 
was the time of his conversion. He says: "My agony 
was great, but while struggling for redemption, a 
stream of divine light poured into my mind, and love, 
like a refining fire, ran through every power of my 
soul. The change was sudden and satisfactory." At 
Burkesville, Kentucky, along with Uriel Haw, William 



60 Methodism in Kentucky 

Chambers and John Russell Lambuth, he was licensed 
to preach and recommended for admission in 1821. He 
served the Breckinridge and Bowiing Green circuits in 
Kentucky, but most of his life was spent in his native 
Tennessee. In 1826, he married the daughter of Rev. 
John McGee, under whose ministry the great revival 
began in 1799'. He lived long and wrought well within 
the bounds of the Memphis Conference. 

For forty years the name of Richard D. NeaJe was 
a household word among Kentucky Methodists. A Vir- 
ginian, coming to Kentucky and taking up his resi- 
dence in Bowling Green when twenty-one years of age, 
converted at thirty-two under the ministry of Andrew 
Monroe, he joined the Conference in the class of 1821, 
and was sent to Henderson circuit, He was thereafter 
entrusted with many important charges. In 1825 he 
was Secretary of the Conference. While not classed 
among the most gifted and eloquent men, he was pre- 
eminently useful. "His constitution seemed almost of 
iron. ... He preached more frequently, and was 
more tireless in the prosecution of his work than any 
of his contemporaries. Powerful in exhortation, 
highly gifted in public prayer, and with a voice that 
could be heard distinctly by the largest audiences that 
attended public worship, he consecrated all to the cause 
of Christianity, and under his ministry, thousands 
were converted to God and brought into the Church." 
(Bedford) . In his last illness he frequently shouted 
in prospect of immortal glory. He died at his home in 
Jefferson county, January 10, 1862. 

In Chapter I we gave an account of the attempt in 
the General Conference to make the Presiding Elder- 
ship elective. At this first session of the Kentucky 
Conference Bishop McKendree submitted a lengthy ad- 



_^ Methodism in Kentucky 61 

dress, advising the Conference to vote for an amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the Church, in order that 
the "suspended resolution' 7 might legally be adopted. 
The Bishop was decided in Ms opinion that the meas- 
ure was both unwise and unconstitutional Without 
relaxing in his opposition to the measure, he was will- 
ing for the General Conference to have a fair chance 
to adopt it, provided it was done constitutionally. For 
the sake of the peace of the Church he was willing to 
change the constitution, and thus make way for the 
passage of the measure. Out of deference to the ad- 
vice of the aged Bishop, the Conference adopted a res- 
olution, declaring that, while they regarded the elec- 
tion of Presiding Elders as violative of the Restrictive 
Rule as it then stood in the Discipline, "we recommend 
the adoption" of the proposed resolutions "and that 
the next ensuing General Conference, so far as respects 
this Conference, are authorized to adopt them; pro- 
vided, it be done by two-thirds of the General Confer- 
ence as stated in the Article of our Constitution/* 

Seven of the twelve Conferences, all seven in the 
South and West, and all of them opposed to the meas- 
ure, voted for the change in the Constitution so that 
the General Conference might adopt the elective pre- 
siding elderate if they saw fit. But the other five Con- 
ferences in the East, Conferences that were insistent 
on having an elective presiding elderate, "refused to 
adopt the change as a constitutional measure, because 
they were unwilling to acknowledge the want of power 
in the General Conference to effect it. They laid the 
address upon the table, and there let it lie virtually 
refusing to act upon it, and thus tacitly avowed their 
determination to carry the change into effect, inde- 
pendently of the conscientious scruples of the Bishops 



62 Metiwdism in Kentucky 

and the other Conferences." (Paine's Life of McKen- 
dree). This was their undoing-. Before the next Gen- 
eral Conference conservative sentiment had grown, the 
resolutions were suspended for another four years, 
then rescinded. 

One other act of this first session at Lexington must 
be briefly mentioned. Responding to the request of 
the General Conference that each Annual Conference 
take up the work of establishing schools within its 
bounds, the Ohio Conference, at its session in the fall 
of 1820. instructed each of its Presiding Elders to 
"take the sentiments of every quarterly conference un- 
der his charge, with regard to the establishment of a 
seminary within the bounds and under the direction of 
this Conference, and also that they have an eye to a 
proper site for its establishment." At the next session 
these Presiding Elders reported, favoring such estab- 
lishment, and adding: 'The place where we have the 
prospect of the most ample funds is in the town of 
Augusta, on the Ohio River. Inasmuch as that place 
is on the Kentucky side of the river and in the bounds 
of the Kentucky Conference, it seems expedient to 
make it answer the purpose of both this and that Con- 
ference." They appointed a committee consisting of 
Martin Euter, John Collins, and David Young, to con- 
fer with a like committee from the Kentucky Confer- 
ence. 

This committee appeared at the sesion at Lexing- 
ton. The Kentucky Conference was favorable to the 
proposition, and appointed Charles Holliday, Henry B. 
Bascom, and Alexander Cummins to consider the mat- 
ter with the Ohio committee. Their report heartily 
endorsed the proposed union, and a commission, con- 
sisting of Marcus Lindsay, H, B, Bascom, and William 



Methodism in Kentucky 63 

Holman, was appointed to act for the Kentucky Con- 
ference in carrying forward the negotiations. They 
went to Augusta, and succeeded in effecting an agree- 
ment with the trustees of Bracken Academy. Such 
was the genesis of Augusta College "the first Meth- 
odist College organized after Cokesbury was de- 
stroyed." 

In 1889, Dr. George S. Savage issued a pamphlet en- 
titled, "Historic Sketches of Institutions of Learning 
within the Bounds of the Kentucky Conference." F'rom 
it we take the following account of the beginning of 
this once famous institution: 

In 1798, the citizens of Bracken county, Kentucky, secured 
from the State a grant of six thousand acres of land to enable 
them to- establish Bracken Academy, at Augusta, the county 
seat, situated on the Ohio River. The trustees wisely retained 
the land until it greatly increased in value; thus securing a fund 
amply sufficient for the desired academy. On December 15, 

1821, the commissioners of the two Conferences met at Augusta, 
and after consultation with the trustees of Bracken Academy, 
they jointly determined upon the establishment of the first 
Methodist College in the world, at Augusta, Bracken county, 
Kentucky, under the title of Augusta College. Rev. John P. 
Pinley, of Ohio, was admitted into the Kentucky Conference in 

1822, and appointed to Augusta College. In December, 1822, the 
institution was chartered by the Legislature of Kentucky as a 
college, with power to confer degrees, etc. Soon after the char- 
ter was obtained, Captain James Armstrong, a layman of the 
Methodist Church in Augusta, with a few friends, accomplished 
the erection of a suitable edifice, sufficiently large, on a good 
sized campus, of his own; and on the 4th of October following, 
the building being completed, he generously conveyed the entire 
property to the trustees of Augusta College. The building was 
of brick, three stories in height. On the first floor were a chapel, 
forty by thirty feet, and two recitation rooms, thirty by eighteen 
feet in size. On the second floor were six rooms, and on the 
third floor seven rooms. Captain Armstrong died in August, 
1824, but lived to see the Preparatory Department organized. 
In compliance with the provisions of the Bracken County Acad- 
emy Fund, Rev. John P. Finley continued his labors in the Col- 
lege until his death in May, 1825. His remains rest in the rear 
of" the old Methodist Church in Augusta. 

DT. Savage is, perhaps, mistaken in his statement 
that Augusta was "the first Methodist College in the 



64 Methodism in Kentucky 

world." The word "college" is not very definite in 
meaning, but if by it is meant an institution of higher 
learning, incorporated, and having authority to con- 
fer degrees, Cokesburg College was incorporated and 
vested with this authority on January 26, 1794. But 
Augusta was the first Methodist college in the West, 
an-d during the two decades of its existence did splendid 
work in educating the youth of the Church. Some of 
the country's leading men were graduates of that in- 
stitution. 




AUfVSTA Cf'LLFOE, At U ( A f A, < /. 



CHAPTER III 

FINISHING THE FIRST QUADRENNIUM 

Excepting the routine work of an Annual Confer- 
ence, there was not much in the proceedings of the ses- 
sion of 1822 to demand the attention of the historian. 
The citizens of Lexington were so pleased with the 
Conference of 1821 that they sent in a petition asking 
that the session of 1822 also be held there. This re- 
quest was granted, so the first two sessions of the Ken- 
tucky Conference met in Lexington. Bishop McKen- 
dree was present and opened this second session, 
though Bishop George was also in attendance and 
signed the minutes as President. William Adams was 
again the Secretary. A set of By-Laws, the first ever 
adopted in a Conference in the West, had been adopted 
at the previous session, and these with slight amend- 
ments were adopted for the second session. 

Prior to this time persons coming up for admission 
on trial were required to bring a recommendation from 
the Quarterly or District Conference. But candidates 
for re-admission were received without such recom- 
mendation. This Conference resolved that hereafter 
"no one should be re-admitted without a recotnmenda- 
tion from the District Conference/' 

Conferences sat in those days with closed doors. A 
very large part of the business transacted consisted of 
examining the characters and conduct of the preach- 
ers, and this was deemed too delicate a matter to be at- 
tended to in public. A door-keeper was elected, and 
none were permitted to enter the Conference room ex- 
cept members of the body. But at this session the rule 

66 



65 Methodism in Kentucky 

was relaxed somewhat, and local preachers were in- 
vited to sit in the Conference "as spectators/' 

We would again emphasize the fact that the Church 
always regarded slavery as an evil, and adopted most 
rigid rules to keep its ministry free from it. These 
rules were not a dead letter in the Kentucky Confer- 
ence. At this session, Burwell Spurlock, who had been 
pastor of Lexington station the previous year, having 
come into possession of certain slaves, asked ^ of the 
Conference the privilege of submitting a proposition to 
emancipate these slaves as soon as it could be done con- 
sistent with their safety. His proposition was ac- 
cepted. William J. Mayo, a local deacon, was refused 
local elder's orders until he had assured the Conference 
of his purpose to free his slaves, one immediately, 
and two, who were children, as soon as they were 
twenty-one. William Kincheloe was not elected a local 
deacon because he had not given the Conference assur- 
ance that "he was not in the spirit of slavery and that 
he intended to emancipate his slaves as soon as cir- 
cumstances would permit/' 

That great preacher and saintly man, Valentine 
Cook, had died during the year. Though at the time 
of his death he was not a member of the Conference, 
but occupied a local relation, a funeral sermon was 
ordered preached during this session, and John John- 
son was selected to preach the sermon. He did so, and 
the substance of it appears in the biography of Johnson 
prepared by his wife. 

A misunderstanding of some kind had occurred 
between Barnabas McHenry and Marcus Lindsay, twr> 
of the best men in the Conference. In 1820, when 
Lindsay had presided over the session at Hopkinsvilk, 
MeHeiiry had not been given an appointment, though 



Methodism in Kmtiteky 67 

no charges had been lodged against him, nor had he re- 
quested to be left without assignment. The Bishops in 
1821 corrected the administration at this point, declar- 
ing that "an Annual Conference has no right to with- 
hold" an appointment "from a traveling preacher 
(either in full connection or on trial) who is able and 
willing to take one, unless a charge is preferred against 
him, affecting his standing in the Church." It was 
supposed that the difficulty was settled, but at the Con- 
ference of 1822, complaints were made against Mc- 
Henry for some irregularity in his administration, 
while Benjamin Durham charged him with grave im- 
prudence in surreptitiously gaining possession of a let- 
ter written by Lindsay. McHenry was deemed guilty 
of imprudence and sentenced to be ^severely repri- 
manded by the Chair, in the presence of the Confer- 
ence." Kind-hearted old Bishop McKendree begged to 
be exonerated from the task, and the reprimand was 
given by Bishop George. McHenry was then placed 
on the superannuate list. 

Henry B. Bascom was not present at this Confer- 
ence of 1822. During the preceding year he had asked 
for, and received, a transfer to the Ohio Conference. 
The treatment accorded this great and good man does 
not furnish pleasant reading for the Methodists of this 
day, but the truth of history demands that some men- 
tion be made of it. In 1819, while only In his twenty- 
fifth year, he was recognized as the greatest pulpit 
orator in all the West, and was also acknowledged as 
a leader in Conference affairs. At the Tennessee Con- 
ference that year he wrote a protest against the action 
of a very small majority who refused to admit on trial 
Dr. Gilbert D\ Taylor and others, or to elect the Rev. 
.Dudley Hargrove and otEera to local deacon's orders, 



68 Methodism in Kentucky 

solely on the ground that they were the owners of 
slaves. Dr. Taylor was a most excellent man and deep- 
ly pious. He was of a wealthy family and had inheri- 
ted slaves from his father's estate. When converted, 
and wishing to conform to the rules of the Church, he 
selected two of the jjiost intelligent and best of his 
slaves and emancipated them. One was a Baptist 
preacher and a splendid blacksmith, but both 
yielded to the adverse conditions about them, and went 
to the dogs. The preacher died a drunken sot. Dr. 
Taylor conscientiously felt that he owed it to his slaves 
to keep them under his protection and control, until 
such time as they should be able to withstand the temp- 
tations thrown in the way of freedmen, at the same 
time giving them all the liberty consistent with their 
welfare. But he was a slaveholder, and the majority re- 
fused to admit him on this ground. He was after- 
wards admitted and made one of the most valuable 
members the Conference ever had. 

Bascom, while unalterably opposed to slavery, did 
not believe in extreme measures in dealing with any 
and all persons who might be connected with it. He 
always insisted that his. moderate views were received 
by him from Bishop Asbury. But in taking this more 
moderate position, he came into direct conflict with 
Ihe more extreme anti-slavery party, and there can 
scarcely be a doubt that he suffered in his standing 
and in his appointments afterwards. The feeling over 
the matter in the Tennessee Conference ran high, and 
there was danger of a split in the Church on account of 
it. The protest written by Bascom was signed by six- 
teen of the strongest men of the Conference, but Bas- 
com was regarded as the leader and had to suffer for 
it. His biographer, M. M. Henkle, says : 



Methodism in Kentmky 69 

There was no Bisliop present at the Hopkinsville Conference 
(1820) and the President pro tern was one of the leaders of the 
anti-slavery or abolition party, with whom Bascom was not at 
all a favorite. He was also understood as sympathizing with the 
party opposed to Bascom in the Louisville difficulties. Whether 
these circumstances had their influence in making the appoint- 
ments or not, at least it was certain that some astonishment was 
expressed when he read out, "Madison circuit, Henry B. Bas- 
com." After seven years of regular work in the itinerancy, and 
at a time when he had more fame, probably, as a pulpit orator 
than any man in the southwest, it seemed singular that he 
should "be sent to one of the most rough and unrefined fields of 
labor to be found in the whole Conference; and generally, if not 
universally, both by friends and opposers, the proceeding was 
looked on, and spoken of, as intended to be punitive; but what 
the precise cause, or supposed offense, was a matter to be con- 
jectured. 

His biographer then quotes a statement of Barna- 
bas McHenry to the effect that a certain opposer was 
heard to say, m We hope to get clear of Bascom this 
year, for he was sent to a hard mountain circuit, and 
we have no idea that he will submit to it." But they 
little knew the devotion of Bascom to the work he had 
espoused. He went quietly to his appointment, and, 
without a word of complaint, did a faithful and effec- 
tive year's work. But, whatever the influences at work 
against him, they were persistent. Though he had 
successfully served the Louisville Station for two 
years, and though pronounced by Henry Clay to be the 
greatest orator in the land, he was, in 1821, assigned 
as third man to the Hinkstone circuit! His appoint- 
ment to Madison circuit had been as junior preacher 
to a man who had just been admitted into the Confer- 
ence! This appointment as third man on the Hink- 
stone circuit, was so clearly unjust that Bascom, hurt 
and discouraged, requested a transfer to the Ohio Con- 
ference. It was the last appointment he ever received 
as a pastor in Kentucky. When he returned ten years 
later, it was after he had served as Chaplain of the 



70 Methodism in Kentucky ( 

House of lepresentatlves at Washington, as pastor at 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as President of Madison Col- 
lege, and as Agent of the American Colonization So- 
ciety. He returned, not as a pastor, but as a Professor 
of Moral Philosophy and Belles-lettres in Augusta Col- 
lege. Later he was to be President of Transylvania 
University, then a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. 

Philip Kennerly had died soon after the last session. 
William Farrow and Daniel Tevis were discontinued 
in 1822. John W. McKeynolds, Samuel Brown, Josiah 
Browder, and Benjamin Peeples located. Hezeklah 
Holland was located, but his certificate of location was 
withheld until he should clear himself of the charge of 
having promised to marry two women, and of then 
marrying a third ! 

The number of members reported at this Confer- 
ence was 21,228 white, and 2,977 colored an increase 
of 562 white, and 218 colored members. Frankfort ap- 
pears as a separate charge this year, but it had only 31 
white members. Louisville had only 120, a gain of 32 
over the preceding year. Methodism in Louisville was, 
at this time, passing through severe trials. Almost a 
feud existed between Philo Seaman, J. H. Overstreet 
and others, which not only disturbed the peace, but 
threatened the very existence of the Methodist Church 
at this place. The trouble continued for several years, 
and but for the devotion of a few godly women it would 
have been disastrous indeed. We do not know how the 
trouble started, nor have we ever tried to understand 
the merits of it. We only know that the trouble ex- 
isted, and that trials and expulsions and appeals vexed 
the Church for years. Every preacher who served 
that charge during these times of turmoil, had charges 



Methodism in Kerutucky 71 

brought against him by one party or the other. Bas- 
corn, Johnson, Corwine, Leach, and McHenry all had 
to face complaints in the Annual Conference. John 
Tevis was the first pastor who succeeded in pouring 
oil on the troubled waters. 

Eleven men were admitted on trial this year. Of 
these, the names of William S. Maddox and William 
Sublett appear only this year. Jonathan G. Tucker 
was, during the year, charged with immorality and 
expelled by the Conference of 1823. John Jones trav- 
eled two years Barren and Somerset circuits then 
located. James P. Milligan traveled Newport, John's 
Creek, and Lacking, then located in 1825. Major Stan- 
field remained in the service four years, laboring on 
the Christian, Salt River, Little Sandy, and Bowling 
Green circuits. In 1826, he was granted a location at 
his own request, settled in Logan county, where, after 
several years as a local preacher, he died in great 
peace. Henry W. Hunt was in the Kentucky Confer- 
ence six years, during which time he served Green 
Biww, Dixon, Wayne, Lexington, Cumberland, and 
Fountain Head circuits, locating in 1828'. Bishop Mor- 
ris in 1836 found him at Batesville, Arkansas, at the 
head of a flourishing Male and Female Academy. 
George Stevens came recommended from the Cumber- 
land District, and after service on the Breckinridge, 
Jefferson, and Franklin circuits, was selected by Bishop 
M-cKendree as his traveling companion. The Bishop at 
that time was feeble, and it was deemed imprudent for 
him to travel alone. The Conference voted him the 
privilege of selecting as a companion any member he 
might wish, and he selected George Stevens. The fol- 
lowing spring Stevens' name appears in connection 
with the Virginia Conference. He labored four years 



72 Methodism in Kentucky 

In the State of North Carolina, then returned to Ken- 
tucky as a local preacher, took up his residence in 
Christian county where he lived until 1853, when he 
closed a useful life, dying in great peace. 

Uriel Haw was the son of our first missionary to 
Kentucky, James Haw. Born in Simmer county, Ten- 
nessee, May 13, 1799, he gave himself to God in early 
life. While his father wandered away after O'Kelly 
into the Republican Methodist Church, and later be- 
came a Presbyterian, the son, along with Thomas 
Joiner, John R. Lambuth, and William Chambers, at 
Burkesville, Kentucky, September 1, 1821. was li- 
censed as a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He entered the Conference in 1822, and was 
assigned to Cumberland circuit as the colleague of Mil- 
ton Jamison. They were notably successful in reviv- 
ing the work of God which was languishing in that 
circuit. The next year these two were again together 
on the Danville circuit. In 1824 the call was made for 
workers to go to Missouri and help in planting the 
Church in that State. Uriel Haw responded, and there- 
after his life was invested in the cause of Christ in 
Missouri. He labored earnestly on various circuits and 
Districts until his health failed and he was compelled 
to retire. His health being somewhat improved, he 
again entered active service in 1843, but before the 
year was out, he was stricken with fever and died. His 
last hours were hours of triumph. His last words 
were, "There is not a cloud all is bright and clear. 
Glory to God ! All is well !" "Brother Haw was a maa 
of ardent and affectionate spirit, and of considerable 
theological attainments. A good sermonizer, rapidly 
(perhaps too much so) pouring a flood of truth upon 
his audience, arresting attention and producing convic- 



Methodism m Kentucky 73 

tion; and whether in charge of a circuit or district, he 
faithfully performed all his work." He died Septem- 
ber 7, 1844. Memoir* 

It was this year that John Patterson Finley was re- 
ceived into the Kentucky Conference. He was the son 
of Rev. Robert W. Finley, for many years a prominent 
minister in the Presbyterian Church. Robert W. Fin- 
ley was educated at Princeton under the celebrated Dr. 
Witherspoon, was licensed as a Presbyterian minister. 
and sent as a missionary to Georgia and the Carolinas. 
The Revolutionary War coming- on, he entered the ser- 
vice of his country under Gen. Francis Marion. He 
brought his family to Kentucky in 1788, and located 
first near Flemingsburg, then because the Indians were 
so troublesome in that section, he removed further in- 
land, lived at Cane Ridge, in Bourbon county, and took 
charge of the Presbyterian Churches at that place and 
at Concord, in Nicholas county. In addition to his pas- 
toral work, he opened a school of high grade, giving 
special attention to fitting young men for the ministry. 
It was under him that Richard McNemar, John Dun- 
lavy, and John Thompson, all at a later date promi- 
nently connected with Barton W. Stone in their seces- 
sion from the Presbyterian ministry, received their 
ministerial training. At this time Mr. Finley was a 
strenuous advocate of the doctrines of John Calvin, 
but after maturer study and a deeper religious expe- 
rience, he became convinced that these doctrines were 
not in accord with the teachings of the Scriptures, and 
he entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In 1811, he was received into the old Western 

*Uriel Haw was the grandfather of Eev. Marvin T. Haw, 
D. D., a leading member of the Southwest Missouri Conference. 



74 Methodism in Kentucky ___ 

Conference and served as an itinerant until nearly 
eighty years of age. "But few men preached so fre- 
quently, labored with so much zeal, or so ably defended 
the doctrines of the Church/' "Holiness was his great 
theme." Being a strong opposer of slavery, Mr. F'inley 
liberated fourteen slaves in Kentucky, then, late in the 
fall of 1796, left this State and went to Ohio, where he 
died December 8, 1840. 

Such was the father of John P. Finley, who was 
born in the State of North Carolina, June 13, 1783, 
His brother, James B. F'inJey, tells us that, 

In September, 1810, he was licensed to preach in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. Having received a classical sducation, 
he was early called to take charge of literary institutions; and 
from that time until 1822, labored in that department with 
great success in different parts of Ohio. ... In 1822 he was 
appointed professor of languages in Augusta College, the oldest 
Methodist College in the West 

Before this institution was organized as a college, 
the Conference opened a classical .school at Augusta, 
and, upon his admission on trial in the Conference, 
John P. Finley was appointed to that place as Princi- 
pal Bascom says of him, "Of the English language he 
was a perfect master, and taught its proper use with 
almost unrivaled success." In the pulpit also he was a 
master. In personal character he was one of the pur- 
est, the most saintly, and most beloved of men. "One 
of the most amiable, guileless men I ever knew ; never 
did I know a man more perfectly under the influence 
of moral and religious principle/' Just before his 
death, May 8, 1825, asked how he felt, he replied, "Not 
the shadow of a doubt; I have Christ within, the hope 
of glory. That comprehends all." 

One other name is added to the list of 1822 that 
of the brilliant, and beloved Edwin Ray. He was the 



Methodism in Kentucky 75 

son of the noted pioneer minister, the Rev. John Ray, 
and was born near Mount Sterling, Ky., July 6, 1803. 
Bedford says he was "one of the most remarkable men 
ever given to Methodism. A handsome person, agree- 
able manners, gentleness of disposition, a voice of ex- 
traordinary compass and sweetness, and a naturally 
powerful intellect, gave him rare efficiency as a natural 
orator/' He was converted on his sixteenth birthday, 
at a camp meeting at Ebenezer in Clark county, Ken- 
tucky, and soon entered the ministry. Received on 
trial this year, he remained in Kentucky but two years, 
when he volunteered for service in Indiana, where at 
Vincennes, Bloomington, Indianapolis, Madison, and 
Terre Haute, he labored with great zeal and effective- 
ness. But his strength was not equal to the demands 
he made upon it. A breakdown was the inevitable 
result. He died in 1832. His memoir in the General 
Minutes informs us that, "though young in his pro- 
fession, there are three members in the Illinois Confer- 
ence who claim him for their father in the gospel, be- 
sides many laymen." 

1823. The people of the then small town of Mays- 
ville sent a petition asking that the session of the Con- 
ference in 1823 be held in that town. The invitation 
was accepted, and the Conference this year met in that 
city. Bishop George was in the chair, though Bishops 
McKendree and Roberts were also* present. William 
Adams was again the secretary. 

Seven men asked for, and received locations at this 
Conference, viz., William Young, Gheslea Cole, Burwell 
Spurlock, Nathaniel Harris, James Porter, William C. 
Stribling, and James <J. Leach. This was quite a loss 
to the work in Kentucky. Nathaniel Harris was on& 
of the first local preachers to come to the State. Be- 



76 Methodism in Kentucky^ ^ ^ 

sides being principal of Bethel Academy, he was a fine 
preachei% filling acceptably any pulpit In which he 
preached. After his location, he lived at Versailles, 
Kentucky, until he was a very old man. Burwell Spur- 
lock was regarded as a profound reasoner and mighty 
in the Scriptures. He spent the years of his retire- 
ment in West Virginia. James G. Leach was some- 
what eccentric, but a good man. Porter, Young and 
Cole were also good men. William C. Stribling was 
one of the really great preachers of his day. It was 
said of him, 

Mr. Stribling was a prodigy, a wonderful character. In his 
make-up, lie was unlike any one else. ... In his ministerial 
abilities, he stood in comparison favorably with Durban, Bas- 
com, Tydings, Stamper, Light, Latta, and others. He appeared 
before the Church in the early time, when the fathers espec- 
ially in the West made the listening crowds feel the force of 
their eloquence as natural orators, with none of the trammels 
that often burden the pulpit of the present day. ... He was 
peculiarly gifted. His memory was wonderful. He often re- 
marked, "I have never occasion to use the words, f l forgot.' " 
He was a man of books, a veritable bookworm, and a close and 
tenacious thinker. When reading, if any thought or idea ad- 
vanced by the author caught his special attention, he, noting it, 
could use, not only the idea, but the exact language, if he so de- 
sired His manner was quaint, and had a tendency to at- 
tract attention, yet he possessed the power of impressing his au- 
dience with the gravity of his theme in the most solemn and 
serious style. There were certain subjects upon which he ex- 
celled. His most remarkable efforts were generally upon the 
Sufferings of Christ, the Resurrection, and the General Judg- 
ment. 

He had a marvelous gift in the ase of words. The 
whole dictionary seemed at his command. While not 
usually bombastic, when in a jovial mood, he would as- 
tonish and greatly amuse persons by the way he could 
pile up high-sounding words. It is told of him that on 
one occasion, a young' man, while smoking in the pres- 
ence of Mr. Stribling, blew some of the smoke in his 
face. Stribling rebuked him in the following impres- 
sive manner: 



Methodism in Kentucky 77 

Sir, the deleterious effmvia emanating from your tobacconis- 

tic reservoir so obfuscates my ocular optics, ani so distributes 
Its infections particles with the atmospheric fluidity surrounding 
me, that my respiratory apparatus must shortly be pbtunded, 
unless, through the abundant suavity of your pre-eminent po- 
liteness, you will disembogue that luminous tube from the pun- 
gent, stimulating, and sternutatory ingredient which replenishes 
the rotundity of the vastness of its concavity, 

In 18-21, Mr. Stribling was married to Miss Mahala 
Becraft, of Bourbon county, Kentucky, and in 1832, he 
accompanied his father-in-law to Illinois, where he 
lived until December 18, 1872. 

The loss of these men by location, the cfeath of 
David Gray, the superannuation of Benjamin Malone, 
and the expulsion of Aquila Sampson and Jonathan G. 
Tucker, left the working force of the Conference about 
equal to that of the preceding year. Fourteen were 
admitted on trial. James Guinn, for a sketch of whom 
we must refer the reader to Volume I of this His- 
tory, (page 251), was re-admitted. Presley Morris, 
who had been admitted in 1812, but was discontinued 
at the end of two years, was again admitted on trial, 
and gave two more years to the work. Daniel Tevis, 
notwithstanding his delicate health, again knocked for 
admission and was received, but was discontinued at 
the end of the year "on account of affliction/' William 
Me Comas came from the Kanawha District, and after 
three years on the Big Kanawha and Little Sandy cir- 
cuits, dropped out on account of "bodily afflictions/' 
Nelson Dills was of German extraction. He was born 
and reared in Harrison county, Kentucky. Converted 
in the great camp meeting near Cynthiana in 1816, lie 
entered the Conference this year and was sent to 
Franklin circuit, then to Shelby, Madison, then back to 
Franklin, where death cut short his career, March 23, 
1827. He was quite a revivalist, and during his short 



78 Methodism in K&ntucJcy 

term of service, several hundred were brought into the 
Church through his efforts. "In exhortation he had 
but few equals, and as a singer he had scarcely a peer 
among his brethren." 

Daniel Black traveled four years in the western end 
of the Conference, on the Henderson, Cumberland, Lo- 
gan and Barren circuits. He died in 1827, leaving a 
small legacy of $75.25 to be equally distributed among 
his brethren of the Conference. "He was useful, in his 
life exemplary, in afflictions patient, in his death 
triumphant/* 

David Wright, from the Cumberland District, loca- 
ted in 1829, after labor on Dover, Hartford, Bacon 
Creek, Barren, and Bowling Green circuits. Other than 
this we have no information concerning him. 

Thompson J. Holliman, also from Cumberland Dis- 
trict, traveled three years Breckinridge, Bed Kiver 
and Somerset and was superannuated in 1826. He 
died prior to the Conference of 1828. but no memoir of 
him is given. 

Clement ; L. Clifton came from the Augusta Dis- 
trict, but spent nearly all his twelve years of ministry 
in the western part of the Conference. He was at least 
an average Methodist preacher, as indicated by the 
charges he served. He located in 1835. 

Richard I. Dungan was left an orphan when a 
small boy. He was apprenticed as a tanner, then a 
profitable trade. Converted and called to preach be- 
fore reaching his majority, he was admitted this year 
and assigned to the rugged John's Creek circuit, then 
transferred to Missouri, where he remained for two 
years. Eeturning to Kentucky, he continued to travel 
until 1835, when, on account of his own feeble health 
and family circumstances, he asked a location. In 1889 



Methodism in Kentucky 79 

he <agaln entered the Conference and gave six years 
more to the itinerancy. During: the ten years that fol- 
lowed, his wife died, and his children grew to maturity, 
so he once again took work, and was sent to Newcastle. 
Here he died, February 9, 1856, shouting the praises 
of -God. "His memory is embalmed in the hearts of 
many that he was instrumental in leading to the 
cross." He lies buried at old Mt Olivet church in 
Henry County. 

The name of big, burly George Richardson appears 
in the list of those received this year. Peter Cart- 
wright, in that thrilling account of his labors and ex- 
periences in "Fifty Years a Pmsiding Elder'' gives an 
interesting story of the man and his triumph over op- 
position on his first charge. Notwithstanding its 
length, we shall quote it, as it gives us a good illustra- 
tion of a type of men whom God used in reaching some 
of the primitive inhabitants of certain rough and un- 
ruly sections, of our State. He says: 

When the Kentucky Conference met in Lexington, in 1822, 
Bishop McKendree was there anxious to extend the work. He 
learned that there was a destitute region in the southern part 
of Kentucky toward the upper sources of the Cumberland River, 
where a mission was needed. The people of that mouutainous 
region lived in caves, and hollows, and along the creeks as they 
could find room between the lofty elevations. Their habitations 
were generally of cheap material and rude structure. Some of 
them cultivated patches of Indian corn for bread and hominy. 
They depended on their guns to procure supplies of bear meat, 
venison, wild turkey, raccoon, etc. Their costume was of the 
primitive backwoods style. Deer leather was the staple for 
pants and moccasins. For over garments they used loose sacks, 
called hunting shirts, made of woolsey-linsey, while wool hats 
or 'coon-skin caps completed the usual wardrobe. As to church- 
es and school-houses, they had none, and, of course, they felt no 
need of books. There were men there who, at the age of forty- 
five years, had never seen a wagon. That which came nearest 
to, a wagon of all the things they had seen was a pair of truck 
wheels drawn by oxen. Free from the cares and trammels of 
refined society, their chief delight consisted in haying a gun on 
the shoulder, shot-pouch and powder-horn on one side, a butcher- 



80 Methodism in Kentucky 

knife on the other, and a pack of bear dogs at their heels. They 
devoted their days to sporting-, and their evening's to feasting 
and hunting-stories. The mission was instituted and appended 
to- the Cumberland district; Peter Cartwright, presiding elder. 

The first missionary selected was William Chambers, a con- 
scientious brother, of sedate appearance, plain in his dress and 
address, and a good preacher. In the fall of 1822 he took charge 
of his parish, new and fresh, not "Gospel hardened," but wholly 
uncultivated. The prospect of usefulness reconciled the mission- 
ary to his privations. But the natives received him with suspic- 
ion. They seemed to regard him as an enemy who had come to 
spy out their liberties. This of course was groundless. Brother 
Chambers was a worthy man, and desired only their salvation; 
yet suspicion led to prejudice, and prejudice to violence in his 
ejectment. He soon became convinced that retreat to the land 
of civilization was his best, if not his only means of personal 
safety, and acted accordingly. So matters stood that winter 
the missionary driven off, and the field in possession of the 
enemy. But Elder Cartwright did not relish the defeat, and 
deemed the enterprise worth another trial. 

In the spring of 1823 Brother Cartwright, on his regular 
round of quarterly meetings, was introduced to George Rich- 
ardson, a stalwart young Kentuckian, about nineteen years of 
age, but large and well-formed. He was not yet a licensed 
preacher, but a zealous Methodist, soundly converted, a licensed 
exhorter, and a candidate for the intinerant ministry. Elder 
Cartwright first took his physical dimensions, and found them 
sufficiently imposing. He was nearly six feet high, broad set, 
with well-developed muscles, indicating both strength and ac- 
tivity. His mental powers accorded well with the physical. With 
only a plain English education, he evinced strong common sense 
and ready wit. His general bearing was fearless but respect- 
ful. Brother Cartwright concluded he was the man needed, 
when the following conversation, in substance, occurred: 

Cartwright. "Brother Richardson, I want you to take charge 
of Cumberland Mission. Those fellows up there have driven 
Brother Chambers off. But it won't do for us to deliver them 
over to the devil without another effort to save them, and I want 
you to give them a strong pull. They must be converted some 
how; and. if you can't convert them with the gospel, do it with 
your fist." 

Richardson. "Well, that is just the sort of place I should like 
to go." 

The appointment of 'George Richardson to the mission was 
settle-d. and with the least delay practicable he was off to his 
work. His first public demonstration was made at the shiretown 
of a new county, where the hamlet consisted of two log-cabins, 
one of which was called the court-house, and the other the tav- 
ern. Richardson stopped at the latter and preached in the for- 
mer. The public service over, he returned to the tavern, and 
was reading his Bible, when he received an unceremonious call 
from some of his parishioners. The seat he occupied was an 



Methodism in Kentucky 81 

imperfect imitation of a chair, of liome manufactures strong 
and heavy, but roughly finished. While he was alone quietly 
reading, four young men stepped in and made a rude attack 
upon him. At first he tried to reason with them, that he was a 
lone, unoffending stranger, and not disposed to have any per- 
sonal difficulty; to all which they made no reply, but profanely 
affirmed their fixed purpose to flog him, and drive him from the 
country as they had driven Chambers. As they crowded toward 
him to make the assault, Richardson rose up and placed the 
huge chair between him and his assailants, and holding it firmly 
with both hands, took Ms position deliberately, and gave them 
fair warning that if they rushed upon him they must take the 
consequences. But four against one, they were self-confident of 
success, and predetermined to give him a severe flogging. They, 
however, proceeded cautiously; two went on each side, so that 
while fending off on one side, they might seize him on the other, 
and thus confuse and overpower him. But he was too quick for 
them. As they made a pitch altogether he struck to the left 
and knocked down one, then quick as thought swung his chair to 
the right and knocked down another. The other two began to 
back, when he made a motion as if he would floor them also, but 
they precipitately fled from the room, as did also the two slain. 
as fast as they could scramble up. So ended the first attempt 
to drive the new missionary from the field. With the room once 
more clear and quiet, he resumed his chair and finished his 
chapter, but little discomposed by what had transpired. 

His next appointment was some way off. When he reached 
the place, the cabin was full of women and the yard full of men, 
many of whom, perhaps, feeling more interest in seeing the 
preacher licked than in hearing him preach. While securing 
his horse, and removing his saddle-bags, five young men sur- 
rounded him, when the greeting proceeded on this wise: 

"Are you the preacher? 7 ' 

"I have come in place of the preacher." 

"We are honest people up here in the mountains, and don't 
allow any horse-thieving, counterfeiting preachers to come 
among us. We know you can't preach any, but just for the fun 
of it we will let you try, and then we'll lick you and send you 
off as we did that other fellow. We understand it." 

"As soon as I get ready I will let you know whether I can 
preach any or not; and as for the other thing you intend to do, 
it can't be done. I am a man of peace, and came to bring a 
peaceful gospel. Of course, fighting is not in my line; but 
when compelled to fight in self-defense, I am a very dangerous 
man. If I choose to engage in that kind of sport, I would not 
ask an easier task than to whip a half-dozen such men as you 
are, all on me at once." 

Passing through the crowd, Richardson took his position in 
the cabin door, and commenced the public service in the usual 
way, using his pocket-edition of the hymn-'book and Bible. The 
women ceased their merry chat to stare and listen at the strang- 
er, antf the men drew up in a solid square outside. During the 



82 . Methodism m Kentucky 



sermon the power of God came down on the people, and many, 
indoors and out, fell like men shot in battle, and some shrieked 
aloud for mercy; and among: the slain were the five bullies 
pledged to lick the preacher. Sermon ended, Richardson passed 
on his knees through the house and yard, exhorting and praying. 
The meeting held till near night. Many souls were converted. 
At the close Richardson stated the terms of admission, and pro- 
posed to form a class of probationers for Church membership. 
The people came freely; and among those who joined were the 
five chivalrous blades who suffered the preacher to proceed 
only for fun before they were to give him a drubbing. How 
were the mighty fallen! 

Before Richardson reached his third appointment, his fame 
preceded him. Rumors became rife that a young giant was in 
the land full as strong as Sampson, who slew the Philistines 
with the jaw-bone of an ass; and in confirmation of this it was 
alleged that Richardson had licked four stout men all on him 
at once, at the courthouse, that he did it in a minute, and that 
without receiving a blow or a scratch. It was further alleged that 
he preached with such power as to knock a man down every lick 
at a distance of ten steps. Great curiosity was excited. Many 
were awe-stricken, and the whole community were agitated. 
From that time forward no difficulty occurred. All opposition 
ceased; and all the people were as kind to the missionary as 
they knew how to be. 

In the autumn of 1823 Brother Richardson came to Confer- 
ence to be admitted as a traveling preacher, saying as he found 
no organization, he had assumed the duties of a minister, a 
class-leader, steward, trustee, exhorter, local preacher, preacher 
in charge, presiding elder, Bishop, and all. And as a result 
of that piece of a year's work, he reported a mission circuit 
formed and two hundred and sixty-nine names enrolled as proba- 
tioners for Church membership. Subsequently he labored two 
years in my district, then ruptured a blood-vessel about his lungs, 
and utterly failed in his health. After a time he went South, 
hoping to recover. Whether he yet lingers in time or has gone 
to his reward, I know not. I, however, take pleasure in saying 
in this connection, that George Richardson was a generous- 
hearted, magnanimous young man, one of great promise to the 
Church, till he lost his health in the midst of useful labor. I 
only add, that the above facts respecting Cumberland Mission 
were obtained partly from himself, and partly from others, and 
I have no doubt they are reliable. 

He located, preached as he was able, and lived chiefly 
in Logan co-unty, until May 26>, I860, when death re- 
leased him from further toils. 

Abram Long was- "a patient, laborious and faithful 
minister of God. Born in Nelson county, April 25, 



Methodism in Kentucky 83 

1796; converted when a young man; admitted into the 
traveling connection in 1823; serving joyfully the 
charges to which he was assigned, he remained a mem- 
ber of the Conference for forty-four years." He died 
a member of the Louisville Conference, June 16, 1867. 
John S. Barger remained In the Kentucky Confer- 
ence until 1831, when he was transferred to Missouri, 
and served the St. Louis Station for one year. He then 
went to Illinois, where he was abundantly useful for 
many years. He became a leader in the Illinois Confer- 
ence, filling some of Its most prominent appointments 
and wielding great influence among the people. An 
amusing story is told of him while he was still In Ken- 
tucky. 

While traveling the Logan circuit, he fell in love with Miss 
Sally L. Baker, a young lady of fervent piety, and well calcu- 
lated for the position of a preacher's wife. On the Sabbath 
before the marriage was to take place Mr. Barger preached in 
the neighborhood in which Miss Baker resided. His text was 
Matthew XVIII, 3. Just as he announced his text the young lady 
entered the church, when the discomfited preacher said, "My 
text is in the eighteenth chapter and third verse of Sally 
Baker." The young lady blushed, the audience smiled, and the 
sermon was remarkably 'brief. 

The name of Newton G. Berryman was familiar 
in Methodist affairs for nearly half a century. Though 
a Virginian by birth, he was reared by his excellent 
mother chiefly in Fayette county, Kentucky. Con- 
verted when fourteen years of age under the ministry 
of Benjamin Lakin, of precious memory, he yielded to 
the call to the ministry and was received on trial in 
1823'. His first appointment was to the Mt. Sterling 
circuit, then Christian, then Fountain Head, in all of 
which he was eminently successful. But the ex-acting 
labors of such a ministry were too much for his 
strength, and lie was compelled to locate and rest. He 



84 Methodism in Kentucky 

taught school for a time, then entered the Tennessee 
Conference in 1829, and was sent to Clarksville. The 
next year he had to locate again. After superintending 
an academy in Clarksville for two years, he again be- 
came a member of the Kentucky Conference. Later he 
decided to remove to Illinois, where he remained until 
after the General Conference of 1844. He was a mem- 
ber of that memorable body, and being decidedly south- 
ern in his convictions, he voted with the southern dele- 
gation on all those questions that brought about a di- 
vision of the Church. This rendered him unacceptable 
to the people of that northern State, so he went to Mis- 
souri and united with the M. E. Church, South. In 
1865, he was transferred to Kentucky and placed in 
charge of the Lexington District. The next year he 
went to Carrollton, where he remained two years, then 
to Harrodsburg for two years. In 1870, he went back 
to St. Louis, but having received a severe injury in a 
fall from a horse, he never recovered, but died Decem- 
ber 18, 1871. A most excellent man, he enjoyed the 
love and confidence of all who knew him. 

We have purposely reserved one name on the list of 
those admitted this year until the last the name of 
Hubbard Hinde Kavanaugh. As he will be before us so 
prominently as we sketch the next sixty years of our 
history, we will here give only >a brief outline of his 
life. He was born in Clark county, Kentucky, January 
14, 1802. He was the son of Rev. Williams- and Hannah 
Hinde Kavanaugh, and, on his father's side, was de- 
scended from an illustrious Irish family, who, being 
ardent Catholics, went to F'rance with James II when 
he fled from England. The name has been prominent 
in French history since that time. While his father, 
Rev. Williams Kavanaugh, after four years in the Meth- 



Methodism in Kentucky 85 

odist itinerancy, located, and afterwards, in order to 
carry on an active ministry and at the same time care 
for his family, united with the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and became rector of churches in Lexington, 
Louisville, and Henderson, none of Ms family went into 
that Church with him. Four of his sons became Meth- 
odist preachers. His father dying when Hubbard was 
only five years of age, his training fell to Ms most ex- 
cellent mother. Mrs. Kavanaugh believed that every 
man ought to have a means of making a support, and 
so Hubbard, when thirteen, was apprenticed to the 
Rev. John Lyle, of Paris, Kentucky, to learn the art of 
printing. Mr. Lyle was -a most excellent man, a minis- 
ter in the Presbyterian Church, and Ms kindness to 
young Kavanaugh was never forgotten by him. In 
November, 1817, Mr. Kavanaugh was happily con- 
verted and soon after united with the Methodist 
Church. He joined the Church under the ministry of 
Benjamin Lakin, and -soon became convinced that it 
was Ms duty to preach the gospel. Mr. Lyle, in order 
that he might prepare himself for his life work, gener- 
ously gave Mm two years of the time for which he was 
apprenticed. Eecommended by the Quarterly Con- 
ference of the Mount Sterling circuit, held at Grassy 
Lick church, he was licensed by the District Confer- 
ence held at Pleasant Green church, in Bourbon county, 
in 1822. Soon after he went to Augusta and was em- 
ployed by James Armstrong to edit and publish the 
"Western W&tefoman, 9 ' a paper issued at Augusta. Here 
he exercised his gifts in the pulpits around the little 
town, and >soon attracted attention by his eloquence 
and fervor. 

Received on trial in 1823, he was sent as junior 
preacher to the Little Sandy circuit. This circuit lay 



86 Methodism in Kentucky 

in the northeastern corner of the State, and was rough 
and mountainous. Small of stature -and youthful in 
appearance, he was known as "the little boy preacher/' 
But his genial disposition, his fine social qualities, and 
his excellent preaching made him a favorite with the 
people wherever he went. "He has- been the pastor of 
the Church in all the principal towns and cities in th* 
Commonwealth, and there Is scarcely a community in 
the State that has- not been favored with his ministry/' 
He was effective as an evangelist; many souls were 
converted under him. He possessed a great mind 'and 
grappled with great themes. His eloquence rivaled that 
of Bascom himself. The writer has heard him when 
persons in his audience scarcely Ifnew where they were, 
or whether they were in the body or out of it, -so en- 
raptured were they. Unhesitatingly we can say he was 
the most eloquent man we ever heard. 

At the General Conference of 1854, he was elected 
o-ne of the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, and lived until the 19th of March, 1884, when, 
in Columbus, Mississippi, he breathed his last. As we 
shall meet with him so frequently as we proceed, we 
shall reserve -a more extended account of his life and 
labors until later.* 

*0f the many Methodist preachers we have sketched from 
1786 to 1823, Bishop Kavanaugh was the first with whom the 
writer was personally ^acquainted. In our childhood we saw and 
heard him often. While a college student, we were once enter- 
tained with him in the same home. When at his best, he was 
the most eloquent man to whom we ever listened. In 188*2 he 
preached the baccalaureate sermon for Kentucky Weslyean Col- 
lege, then located at Millersburg, Kentucky, and in the latter 
part of the sermon were some of the most eloquent passages 
we ever heard from the lips of a man. Persons were so enrap- 
tured they scarcely knew where they were. We shall always 
esteem it one of the great privileges of life to have seen and 
heard this truly great preacher. 



Methodism in Kentucky 8? 

Among other things, the Conference of 1823 wtas 
busied with a report from the trustees of Augusta 
College. A charter had been secured from the Legis- 
lature of Kentucky, a classical school under the man- 
agement of Rev. John P. Finley had been begun, and 
the work of organizing it as a College w?as in the near 
future. Of course the Conference, as did the Ohio Con- 
ference, began the solicitation for funds and took every 
step they .possibly could to make the institution a suc- 
cess. 

Eleven delegates to the ensuing General Conference 
were elected, viz., Jonathan Stamper, John Brown, 
Charles Holliday, William Holman, Peter Cartwright, 
Thomas A. Morris, George McNelly, George C. Light, 
John Johnson, Richard Corwine, and Marcus Lindsay. 

It wtas announced in the Conference that a legacy 
of $500 had been left the Conference by Mr. Thomas 
Nichols, and by vote of the Conference, the money was 
appropriated to Washington, Mason county, for the 
purpose of aiding in building a Methodist meeting 
house in that place. The Secretary was instructed to 
notify Col. Marshall Key of the disposition made of 
the bequest. 

As already stated the membership of the new Con- 
ference in 1820, was 17,254 white, and 2,113 colored 
members. At the end of the quadrennium, the mem- 
bership is given as 21,152 white, and 2,92$ colored; an 
increase of 3,898 white, and 816 colored members. 



CHAPTER IV 

DIFFICULTIES IN STATE AND CHURCH 

The quadrennium upon which we are entering" was 
a period of political turmoil and strife. The excite- 
ment existing in 1820 had not subsided, but had grown 
even worse. One of Kentucky's historians says, "It is 
doubted if the days of 1861-5, when the War between 
the States was raging, were more filled with bitterness 
than were the days of this Old and New Court contest." 
In the State, the "Relief " and the "Anti-Relief" parties 
were wrought up to the highest tension, while in the 
nation a hot Presidential campaign was in progress 
in which Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson were con- 
tending candidates. Such an atmosphere was not fa- 
vorable to religious success. 

A session of the General Conference, held In Balti- 
more in May, 1824, took from the Kentucky Conference 
that part of its territory lying in Virginia, and placed 
it with the Ohio Conference; thus leaving the Ken- 
tucky -Conference to "include the State of Kentucky, 
and that part of the State of Tennessee lying north of 
the Cumberland Kiver." This took from the Kentucky 
Conference one District and approximately 3,000 mem- 
bers, leaving .a little more than 18,000 white, and about 
2,700 colored members. 

When the matter of the "suspended resolutions" 
was brought up, this General Conference declared that 
"the said resolutions are not authority, and shall not 
be carried into effect/' It seems that this would have 
ended the matter had not the Conference later in the 
session adopted another resolution, declaring it is "the 

88 



Methodism in Kentucky 



sense of the General Conference that the suspended 
resolutions, making the presiding elders elective, etc., 
be considered ias unfinished business ;'* that is, be car- 
ried over to the next General 'Conference. This, we 
suspect, was for the purpose of allaying the irritation 
and appeasing the so-called Radicals, who were so In- 
sistently demanding the change. By holding the 
matter in suspense for four more years it was 
hoped that the agitators would, by that time, 
weary of their agitations and the peace of the 
Church would b^ restored But just the opposite 
resulted. The agitation grew bolder and more insist- 
ent. In 1821, William S. Stockton, a layman, had be- 
gun the publication, at Trenton, New Jersey, of the 
Wesleywn Repository, which became the organ of the 
reform. This piaper gathered into its list of corre- 
spondents a considerable number of able writers who 
vigorously, not to say viciously, assailed the govern- 
ment of the Church. The "reform" program was now 
enlarged, and it was insisted that both Presiding Eld- 
ers and Bishops .should be done away, and that laymen 
should have equal representation with the ministers in 
all the Conferences of the Church. In 1823, the We$~ 
leyan Repository suspended publication, and a new 
monthly periodical, called The Mutual Rights of tJie 
Ministers and Members of the Methodist EpiscwpaJ 
Church, was established in Baltimore. This monthly 
was widely circulated, and was unsparing in its attacks 
uDon the old order of things. "Union Societies" were 
organized throughout the Church for the purpose of 
creating sentiment and increasing the demand for re- 
form. Other organizations, made up of local preach- 
ers, laymen, and quite a number of itinerants, sprang 
into being. Everywhere dissensions arose and the 



Methodism in Kentucky 



peace and harmony of the Church were broken up. 
Manjr withdrew from the Church, and, adopting a pol- 
icy which we think was both unwise and unnecessary, 
congregations and Conferences in some sections ex- 
pelled many of the leaders of the movement. 

Kentucky Methodists will be especially interested in 
one of the developments of this controversy. Through- 
. out the bounds of this Conference, as elsewhere, nu- 
merous organizations sprang up, calling themselves 
simply, 'The Methodist Societies." In June, 1826, a 
convention was held in the city of New York, in which 
the delegates solemnly declared, 

"Having failed in every attempt to obtain reform, in which 
our religious, as well as civil rights would be better secured, 
We, the delegates from the different secessions from the said 
Methodist Episcopal Church, having assembled ourselves in the 
city of New York in convention, appealing to the great Head of 
the Church for the purity of our motives, and the sincerity of 
our hearts and intentions, and imploring Divine aid and assist- 
ance, do ordain and establish the following as the Constitution 
of our Church, to be known by the name of the METHODIST 
SOCIETY." 

The names of more than fifty participants in this 
convention are given, and among them the names of 
William Burke, of Ohio, and Jesse Head, of Ken- 
tucky. In connection with their names it is stated that 
Burke claimed to represent the "Wesleyan Method- 
ists," and Head the "Methodist Society/' It will be 
remembered that Burke was not, at this time, a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church, having been 
expelled from the Ohio Conference on a charge of "con- 
tumacy," growing out of some trivial misunderstand- 
ing between him and his Presiding Elder. An appeal 
to the General Conference resulted in affirming the ac- 
tion of the Ohio Conference. Burke, insisting that he 
was not guilty of wrong doing, remained out of the 



Methodism in Kentwcky dl 

Church for a number of years, but never lost the confi- 
dence and love of his brethren. He was afterwards re- 
stored to his place in the Church, and that without con- 
fession on his part. When the Church was divided 
in 1845, he cast his lot with the M. E. Church, South, 
and died an honored and beloved member of our Ken- 
tucky Conference. 

Jesse Head will be remembered as the man who 
married Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, the par- 
ents of Abraham Lincoln. He lived for many years in 
Harrodsburg, Kentucky, was a deacon in the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, and quite prominent in the civic 
and business affairs of his home town. It is well known 
that he was, for a time, disaffected toward his Church, 
but few are aware of his connection with this reform 
movement. When the convention at New York or- 
ganized themselves into a separate Church, they pub- 
lished a small, leather-bound book, giving a "Declara- 
tion, Constitution and Bill of Rights" of the new organ- 
ization, and this book was "published by Jesse Head, 
Kentucky; and S. Budd, New York, for the Methodist 
Societies."* 

The discussion of the points involved in this con- 
troversy was carried on with great asperity, and mis- 
conceptions, misrepresentations, and unfortunate per- 
sonalities were indulged, of which both sides might 
be convicted and of which both sides should now be 
heartily ashamed. The misrepresentations were not 



*A copy of this little book is in the hands of the writer. It 
is the only copy we have ever seen. No mention of this conven- 
tion in New York, nor of the organization it effected, is made by 
any writer we have consulted. The action of the convention 
seems to have been premature and abortive. It was not a part 
of the movement which resulted in the organization of the Meth- 
odist Protestant Church in 1830, 



92 Methodism in Kentucky 

intentional, of course, but were misrepresentations 
nevertheless. The chief advocates of the so-called re- 
form, most of them writing under pen names, are 
known to have been Asa Shinn, once a preacher here 
in Kentucky ; Nicholas Snethen, one of the strong men 
of Methodism; Alexander McCaine, an Irishman by 
birth, but whose ministry was spent mostly in the 
South; George Brown, of Ohio; and Dr. Samuel K. Jen- 
nings, who was once invited to become the Principal of 
Bethel Academy. Even Bascom wrote in defence of 
the movement. The principal defenders of the gov- 
ernment of the Church as it was, were Dr. Thomas- E. 
Bond, a local preacher, and John Emory, iafterwards a 
Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. As the 
discussion proceeded, the situation grew worse and 
worse. Had both sides been more moderate there 
might have been hope of accommodating the differ- 
ences -and of avoiding the division that came in 1830 
with the organization of the Methodist Protestant 
Church. But the agitation was so violent and feeling 
ran so high that division was inevitable. 

Of course these things affected the Methodism of 
Kentucky as well as elsewhere. Quite a number of the 
Conference preachers sympathized with the "reform/' 
Quite a number of local preachers and leading laymen 
were active in promoting the organization of "Union 
Societies." Charged with "inveighing against the dis- 
cipline of the Church/' and thus becoming disturbers 
of the peace, several were expelled, especially in the 
western part of the State. When the Methodist Prot- 
estant Church was established, a good many godly 
men and women withdrew and united with that 
Church, though the number was not as large as. might 



Methodism in. Kentucky 



have been expected* 

While this strife within our Methodism was im- 
peding our progress and losing us members, Barton W* 
Stone and his followers were making mroaas upon us. 
The zeal of these self-styled "Christians" knew no 
bounds. Not only their preachers in the pulpit, but 
private members wherever they could find a hearer, 
were everlastingly advocating the peculiarities they 
had espoused. Stone himself complained that, in their 
zeal for the new faith, they were neglecting the ethical 
side of religion. He said, "There has been more labor 
expended in reaping down the harvest, than in pre- 
serving it when reaped there has been more care to 
lengthen the cords, than to strengthen the stakes 
more zeal to proselyte, than to build up in the faith 
of the gospel." Stone was himself a spiritual man. 
Whatever errors he may have espoused, he was a man 
of high moral character and of irreproachable life. 
He held tenaciously to his convictions, but was full of 
love and charity for other Christians. His plea for the 
rejection of all human creeds and the union of all 
Christians upon the Bible alone struck a responsive 
chord in the hearts of people who were weary of theo- 
logical hair-splitting and contentions over matters of 
Church government. There can be no question, that 
many Methodists throughout our State, sick of the 
agitations that were distressing us, became easy prose- 
lytes to the Stoneite movement. 

*Two good local preachers In Ohio county were thus expelled 
W. J, Finley and George W. Jones, though Jones was after- 
wards restored to his place in the M. E. Church by act of the 
Annual Conference. These were most excellent men, and, with 
much sacrifice, gave their lives to an effort to build up the Meth- 
odist Protestant Church in Western Kentuscky and Middle Ten- 
nessee. These facts I have learned from a letter to the author 
from the Hon. John B. Wilson, of Hartford, Kentucky, who is a 
srandson of Rev. George W, Jones. 



94 Methodism in Kentucky 

Then again, it was in 1823 that Alexander Camp- 
bell first made his appearance in Kentucky and began 
his terrific onslaught upon other denominations, espec- 
ially upon the Methodists and Presbyterians. He and 
Stone had not yet united their forces, but they had 
much in common, and their influence was felt by all 
the Churches in central and northern Kentucky. But 
more of this later. 

The General Conference of 1824 gave what was, 
perhaps, its first official recognition and endorsement 
to the great Sunday School movement. As early as 
1769 Hannah Ball, a Methodist womian in England, 
gathered together some poor children in High Wycome, 
northwest of London, taught them on Saturdays and 
Sundays, and reported the work to John Wesley. 
Twelve years later, when Eobert Raikes began his 
work in -Gloucester, England, Sophia Cook, another 
Methodist woman, suggested to him a school for the 
street waifs, on Sunday, and was his co-worker. Mr. 
Wesley highly commended these schools. Concerning 
the Sunday School system of the Church, Stevens, in 
his History of Methodism, says* 

Methodism shared in the origin of the institution in England, 
and first incorporated it in the Church. Francis Asbury estab- 
lished the first school of the kind in the New World in 1786, at 
the house of Thomas Crenshaw, in Hanover county, Virginia; 
and this first attempt prefigured one of the greatest later ad- 
vantages of the institution by giving a useful preacher to the 
denomination. In 1790 the first recognition of Sunday schools 
by an American Church was made by the vote of the Method- 
ist Conferences, ordering their formation throughout the Church, 
and also the compilation of a book for them. Methodism for 
many years made no provision for the general organization, 
or affiliation of its Sunday schools. Its Book Concern issued 
some volumes suitable for their libraries, chiefly by the labors of 
John P. Durbin, who prepared its first library volume, and its 
first Question Book, etc. (Stevens, P. 535). 



Methodism in Kentucky 95 

Durbin,. It will be remembered, was a native of 
Bourbon county, Kentucky, and began his ministry in 
this State. While there were Sunday schools here and 
there throughout American Methodism prior to 1824, it 
remained for this General Conference to make it the 
"duty of each traveling preacher in our connection to 
encourage the establishment and progress of Sunday 
schools." This made every traveling preacher an ac- 
tive agent in the promotion of this good work, ^and the 
number of Sunday schools grew with great rapidity. 
It is claimed that the first Sunday school in Kentucky 
was in Frankfort, in the home of Mrs. Elizabeth Love, 
and under Presbyterian auspices, though patronized by 
other denominations. This was in 1819.* 

The only other act of this General Conference that 
we shall note was the election of Joshua Soule and 
Elijah Hedding to the office of Bishop. Soule was one 
of the ablest men ever elevated to that high office. The 
following biographical sketch, taken from Simpson's 
Cyclopedia of Methodism, will suffice to inform the 
reader as to the general character and life of this great 
man, though we shall meet with him often as we chron- 
icle the events of after years. 

Born at Bristol, Maine, August 1, 1781, and was licensed to 
preach, at seventeen years of age. He was admitted on trial in 
1799, and was appointed presiding elder of the Maine District 
in 1804, He was subsequently stationed in the city of New 
York; was a member of the General Conference of 1808, and was 
the author of the plan for a delegated General Conference. He 
was elected Book Agent in 1816, where he served for four years, 
during which time he commenced the Methodist Magazine, and 
was its editor. In 1820, he was elected to the office of Bishop; 

*In 1815, Mrs. Lyle, the wife of the Presbyterian minister at 
Paris, Kentucky, was in the habit of sending Hubbard H. and 
Benjamin T. Kavanaugh out into the streets to invite boys to 
come to her home on Sunday morning, and here she taught them 
to read the Bible and to learn the Catechism. This was a Sunday 
School. 



Methodism in Kentucky 



but, believing the plan which the General Conference had adopt- 
ed for electing- presiding elders was unconstitutional, he declined. 
During the next four years he was stationed in New York and 
Baltimore. In 1824 he was again elected Bishop, and after that 
time devoted himself wholly to the duties of his office. He 
resided for many years at Lebanon, Ohio, and was a delegate 
to the British and Irish Conferences in 1842. At the separation 
of the Church, in 1845, he adhered to the M. E. Church, South, 
and shortly afterwards settled at Nashville, Tennessee. Though 
advanced in years, he continued active in his episcopal duties, 
visiting California in 1854. For several years before his death 
he was greatly enfeebled. He died at Nashville, March 6, 1867, 
having been from the time of its organization the senior Bishop 
of the M. E. Church, South. Bishop Sonle was a man of supe- 
rior intellect, a strong will, possessed of great t energy, and was 
a useful, popular, and sometimes an overwhelming preacher, and 
an able administrator. 

Bishop Hedding was born in Duchess county, New 
York, June 7, 1780. Converted in his nineteenth year, 
he was soon licensed to exhort, and, young as he was, 
he supplied the place of Lorenzo Dow, who had left his 
charge. He was admitted into the Newark Conference 
in 1801; was presiding elder of the New Hampshire 
District in 1807 ; afterwards stationed in Boston, and 
other leading stations and Districts in that vicinity, 
until elected Bishop in 1824, He presided over the 
Kentucky Conference but once, and that was in asso- 
ciation with Bishop Roberts in 1831* 'Tor clear and 
strong intellect, broad >and commanding views, admin- 
istrative ability, and deep devotion, combined witli 
amiability and gentleness, Bishop Hedding had few 
equals, and possibly no superiors, in the Church/* 
(Simpson). 

1824. The Kentucky Conference in 1824 was held 
at Shelbyville, September 23rd.. Bishops McKendree, 
Roberts, and Soule were present, though Bishop Rob- 
erts was the legial President. George Brown had died 
during the year. On account of afflictions', Daniel Tevis 
was discontinued a second time, Thomas Joiner, 



Methodism in Kentucky 97 

Ellsha Simmons, Caleb Grain, John Jones, and Benja- 
min Malone located, and Laban Hughey, broken In 
health, was placed on the superannuate list. 

Fourteen were admitted on trial. Of these, Caleb 
Taylor, John Watts, Thomas G. Reece, and George 
Shreaves were discontinued at their own request the 
next year. Nathan Parker and Joseph Carter were 
discontinued at the end of two years, and John M. S. 
Smith located in 1827. Some of these returned to the 
itinerancy at later dates, and rendered effective service. 

John Sinclair was six years in Kentucky, after 
which he was transferred to Illinois, where he ren- 
dered splendid service until his death in 1861. A Vir- 
ginian by birth, he came to Lexington, Kentucky, in 
early manhood, and was here powerfully converted in a 
class-meeting. He was said to have been "remarkably 
useful;" that "hundreds were converted under his min- 
istry ;" and that, to the end of his life, "he was true to 
his trust. " "As a preacher, he was plain, simple, and 
good ; a preacher of the true Methodist type." While 
in Kentucky, he gave two years to the Mount Sterling 
circuit, and one each to Hinkstone, Winchester, Cyn- 
thiana, 'and Christian. He died a member of the Rock 
River Conference, and there was great peace at the 
close of the day. 

William H. Askins was said to have been "one of 
the most popular and useful preachers with whom the 
Methodist Church in Kentucky was ever favored." He, 
too, was born in Virginia, but came to Kentucky in 
early life. He was converted and united with the 
Church at a camp meeting at old Ebenezer, in Clark 
county, in 1820. He soon entered the ministry, and 
people were amazed at his preaching. Jonathan 
Stamper says; 



98 Methodism in Kentucky 

A common remark concerning him was, "Is not that little 
Bill Askins, the little white-headed mischief we used to see en- 
gaged in all manner of fun and frolic? Where did he get his 
learning? When did he ever take time to study and make him- 
self what he is one of the greatest preachers I ever heard?" It 
was not an unreasonable inquiry in view of his former life; but 
the truth was, that he was a preacher by intuition. He had a 
remarkable mind; he never forgot what he once learned, and 
possessed the rare faculty of bringing everything he knew into 
requisition in the very best manner. But the most important 
secret of his success as a preacher lay in the fact that he was 
filled with love toward God and man. He was one of the most 
indefatigable workers in the vineyard of his Lord I ever knew. 
By day or by night he never spared himself, and seemed always 
more than willing to consecrate his all to the single object of his 
life that of saving souls. His constitution was naturally fine, 
but he taxed it too heavily, and, I doubt not, shortened his life 
by incessant labor. ... As I have already intimated, his tal- 
ents as a public speaker were very superior. A clear, musical 
voice, dignified gestures, and correct, well-chosen language, all 
characterized his pulpit efforts. He was certainly one of the 
most powerful exhorters I ever heard, and when engaged in this 
peculiar exercise, often grew wonderfully eloquent. Take him 
altogether, he was one of the foremost ministers of his age, 
in respect of both talent and usefulness; and though dead, he 
still lives in the affections of many who were brought to Christ 
through his instrumentality. 

The measure of a man's success in those days was 
not his success in caring for the church under Ms 
charge, but the number of souls he brought to Christ. 
The art of exhortation, used so effectively by the early 
preachers, is, among the present generation of preach- 
ers, almost a lost art. This is very unfortunate. Peo- 
ple of the present day do not need to be convinced so 
much as they need to be moved. They lack heat mther 
than light, and happy the man in the pulpit who re- 
dis'covers the power to persuade men. That ministry 
which fails here, fails completely. 

After six years in the Kentucky Conference, Askins 
was transferred to Illinois, where, in less than two 
years, he fell a victim of paralysis, and died, in Jack- 
sonville, Illinois, July 6, 1882. When in Jacksonville a 
few years later, Stamper tried to find his grave. "They 



Methodism in Kentucky &9 

showed me a grave that was believed to be his, one 
overgrown with weeds and briars, as though the hand 
of affection had not touched it for years. . . . Sleep 
on quietly, by beloved Asians ! God has not forgotten 
you, if the world has. You have fought a good fight, 
kept the faith, and finished your course like a man of 
God, and your work of patience and labor of love shall 
be held in everlasting remembrance."' Before leaving 
Kentucky, he was married to the daughter of Henry 
Fisk, of Grassy Lick, Montgomery county, who, with 
three little children was left to mourn his loss. 

Another mian of more than usual ability was Foun- 
tain E. Pitts. He was born in Georgetown, Kentucky, 
July 4, 1808. Both his grandfathers were distinguished 
Baptist preachers. His parents died when he was 
quite young, and he was reared by an older sister, who 
lived near Hopkinsville, Kentucky. He received the 
best education available in his day. He was converted 
under the ministry of John Johnson, and united with 
the Methodist Church when twelve years of age. At 
sixteen he was licensed to preach, and was admitted 
into the Kentucky Conference when only a little beyond 
that age. After four years on the Mount Sterling, 
Green River, Fountain Heiad, and Goose Creek circuits, 
he fell into the Tennessee Conference when, in 1828, 
the territory north of the Tennessee Biver was trans- 
ferred to that Conference. Here for more than forty- 
three years he filled leading stations and Districts with 
remarkable success. In 1835, he was sent by the 
Missionary Society to South America to explore Brazil 
and other countries of that continent, with a view to 
establishing missions there. He spent a year, preach- 
ing in Rio Janiero, Buenos Ayres, and other places, or- 
one or two small societies, and upon his re- 



100 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

port, work was undertaken In those fields. This work, 
however, was not very successful for several years, 
but was the foundation upon which our Methodist mis- 
sions in that part of the world have been builded. The 
following, taken from his Memoir in the 'General Min- 
utes, gives a description of the man : 

Brother Pitts was by nature richly endowed. He was a little 
below medium size, fair skin, light hair, and blue eyes, 
and, when young, was regarded as rather handsome. His tem- 
perament was sanguine, always hopeful. His head was large, 
and his intellectual powers, in many respects, were of the high- 
est order, and he was much gifted as a speaker His voice was 
full, clear, and musical; his enunciation distinct; his manner was 
deliberate, grave, solemn, and impressive; his language well 
suited always to Ms subject. He knew the way not only to the 
heads, but to the hearts of his hearers, which gave him extraor- 
dinary power to control, and, at will, to move the multitude. 
He was at one period of his life, one of the most powerful 
field preachers. A camp meeting especially seemed to inspire 
Mm there he showed the full measure of his strength. He 
preached generally for immediate effect, and was wonderfully 
successful in securing the fruits of his labors. He sang well, 
was powerful in prayer and exhortation, ana moored witii 
great success at the altar. 

While attending the General Conference at Louis- 
ville in 18-74, he went to Shelbyville, where on Sunday 
night he preached his last sermon. Returning to Lou- 
isville, he was taken sick, repaired to the home of a 
relative not far away, and there died, May 12, 1874 

William Atherton was a soldier in the War of 1812. 
Born in Shelby county, he entered the army when quite 
young, was soon taken a prisoner by the British 
and Indians, and suffered many things at their hands. 
In after life he had many interesting experiences to 
relate. Finally securing his release, he returned to 
Shelby county, land there, in 1823, was licensed to 
preach, and when the Conference met in Shelbyville in 
1824, he was one of those received on trial After five 
years in the work, his health failed, and he was com- 



Methodism in Kentucky 101 

pelted to superannuate. He remained without appoint- 
ment until 1839, when he was sent to Fourth Street 
charge, Louisville. In 1844, he was again forced to re- 
tire, after which he removed to Greencastle, Indiana, 
where he died in 1864* 

Readers of our first Volume are familiar with the 
name of Benjamin Ogden, one of the two first mission- 
aries to come to Kentucky.. Having come to the wild 
West in 1786, two years of itinerating in this rugged 
wilderness broke his health. He married, located, re- 
turned to Virginia for a time, then moved back to Ken- 
tucky. While we do not know what it was, there was 
some trouble between him and Francis Poythress, his 
presiding elder, and he was out of the Church for sev- 
eral years. It seems that he became a backslider, but 
was reclaimed, joined the Church, and was again li- 
censed to preach. In 1816 he w^s admitted on trial 
again, but soon found that he was not yet able to en- 
dure the strain of the itinerancy. This year, 1824, he 
still again asked admission, was received, and gave to 
the c'ause three more years of his life, serving the Ten- 
nessee Mission, Christian, and Yellow Banks circuits. 
He then retired to the superannuate list, where he re- 
mained until his death, November 20, 1834. We are 
glad to be able to record that he died a member of the 
Conference in which he suffered so much and did so 
much to establish. 

At the close of this year there was but ia small in- 
crease in membership, 324 white, and 202 colored mem- 
bers. It is evident that the Church found it hard to 
advance in the face of conditions then prevailing in the 
State. 

It was -during this Conference year, on March 25, 
1825', that Science Hill Female Academy was opened by 



102 Methodism in Kentucky 

Rev. John Tevis and his wife, Mrs. Julia A. Tevis. 
Mention has already been made of the fact that there 
was no common school system in Kentucky at this 
time. Children were either taught in their homes or 
sent to short-term subscriptions schools, wnere they 
learned a few of the elementary branches of an English 
education. A few schools of higher grade had been 
established for boys, and a few colleges, like Tran- 
sylvania, Augusta, Center, and Georgetown, had come 
into being, but all these were for young men. There 
were no institutions of higher grade for girls, except 
the Roman Catholic school at Bardstown, and perhaps 
a small school at Frankfort, run by the Rev. Mr. Fall. 
Methodists and many other parents among the Prot- 
estant denominations had no place in which to fit their 
daughters for life's work. The 'Rev. John Tevis had 
been admitted on trial in 1815, and for four years past 
had been Presiding Elder of the Holston District, in 
East Tennessee. He had recently married Miss Julia 
A. Hieronymus, a native of Clark county, Kentucky, 
and a teacher of unusual ability and equipment. They 
had, in the fall of 1824, returned to Kentucky, and 
while Mr. Tevis had been assigned to Louisville,, they 
made their home in Shelbyville. Seeing the great need 
of a school of high grade for girls, they opened the 
Science Hill Academy in March, 1825. It at once took 
high rank and met with deserved success. It has con- 
tinued in operation until the present, and has been of 
untold advantage to the womanhood of this and other 
States. Hundreds of girls, out of the best families, 
were trained under the wholesome influence of the re- 
fined and deeply religious founders. Mrs. Tevis con- 
tinued in chiaxge of the school until 1879, when she sold 
it to Dr. and Mrs. W. T. Poynter, and Mrs. Poynter 



MefRodism in Kentucky 103 

Is still (1936) at the head of the institution. 

Thus it will be seen that Methodism was a pioneer 
in the education of both young men and young women. 
In 1825, Augusta College was assuming creditable pro- 
portions, and both the Kentucky and Ohio Conferences 
were doing everything in their power to make it an 
institution worthy of the Church that was behind it. 
WMle it was never properly endowed, and while it 
later became the victim of conditions it could not sur- 
vive, during a number of years it was one of the out- 
standing institutions of the land, and did a great work 
for the Church and for the country 'at large. Like 
many other excellent institutions, it existed largely 
upon the sacrifices of its faculty. 

1825. Except for the personal notes, there Is not 
much in the proceedings of the Kentucky Conference 
of 1825 that will be of interest to the reader. A resolu- 
tion was passed asking the Ohio Conference to join us 
in the publication of a religious newspaper, to be issued 
from Augusta, Kentucky, the proceeds of which were 
to be used for the benefit of Augusta College. Such a 
paper was established under the name of The Augusta 
Herald, but we are of opinion that but little revenue 
was derived from it for the benefit of the College. A 
little later another novel enterprise was undertaken 
for the benefit of the College, but we have no informa- 
tion -'as to the amount realized from it. We refer to the 
purchase and operation of the ferry across the Ohio 
River at Augusta. At that time it was not easy to 
find safe and paying investments for college funds, and 
the ferry seemed to promise as good returns as tany 
other investment that could be had. 

The Conference met this year at Russellville, the 
first time a session was held in the western part of 



104 Methodism in Kentucky __ 

the State. Bishops McKendree and Roberts were pres- 
ent. For some reason, William Adams was not elected 
secretary, but R. D. Neale was chosen for this service. 
John P. Finley, that most excellent and gifted prin- 
cipal of the school at Augusta, had died during the 
year. John Watson, under charges of gross immor- 
ality, was adjudged guilty and expelled from the Con- 
ference and Church. Caleb Jarvis Taylor, John Watts, 
Thomas Reece,* and George W. Shreaves, were, upon 
their own request, discontinued. James Browder, 
Presley Morris, James Ross, James P. Milligan, Allen 
Elliott, and Henry Gregg were located. Discontinu- 
ances and locations were very frequent In those days. 
The conditions prevailing -at that time made this inevi- 
table. The work was hard, and men of delicate health 
and feeble constitutions seldom lasted more than a few 
years. The salaries were distressingly small, and 
many good men, with hearts burning with zeal for the 
cause of Christ, were compelled to give up the work so 
dear to them and go to the farm, or to .some of the 
professions in order to relieve their families from 
want. Quite a number of the men who transferred to 
Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, did so because of the 
better opportunities afforded by these newer States to 
acquire land and build homes for their loved ones. 
Every year there was allotted to the Kentucky Confer- 
ence from $150 to $300 from the profits of the Book 
Concern, and from $;75 to $100 from the Chartered 
Fund, but these amounts did not go far toward the 
relief of the necessitous cases that came to light at 

*Thomas G. Reece re-entered the Conference in 1826, and 
grave six years of valuable service to the cause. He then loca- 
ted, and established his. home near Bell's Chapel, in the bounds 
of the Elkton circuit, where he remained a most useful local 
preacher. 



Methodism in Kentucky 105 

every annual session. The poverty endured by many 
of the men who tolled In the itinerant ranks was simply 
appalling. We will never be able to appreciate the 
heroism of the wives of these men, who, while endur- 
ing* the severest privations and sufferings, encouraged 
their husbands to go on with their work for the salva- 
tion of souls. History scarcely furnishes -a parallel to 
such devotion. 

Sixteen men were received on trial this year. Of 
these, Evan Stevenson was discontinued at the end of 
one year on account of the failure of his health. He 
was the son of Job Stevenson, of Georgetown, Ken- 
tucky, the grandson of Thomas Stevenson, in whose 
cabin Benjamin Ogden organized the first Methodist 
Society in northern Kentucky, In 1786. He assisted 
Lewis Parker on the Danville circuit this year. William 
Brown, after serving Madison, Wayne, and Clark's 
River circuits, located in 1829*. Failure of health com- 
pelled the location of David Tunnell in 1830. John G. 
Denton. after five years, located and settled at Brand- 
enburg, Kentucky. Nathaniel M. Talbot went early 
to Missouri, was for several years Principal of a school 
at Peon, in the Indian Mission District, and took a 
prominent place among the preachers of the Missouri 
Conference. He was for twenty-four years a mission- 
ary to the Indians. During the Civil War, when the 
violence of the "Jaytoawkers" was spreading terror 
over a large part of Missouri, Talbot was forced to flee 
to the South, but he went preaching the Word. He 
spent some time in Louisiana, but returned to Missouri, 
where he died July 31, 1872. 

Nehemiah Cravens, who was also of the class re- 
ceived this year, served with acceptance for a few 
years, but in 1831, was arraigned upon charges of 



106 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

immorality and expelled. 

Michael Taylor was a native of Scott county, Ken- 
tucky. After receiving assignments to Lebanon, 
Shelby, and Somerset circuits, he went first to Illinois, 
then to the Indiana Conference. Here he served the 
Wabash District four years, and was a member of the 
General Conference of 1836. He died while on the 
Quincy District, July 20. 1838. 

James L. Greenup located in 1832. He is said to 
have been a useful, laborious, and faithful minister. 
Later in life he joined the Kentucky Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and was a member of 
that body until 1874, when he died. 

There were four Tevises in the Kentucky Confer- 
ence. Of John Tevis, who, with, his wife, was the 
founder of Science Hil Female Academy, some account 
has already been given. D'aniel Tevis was admitted 
on trial in 1821, but his delicate health compelled his 
retirement after one year., In 1823, he again was ad- 
mitted, and was able to serve only one year. But his 
heart was in the work, and in 1826, he again knocked 
at the door of the Conference, was admitted, and gave 
seven years to the work he so persistently tried to do. 
Benjamin and John William Fletcher Tevis were 
brothers, and hailed from Bracken county. Both were 
admitted in 182.5, Benjamin remaining in the Confer- 
ence six years, then locating, he retired to a farm and 
to the practice of medicine eight miles above Madison, 
Indiana. Fletcher Tevis traveled 'seven years, locating 
in 1832. 

Another of the class of 1825 was John Fisk, a son 
of Henry and Martha Fisk. of Mo^tirom i ery county, and 
staunch supporters of old Grassy Lick church. John 
Fisk was awakened and united with the Church in 



Methodism in Kentucky 107 

early manhood, and was happily converted soon after- 
wards. These old Methodists clearly distinguished be- 
tween joining the Church and being converted. Li- 
censed to exhort, John Fisk was employed by the Pre- 
siding Elder in traveling the Lexington and Danville 
circuits. He was sent this year to Jefferson, as junior 
preacher to E. B. Neale. He was next assigned to 
Elizabeth, then to Lebanon, to which he was assigned 
the second year ; but on December 16, 1828, he entered 
the gates of death, and triumphantly passed on to the 
Eternal City. From all accounts he was a brilliant and 
lovable young man. "In the several fields to which he 
was assigned, he made full proof of his min!stry, and 
was attracting more attention than any young man in 
the State. Wherever he preached vast crowds flocked 
to hear him, and with his ardor unabated, he delivered 
his messages with an earnestness that could not fail to 
leave an impress on the hearts of the people. Among 
his brethren in the Conference, while he had no peer, 
he was universally admired laiid beloved. He was a 
star of the first magnitude/' He lies buried in the 
graveyard surrounding the old Pleasant Kui* church, 
which church is still a part of the Lebanon circuit. 

James (X Crow was a Methodist preacher for sixty 
years. He was born in Adair county, Ky., in 1802, and 
died in 1885, aged eighty-three years. Admitted on 
trial in 1825, he located in 1830, but was readmitted in 
1832. At the time he was located, he wrote in his diary, 
"To this date, I have received three hundred and fifty- 
eight members into the Church, and have been paid 
$249 : ." In 1845 he was again compelled to locate, and 
remained in a local relation until 1868, when he once 
more took work as a regular itinerant. When he had 
been in the ministry fifty ye&xs, he wrote: "I have 



10g Methodism in Kentucky 

traveled ninety thousand miles, received two thousand 
members, helped build more than thirty churches, and 
given away thousands of books and tracts," His homo 
was at Qddville. Harrison county. He was a son-in-law 
of Jcsiah Whitaker. and grandfather of President D. 
W. Batson. so long connected with Kentucky Wes- 
leyan College, and for more than ten years the editor 
of The Central Methodist* 

A man was admitted this year whose early death 
brought great sadness to the Methodists of the State. 
Henrv S. Duke was bom in Ohio county in 1805; was 
converted at fifteen : licensed when nineteen ; traveled 
under the presiding elder the Franklin circuit, then 
after his admission, the Cumberland. Danville, Lancas- 
ter and Stanford. Limestone, land Glasgow circuits, and 
the Frankfort, Mount Sterling, and Maysville Stations. 
In 18S5-, he was assigned to the Lexington District. 
While in his first year on this District, he was seized 
with pulmonary consumption, and died at Nkholasvllle, 
May 3, 1836. Dr. T. N. Ridston was with him when he 
passed away. He said to Dr. Ralston, "Tell the preach- 
ers of the Kentucky Conference that I have never for- 
gotten the address of Bishop Soule at the Versailles 
Conference, when he said. 'Let me die at my post/ 
I have always wanted to die at my post/' His memoir 
says 1 of him: "Henry S. Duke was a young man gener- 
ously endowed by nature, agreeable and prepossessing 
in person and address, with a mind naturally strong 
and discriminating, and well furnished with various in- 
formation, especially information appropriate to his 
calling as a Christian minister/' 

Alexander H. Stemmons was a good man. After 
traveling the Livingston and Fleming circuits, he went 
to Missouri, where he remained two years, then re- 



Methodism in Kentucky 109 

turned to Kentucky. After serving Hopkinsville and 
Livingston circuits, he located in 1832. He removed 
to Knoxville, Illinois, where he came to the end of Ms 
life in 1838, 

Charles M. Holliday (to be distinguished from 
Charles Holliday, who was Book Agent at Cincinnati 
for several years) filled with acceptability several lead- 
ing charges In the Kentucky Conference, then went to 
Indiana where he took rank among his brethren. When 
the Church was divided In 1845, he fell In with the 
northern branch, and rendered many years of most 
successful service. 

One other name on this list of sixteen remains to be 
noticed that of Joseph S. Tomllnson. He was bora 
amid humble conditions at Georgetown, Kentucky, 
March 15, 1802. Bereaved of both his parents when 
only a child, he was apprenticed to the saddler's trade, 
In which he soon became proficient. By diligent appli- 
cation to his trade, he worked his way through Tran- 
sylvania University, graduating with honors. He had 
been licensed to preach before completing his college 
course, and from the very beginning evidenced an un- 
usual pulpit ability. 

At the time of his graduation at Lexington, the friends of our 
Infant college at Augusta, at that time the only institution of its 
grade under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and then struggling for existence, were in want of a competent 
professor, and Tomlinson, young as he was, was selected for the 
place, and accepted the important trust. He immediately hast- 
ened to the field of his future labors, where for nearly thirty 
years, with the exception of a few brief intervals, on account 
of declining health, he faithfully toiled at his post. Here he 
severely taxed all the energies of his powerful intellect and 
feeble Jbody in advancing the cause of learning and the interests 
of religion. That his labors were abundant here will appear 
from the fact, that, in consequence of the frequent vacancies 
in the faculty, it became necessary that at different periods he 
should occupy different chairs. At one period he was professor 
of Languages, at another of Mathematics, then of Natural 



110 Methodism in Kentucky 

Science, then of Moral Philosophy and Belles-lettres. In every 
department of instruction he determined to be a master; and so 
he was. General Minutes. 

For a number of years he was President of Augusta 
College. During this time the degree of Doctor of Di- 
vinity was conferred upon him, an honor given to 
very few Methodist ministers <at that time. When 
Augusta College failed and its charter was revoked by 
the Legislature of Kentucky, Dr. Tomlinson was elected 
to a professorship in Ohio Wesleyan University, but, 
on account of impaired health, he did not accept, 
though for two years he served as a Field Agent for 
the institution. He was, then elected to a professorship 
in Ohio University, at Athens, Ohio, and at the end 
of a year, was elected President of that institution. He 
declined the position. "The Doctor inherited a strong 
predisposition to mental derangement, as is proven by 
well-known facts in the history of hi* family/' He be- 
came melancholy (and finally, on June 4 1853, he died 
at his own hand! 

Besides being a very fine preacher, Dr. Tomlinson 
has been pronounced "the ablest debater in America." 
Dr. Bedford, who knew him well, says- that "he was re- 
garded not only as one of the most gifted members of 
the Conference, but fas one of the most remarkable 
men of American Methodism." Upon the division of 
the Church in 1845, he undertook to carry the Minerva 
circuit with him into the Northern Branch of Method- 
ism, a cause which he had most earnestly espoused. Dr. 
Bedford, who was then the pastor of Minerva circuit, 
which, included the town of Augusta, met him in public 
debate, and succeeded in slaving to the Southern 
Church every congregation except the one at Augusta. 
But a history of this matter property falls into a later 



Methodism in Kentucky 111 

period, and when this is reached, we will have more 
to say of Dr. Tomlinson and Ms work. 

At this Conference of 1825, the interests of Augusta 
College were paramount. The death of Principal John 
P. Finley was a blow to the institution, but Ms place 
was Med, and the College continued to enlarge its 
career of usefulness. That great preacher and ripe 
scholar, John P. Durbin, was this year elected to the 
chair of Languages, joining Joseph Tomlinson as a 
member of the excellent faculty which was in charge 
of the instruction. But most of Durbin's time was 
spent soliciting funds in the Ohio Conference and in 
the East, Agents were appointed to solicit funds in 
the Kentucky Conference, and though they secured but 
small sums, they filled the spacious halls with students, 
and in many ways sided in promoting the interests of 
the College. Mention has already been made of the 
establishment of The Augusta Herald, and the pur- 
chase of the ferry across Hie Ohio River at Augusta. 
These investments were not as wild as might appear 
upon first thought. Newspapers were scarce in those 
days, and there being no bridges, all travel between the 
North and South must use ferries. But whatever rev- 
enue they may have yielded, it was not enough to save 
the College from dire financial straits, tand e\*ntual 
bankruptcy. 

The period of which we are now writing was not a 
fruitful period for Methodism in Kentucky, The years 
were "lean years." While at the Conference of 1826, 
report showed an increase in membership, this increase 
was small less than five hundred of both white and 
colored. 



CHAPTER V 

STRUGGLING FORWARD 

1826. Like the preceding session, the Conference 
of 1826 was taken up -almost exclusively with routine 
business. This does not mean inactivity or failure. It 
sometimes requires greater effort to achieve small re- 
sults than at other times to achieve greater ones. For 
a Church to hold its own through a period of opposi- 
tion or depression is often a great accomplishment. 
Frequently an advancing army must stop and "dig in," 
and "consolidate its gains," in order to hold the ground 
it has won. So the Church must sometimes delay new 
enterprises and be content without startling develop- 
ments until the time comes 9 for further advance. 

The session this year was held in Louisville. Bish- 
ops Soule and Roberts were present, and alternated in 
presiding. Both signed the Minutes. William Adams 
was again elected secretary. After the appointment 
of the usual committees, the Conference voted to ob- 
serve Friday, October 13th, as a day of fasting and 
prayer a precedent which might be followed with 
profit. More fasting and ]ess feasting might give our 
Conferences a more spiritual tone. Local brethren and 
candidates for the traveling connection were invited 
"to take seats in the lobby as spectators." 

Evan Stevenson, Joseph Carter, and Nathaniel 
Parker, admitted last year, were discontinued. New- 
ton G. Berryman and Major Stenfield were located, 
Berryman only temporarily. Thompson J. Holliman, 
Abel Robinson, Esau Simmons, Luke P. Allen, Simon 
Peter, and John Johnson were added to the list of ,su- 

112 



Methodism, in Kentucky 113 

perannuates. John Ray, after several years of super- 
annuation, was made effective. Obadiah Harber, Dan- 
iel Black, and Nelson Dills, all goad men, had died 
during the year. 

Fifteen were received on trial, though Daniel Tevls 
and Thomas G. Reece had been previously -admitted, 
but compelled to discontinue before they were eligible 
to full membership. The thirteen new men are as fol- 
lows: Hiram Baker, William Belt, William Cundift. 
John W. Ellis, Littleton Fowler, Nathan Johnson, Silas 
Lee, Abraham Norfleet, Jefferson E. Parish, John Red- 
man, Peter Shelton, Samuel Veach, and Lewis M. 
Woodson. Of these William Belt and Peter Shelton 
traveled but one year, Jefferson Parish two years; 
Abraham Norfleet, prior to location, traveled four 
years, three of them in Mississippi; while Lewis ML 
Woodson also gave four years to the work, the last of 
these in the Tennessee Conference. 

In a former chapter, we made mention of the fact 
that, of the long list of preachers- of whom we have 
presented brief -sketches, Bishop H. H. Kavanaugh was 
the first with whom we had personal acquaintance. 
Another was Hiram Baker. About 1890, while sta- 
tioned at Fort Thomas, Kentucky, we assisted the pas- 
tor in a meeting In the town of Minerva, Maso-n county. 
This was the home of Brother Baker. He was then 
quite an old man, and feeble, but while there he gave 
me an account of his life and experiences as a minis- 
ter. I made extensive notes on his narrative, intend- 
ing to write it up for him, but ill health made it im- 
possible to carry out our purpose. 

Brother Baker was born near Ft. E'still, Madison 
county, Kentucky, March 7, 1803, but removed to 
Greenup county when quite young. It was here thiat, 



114 Methodism in Kentucky 

when about twenty-one, lie was converted and united 
with the Church. He was soon after licensed to ex- 
hort, then to preach, his license as a preacher bearing 
the signature of Jonathan Stamper, then presiding 
Elder of the Augusta District. Stamper sent Mm at 
once to the Fleming circuit. He traveled until 1831, 
when he located. On October 15, 1828, he was married 
to Miss Elizabeth Rees, the daughter of Dauiel Rees, 
of Shannon, Mason county, one of the finest of the 
early Methodists of this section. His many friends in 
Mason county held Brother Baker in highest esteem. 
As- long as he was able to preach he was called upon 
to conduct more funerals and to marry more couples 
than any other man iu that part of Kentucky. He was 
said to ha.ve been a splendid preacher and undoubtedly 
wielded ia most wholesome influence wherever he was 
known. 

William Cundiff and John W. Ellis continued In the 
work until 1835, when both located, Cundiff having 
served chiefly in the northeastern part of the State, 
and Ellis going first to the Tennessee, then to the Mis- 
sissipi, then to the Memphis Conference. Nathan John- 
son also transferred to the Tennessee Conference in 
1828v John Redman located in 1836, and died in 
Bowling Green in 1865. 

Silas Lee was born on Christmas day, 1799, in 
Duchess county, New York. Subsequently his father 
removed to Kentucky, and took up his residence in 
Hardin county. Here Silas Lee was converted in 1820, 
and felt his call to the ministry. Being very diffident, ' 
he shrank from the holy calling, lost the joy of his- sal- 
vation and lapsed into infidelity* This, however, did 
not relieve his conscience. After his marriage, his 
wife urged him to his duty, and being reclaimed, hs 



Methodwm in Kentucky 115 

was admitted on trial at this Conference. For twelve 
years he labored in different fields with fidelity and 
success. He then located a step he ever afterwards 
regretted and continued in this relation for twelve 
more years, when, in 1850, he was again admitted into 
the traveling connection in the Louisville Conference. 
In 1857 he was placed on the superannuate list, and 
continued in this relation until his death, in Hardin 
county, in 1865. He is said to have been an excellent 
preacher and an able defender of the Methodist doc- 
trines and discipline. 

Of Samuel Veach, Bedford says: "He was a mem- 
ber of the Kentucky Conference until the session of 
1864, with the exception of four years, in which he 
was local. He filled eighteen regular appointments, 
was two years on the supernumerary, thirteen years 
on the superannuated list, and one year left without 
appointment at his own request." He was not a strong 
man, physically, but faithfully attended to the charges 
to which he was assigned. Late in life he withdrew 
from the M. E. Church, South, and united with the M. 
E. Church, but was never able to do effective work in It. 
He died previous to the Conference of 1868. 

We have reserved the n*ame of Littleton Fowler -to 
the last. Though never a strong man physically, he 
built for himself a character and did a work such as 
few men have done. Born in Tennessee, September 
12, 1802, his father removed to Caldwell county, Ken- 
tucky, when he was a mere boy. Here he w?a,s con- 
verted at a camp meeting, held by the Cumberland 
Presbyterians, when seventeen years of age. He re- 
ceived license to preach in 1826, and a month later was 
admitted on trial in the Kentucky Conference. At the 
end of his first yeiar in the Conference, which he had 



116 Methodism in Kentucky 

spent on the Bed River circuit, his health was so poor 
that he was left without an appointment. But the 
following year he was assigned to Bowling Green. In 
1829, he was sent as the colleague of his very intimate 
friend, EL H. Kavanaugh, to Louisville, then a town of 
about ten thousand, with a Methodist membership of 
something over four hundred. During the year about 
two hundred and fifty were added to the Methodist 
Church. He was then stationed at Cynthiana, then at 
Maysville. At the end of his year at Maysville, his 
health was so shattered that it was thought best to 
send him further South, and he was transferred to the 
Tennessee Conference. After ia year at Tuscumbia, he 
became agent for LaiGrange College, then under the 
presidency of Dr. (afterwards Bishop) Robert Paine, 
which position he held for four years. Dr. E. H. Riv- 
ers, In his Life of Bishop Paine, speaks of Littleton 
Fowler as "a most succesful agent. ... At one time 
it was thought that he would be able to secure 'ample 
endowment for the -college. He was a fine specimen of 
the Kentucky Methodist preacher, and both as a man 
and as a preacher deserved the highest respect and the 
largest confidence." 

Terns had won its independence from Mexico in 
1836, and there was a great rush of immigration into 
that country from the United States. The Church was 
holding itself in readiness to enter that great field, 
and Dr. Martin Euter had volunteered for that service 
as soon i&s the way was opened for him to go. So, 
early in 1837, Bishop Heddlng appointed Martin Ruter 
"superintendent of Texas- Mission," with Robert Alex- 
ander, of the Mississippi Conference, and Littleton 
Fowler, then of the Tennessee Conference, as assist- 
ants. Fowler "preached his first sermon at Nacogdo- 



Methodism in Kentucky 117 

ches, October 16, and traveled extensively through Tex- 
as. In 1838 . . . was appointed by the Mississippi 
Conference Superintendent of the Texas Mission. At 
the first meeting of the Texas Annual Conference he 
was appointed Presiding Elder of the San Augustine 
District. In 1842 he was agent for Rutersville College. 
In 1843 he was placed on the Lake Soda District, &nd 
elected one of the delegates to the General Conference. 
In 1845 he was continued on the same District and 
elected to a seat in the Louisville Convention," Gen- 
eral Minutes. Attacked by bilious fever, he died Jan- 
uary 19, 1846. Methodism in Texas will ever -be in- 
debted to Littleton Fowler. In planting the faith in 
that great State, he braved dangers and endured 
hardships that would try the courage and strength of 
any man. While superintending the mission the whole 
State was his parish, and while on a District he trav* 
eled over a territory larger than that of many Annual 
Conferences. "His quarterly meetings were often 
separated by a journey of several days, "which had to 
be traveled alone, without reference to weather or ac- 
commodations/ The ground was frequenutly the bed 
on which he slept, with no covering but the broad, blue 
sky. He often had to leave the trails, and conceal 
'himself behind some friendly covert, to elude the 
glance of the treacherous Indian/ " When on his death 
bed, his sight failed, and he asked .some one if there 
were no lights in the room. When assured that there 
were, he said, "Ah, well, my sight grows dim ! Earth 
recedes ! Heaven is approaching ! Glory to God in the 
highest!" 

1827. The Kentucky Conference met in Versailles, 
Kentucky, September 11, 1827, with Bishop Soule in 
the chair. Bishop Roberts was present and presided 



118 Methodism in Kentucky 

part of the time, and he alone signed the Minutes as 
President Bishop McKendree was also presnt, though 
his feeble health prevented him from taking any very 
active part in the proceedings. He addressed the Con- 
ference on two or three occasions, 

At this time there was much discussion of the sub- 
ject of baptism. Barton W. Stone, Alexander Camp- 
bell and their co-workers were ringing the changes on 
immersion as the only mode, and inveighing against 
infant baptism. They were making inroads upon all 
the Churches. We suppose that a good many of our 
people were confused and dissatisfied with their bap- 
tism, wanting now to be immersed. As we administer 
the rite by that mode, some wanted our preachers 
to baptize them a second time. The Conference, at its 
first sitting, passed the following: "Resolved, that this 
Conference view the repetition of baptism on the same 
subject, in any way, or under any circumstances, as in- 
consistent with our Discipline, and a profanation of 
the ordinance." 

The Conference organized itself into a Tract So- 
ciety, auxiliary to the Parent Society of the M. E. 
Church, whose headquarters were in New York, adop- 
ted a Constitution, and elected officers. The superan- 
nuated brethren were requested to engage as their in- 
firmities might admit, in the important work of form- 
ing Tract Societies and Sunday Schools, and Sunday 
School -and Missionary Societies, while the pastors and 
Presiding Elders were instructed to recommend to 
their churches and congregations the establishing of 
these agencies. 

A bequest of one hundred dollars, left the Confer- 
ence by Mr. Alexander Bradford, was announced, and 
by vote was placed in the Chartered Fund. 



Methodism in Kentucky 110 

As It was the year for the election of delegates to 
the General Conference, the Conference, entitled to 
eleven delegates, elected Peter Akers, Richard Tydings, 
William Adams, Benjamin T. Crouch, Henry McDaniel, 
Jonathan Stamper, Thomas A. Morris, George C. Light, 
John Tevis, George McNelly, and Marcus Lindsay to 
represent them in that body. In connection with this 
election, a peculiar situation arose, one which some- 
times, but not often, occurs in such elections. In at- 
tempting to elect elewm delegates, and placing eleven 
names on each ballot, twelve men received a majority 
of the votes cast! Bishop Soule was in the chair, and 
informed the Conference that they might enter into a 
new election, or else vote that those receiving the high- 
est number of votes should be their delegates. The 
Conference did not adopt either suggestion; but re- 
solved that "two of the three lowest numbers should be 
again elected." On taking the ballot, it was found that 
all three had received a majority of the votes cast! 
John Tevis having received the highest number on this 
ballot, was declared elected, and the vote was then 
taken to elect one of the two lowest, which ballot re- 
sulted in the election of Marcus Lindsay. 

The Conference did everything in its power to make 
Augusta College a success." The institution had suc- 
ceeded in gathering some very excellent men into its 
faculty, and in this respect was the equal of any other 
institution in the land. Martin Ruter had been elected 
President, though he did not enter upon the work un- 
til 1828. Its great lack was financial. Whatever in- 
come was derived from tuitions, its small endowment, 
its newspaper, land its ferry, the College was suffering 
from insufficiency of funds. But few persons at that 
day or this realize what is needed to run a college* 



120 Methodism in Kentucky 

The amounts secured by the various solicitors wa<* 
small, and part of that was in currency of the Com- 
monwealth, which was considerably under par. A lit- 
tle later the Ohio Conference wised ten thousand dol- 
lars with which to endow the "McKendree Professor- 
ship of Moral Science/' and the Kentucky Conference 
raised a like amount to endow the "Roberts Professor- 
ship of Mathematics/' thus honoring both these be- 
loved Bishops, but falling far short of adequately en- 
dowing the College. 

William Belt, Peter Shelton and William HcComas 
were discontinued. Littleton Fowler and John Tevis 
were given no appointment, the former on account of 
affliction, and the latter because of his duties 'as Prin- 
cipal of Science Hill Female Academy. 

Eight located, viz., Willliam G Stribling, Joseph 
Farrow, Thomas Browder, Thomas Joiner, Laban 
Hughey, Edward Ashley, Francis La-ndrum, and J. 
M. S. Smith. Several of these afterwards returned to 
the itinerant ranks. 

John Bay, George Richardson, B. T. Crouch, Thom- 
as Atterbury, George W. Bobbins, and Benjamin Ogden 
were added to the list of superannuates, though Blach- 
ley C. Wood, Abel Robinson, and Simon Peter were 
made effective after resting for awhile on this list. 
Henry W. Hunt and Green Malone were made super- 
numerary. 

Twenty were received on trial. This seems to us 
now to have been a large class, but the number lost by 
death, discontinuance, location and superannuation 
was greater than the number received- Then again, 
of the twenty received, more than half of them, one 
way or another, dropped out in four years. Following 
are the names of those received: George W, Martin, 



Methodism in Kentucky 121 

John K. Lacy, Joseph Marsee, 'Greenup Kelly, T. N. 
Ralston, Jeremiah Hunt, Abraham Baker, Joseph Pow- 
er, Samuel Kenyon, Joseph Kelly, William Phillips* 
Simpson Duty, Burr H. McCown, John F. Strother, 
Horace Brown, Thomas W. Chandler, Moses Clampet, 
James M. Gulp, Pleasant Hines, and Washington Fagg. 
Samuel Harrison was readmitted. 

Of these, Pleasant Hines, Jeremiah Hunt, Joseph 
Kelly, and James M. Gulp served only one year. Sam- 
uel Kenyon, John F. Strother, and Simpson JJuty only 
two years. Abraham Baker and William Phillips lo- 
cated at the end of three years, while Greenup Kelly 
broke down, retired after three years of service, and 
died during his fourth year. 

Horace Brown located after four years of travel, 
and Moses Clampet was retired to the list of superan- 
nuates after five years, and located in 1834, It seems 
that he afterwards went to California, was readmitted 
in the Pacific Conference in 1856, but again located 
after a service of four years. After one year on the 
Cumberland circuit, George W. Martin was transferred 
to the Tennessee Conference, from which he located 
in 1835. John K. Lacey travel in Kentucky the first 
three years of his ministry, then went to Missouri, 
where he served good appointments and superintended 
large Districts for fifteen or more years. 

Joseph Marsee filled some of our best circuits and 
stations, like Barren, Glasgow, Newport and Coving- 
ton, Lexington circuit, Georgetown, Mount Sterling, 
and Brook Street, in Louisville. In 1840 he was trans- 
ferred to Indiana, where he took rank 'among his breth- 
ren, filling such charges as Terre Haute, the Indianap- 
olis District, etc. 

Joseph Power, a product of Montgomery county, 



122 Methodism in Kentucky 

Kentucky, was born September 15, 1802. Admitted In 
1827, he was sent to John's Creek, in Pike county, then 
to Henry circuit for two years, then to Port William 
(Carrollton), where he continued "a faithful and use- 
ful laborer till the spring of 1830, when he was seized 
with a violent disease of the breast, from which lie 
never afterward entirely recovered, but continued to 
linger and suffer until July 2nd, 1833, when he ended 
his pious and suffering life in peaceful and triumphant 
death." (General Minutes). 

Georse Washington Fagg came Into the Conference 
this year from Cumberland District, and died a mem- 
ber of the Florida Conference in May, 1878, having 
spent fifty-one years (with the exception of two years 
when he was a local preacher) as a member of Confer- 
ence. With health none too robust, for several years he 
was on the supernumerary or superannuate list. Dur- 
ing his sixteen years In the Kentucky Conference he 
preached on the Bowling Green, Mount Sterling, New- 
port and Covington circuits, and Shelbyville and Lou- 
isville Stations. For two years he was Agent of the 
American Colonization Society. After going to 
Florida he was Asrent for the Bainbridge Female Col- 
lege, was stationed at Apalachicola, Fernandina, and 
other places. His end was peace. 

Burr H. McCown was a very popular and a very 
useful man. Commanding In his personal appearance, 
of pleasing address, courteous, sweet-spirited and 
scholarly, he wielded a splendid influence wherever he 
went. He was a native of Bardstown, Kentucky, born 
October 29, 1806. He was educated at St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, a Catholic institution in his native town. He took 
the highest honors in his class. When about eighteen, 
he joined the Presbyterian Church, but unable to ac- 



Methodism in Kentucky 123 

cept the Calvinistic teachings of that Church, he united 
with the Methodists under the ministry of JEL H. Kava- 
naugh. Between these two men the most ardent 
friendship existed to the very last. Upon his admis- 
sion into the Conference in 1827, he was sent first to 
the Henry circuit, then to Jefferson, then to Bussell- 
ville, then was stationed in Louisville. At the end of 
his fourth year he was elected to the Chair of Latin 
and Greek in Augusta College, a position which he held 
until 1842, when he came to Transylvania University 
to fill the same position in that institution. Not being 
in sympathy with the division of the Church in 1845, 
he, in 1847, withdrew from the M. E. Church, South, 
united with the Presbyterian Church, and held a place 
in the ministry of that Church for more th-an twenty 
years. In the meantime, he established a private school 
of high grade not far from Anchorage, Kentucky, 
where he taught with eminent success until within a 
few years of his death. Being an Arminian in belief, 
he was never satisfied in the ministry of the Presby- 
terian Church. He could not preach their doctrines, 
and felt that he was out of place among them. In 1874, 
he returned to the Methodist Church, was again re- 
ceived into the Kentucky Conference, and died a mem- 
ber of this body in 1881. 

Thomas W. Chandler was a man of more than ordi- 
nary ability. He grew up in poverty and without the 
advantages of even an elementary education until he 
was grown. Converted, and feeling it his duty to 
preach, he betook himself to hard study. "But few 
men in the West entered the ministry under so many 
disadvantages, and attained to so elevated a rank in 
so brief a period as Mr. Chandler.' 1 He was a diligent 
student, deeply pious, had an, adaptation to the work 



124 Methodism in Kentucky 

of the ministry, and soon was in the very front rank 
among Ms brethren. During the thirteen years he 
traveled in Kentucky, he filled such stations as Bowl- 
ing Green, Frankfort and Millersburg, and served most 
acceptably the Barboursville, Augusta and Covington 
Districts. In 1840 he was transferred to the Illinois 
Conference, and was assigned to Jacksonville and 
Bloomington stations, then went to Missouri, where he 
was stationed at Jefferson City and on the Western 
District. Eeturning to Illinois, he remained a most 
influential member of the Conference until his death in 
1859. "For thirty-two years he had gone in and out 
before his brethren, a useful and faithful minister of 
Jesus Christ. . . . Brother Chandler was an able min- 
ister of the New Testament. ... He was a severe stu- 
dent of theology, making it a point each day, besides 
other solid reading, to read a portion of the Holy 
Scriptures in the original. For many years he gave 
one-tenth of his income to benevolent purposes, the 
missionary cause sharing most largely in his liberality. 
His life exemplified the Christian graces meekness, 
gentleness, goodness ; and the gospel which he preached 
to others enabled him to triumph in death." (Red- 
ford), 

The most distinguished man admitted in 1827 was 
Thomas Neely Ralston. He was born in Bourbon 
county, Kentucky, March 21, 1806. Converted at a 
camp meeting in Woodford county in May, 1827, he 
was received into the Church and licensed to preach 
by William Adams, then Presiding Elder of the Lex- 
ington District. His first charge was the Mount Ster- 
ling circuit as colleague of Milton Jamieson. The year 
witnessed such a revival as has not been seen in that 
section since that day. Something like six hundred 



Methodism in Kentucky 125 

professed faith in Christ But the exertions of this 
great work were too much for him and his health was 
seriously impaired. After the next year on the Dan- 
ville circuit, and after being received into full connec- 
tion, he located for four years, a part of which time 
was spent at Nicholasville, as Principal of Bethel 
Academy at that place* He then removed to Illinois, 
where he re-entered the Conference, but was trans- 
ferred back to Kentucky in 1835. He served Versailles, 
Frankfort, Maysville, old Fourth Street, In Louisville, 
Shelbyville, etc., until 1843, when he superannuated 
and opened the Lexington Female High School He 
edited the "Works of Bishop H. B. Baseom;" was for 
some time editor of the Methodist Monthly, issued from 
Lexington, Kentucky; was the author of "Ralston's 
Elements of Divinity/* over which many of the older 
ministers poured when taking- the Course of Study for 
undergradates in the various Conferences; a work on 
"Evidences of Christianity ;" "Omninm Gatherum" 
etc. He was for eleven years Secretary of the Ken- 
tucky Conference, and did more to enlarge and put our 
Minutes in good form than any other man who has 
filled that office. When the Convention which organ- 
ized the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, met at 
Louisville, in May, 1845, Dr. Ealston was elected Sec- 
retary pro tern, then was Assistant Secretary of that 
body. He was the Secretary of the first General Con- 
ference of the M. E. Church, South, which met at 
Petersburg, Virginia, in 1846. In 1858, Dr. Ralston 
withdrew from the M. E. Church, South, entered the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and for two years was 
Rector of a Church in Covington. But, like miany oth- 
ers, he found he was not at home in that Church, and 
.soon returned to the Chprch of Ms first lave. He was- 



126 Methodism in Kentucky 

a man of marked ability in the pulpit, a revivalist of 
great power, and a man who ranked among the very 
foremost ministers of his day. 511 

Samuel Harrison, who was readmitted at this Con- 
ference, came to us from South Carolina, where he had 
served in the regular work for several years. Coming 
to Kentucky, he established his home in Mercer county, 
where he was a local preacher until 1827, when he ap- 
plied to the Kentucky Conference for re-admission. 
After five years he was placed on the list of supernu- 
meraries, and died of typhoid in 1834. His son, John 
Christian Harrison, became one of the most prominent 
preachers in the Kentucky Conference. 

A man was transferred from Maryland to Ken- 
tucky in 1827, who had filled important stations like 
Baltimore and Pittsburgh, and who became prominent 
in the Conference of his adoption Richard Tydings. 
For a period of forty-eight years he was in the itiner- 
ant ranks. He was a Presiding Elder for many years 
and was several times elected a delegate to the General 
Conference. In 1832, he published la book on "Apos- 
tolic Succession," in which he ably defended the Epis- 
copacy of the Methodist Church. He died October 3 y 
1865, 

The increase in membership in the Kemucky Con- 
ference during the quadrennium we have just re- 
viewed, was small. The number of members given in 
at the Conference of 1824 was 19,323 white, and 3,328 

*When, In 1887-90, the writer was pastor of the church at 
Ft. Thomas, Kentucky, Dr. Ralston, then quite old and feeble, 
was living between Ft. The mas and Newport. 1 visited him al- 
most every month, and, though his mental powers had failed to 
a great extent, it was always a pleasure to enter his home and 
talk and pray with him. We esteem it one of the privileges of 
life to have had this fellowship with the grand old man. 



Methodism in Kentucky 127 

colored. In 1827, the number is 20,220 white and 3,650 
colored, an increase of only 897 white, and 6Y6 colored. 
Several reasons might be .assigned for the meager 
growth. No doubt the reader has been struct witu the 
number of preachers who, during the quadrennium, 
transferred to Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Ten- 
nessee. Peter Cartwright, Charles Holliday and other 
leaders had gone. This was indicative of the general 
movement of the people to these States, A very large 
number of Kentuckians emigrated to these newly 
opened countries, and became an important part of 
their rapidly growing populations. Then the dissen- 
sions growing out of the controversy over the Presid- 
ing Eldership, which was soon to culminate In the 
organization of the Methodist Protestant Church, not 
only caused the withdrawal of many members from 
Methodism in Kentucky, but created conditions not fa- 
vorable to evangelistic aggressiveness. The Cumber- 
land Presbyterians profited much by our contentions, 
and the self-styled "Christian" Church took many of 
our members. The Church, under such circumstances 
did well to make any increase at all 



CHAPTER VI 
FROM 1828 TO 1832 

The General Conference of 1828 made the State line 
between Kentucky and Tennessee, "commonly called 
Walker's line/' the boundary between the Kentucky 
and Tennessee Conferences. Thus the Kentucky Con- 
ference lost all that part of the State of Tennessee ly- 
ing north of the Cumberland Elver, and the Confer- 
ence boundaries were limited to those of the State of 
Kentucky. The Conference embraced the entire State, 
but no more. 

Final disposition was made by this General Confer- 
ence of the "Suspended Resolutions." The reader will 
recall that, in 1820, the General Conference adopted 
Resolutions miaking Presiding Elders elective by the 
Annual Conferences, then suspended the resolutions 
for four years. In 1824 the resolutions were again 
suspended, but at this General Conference they were 
rescinded, and thus a final answer was given to the 
demands of the self-styled "Reformers." 

But the election of Presiding Elders was only a 
part of the program of the Reformers. During the 
quadrennium the center of controversy had shifted to 
equal participation of laymen and local preachers with 
the itinerant preachers in all the governing bodies of 
the Church. We of this day find it difficult to under- 
stand the opposition to tfiis measure. The informed 
reader knows that lay-representation has since been 
granted by both branches of Episcopal Methodism. 
We would hardly be willing to go back to the origin-al 
plan of putting the management of our Church affairs 

128 



Methodism in Kentucky 129 

entirely into the hands of the clergy. It cannot be 
denied that, in the beginning, the government of Amer- 
ican Methodism was more English than* American. 
Ever since, a conflict has been going on to liberalize 
and Americanize our Church polity. The O'Kelly move- 
ment was a phase of this conflict. Conservatism and 
Liberalism are in perpetual strife. Reforms come 
slowly. They cannot be forced without casualties. 
Often good causes are impeded by violent and ill-ad- 
vised methods. In this case, the "Radicals," as they 
were called, certainly pressed their demands with 
vigor, .und, in doing so, outran many of their sympa- 
thizers. Many persons who favored both an elective 
Presiding Eldership and lay representation, did not 
approve the intemperate attacks made upon the Church 
and its leaders. When matters advanced to the point 
of breaking away from the old Church and forming a 
new one, these conservatives remained steadfast with 
the old Church. Things were said and done by both 
sides of which we are now ashamed. The "Radicals" 
were quite bitter in their controversy, and the con- 
servatives were very tenacious in holding on to the 
established order. Impatient to secure wlmt they 
deemed their rights, individuals and Union Societies 
seceded from the Church, and loudly called on their 
sympathizers to "come out of Babylon." On the other 
hand, representatives of the Church, irritated by the 
attempt to change the existing order, charged the Re- 
formers with sowing dissensions by inveighing against 
the discipline of the Church, and expelled quite a num- 
ber of both ministers and laymen. Heat and passion 
prevailed and the organization of the Methodist Prot- 
estant Church followed in 1830. This Church is with- 
out Bishops or Presiding Elders, and laymen and local 



130 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

preachers have as much to do with matters of govern- 
ment as the itinerants. While some influential ministers 
and laymen cast their lot with the new organization, the 
Methodist Protestant Church has never had more than 
2,000 to 3,000 members in this State. At the present 
time their numbers are much less than this. Near 
Campion, Wolfe county, they have a Mission school, 
run on an industrial plan, which is doing much good 
in that section of the State. 

The Kentucky Conference met again In ShelbyvIIIe, 
October 23, 1828, Biahop Joshua Soule in the Chair. 
Bishop Roberts was also present, and alternated with 
Bishop Soule in the presidency of the Conference. The 
24th of October was set apart as a day of fasting and 
pnztfyer, and a Love Feast was ordered held on Sunday 
morning at six o'clock. So far as our knowledge goes, 
this was the first time a Confererce love feast was of- 
ficially provided for in our Conference. 

"T. Neely Ralston, having unadvisedly joined the 
Free Masons, and also having left his circuit before the 
close of the year, it was moved and seconded that the 
Presiding Elder with whom he has traveled during the 
last year admonish him o<n those subjects. 5 ' His charac- 
ter was then passed. Ralston had, the year before, 
served the Mount Sterling circuit as junior preacher 
with Milton Jamieson, and over six hundred persons 
had been taken into the Methodist Church. The work 
grew to such proportions that two helpers had to be 
called in during the latter part of the year. But his 
success did not save him from rebuke for his supposed 
indiscretions. 

Bishop Enoch George had died on August 23, 1828, 
and Rev. Stephen G. Roszel, of the Baltimore Confer- 
ence* being in attendance upon the session at Shelby- 



Methodism in Kentucky 131 

ville, at the request of the Conference, preached a 
funeral sermon In his memory. The General Minutes 
say that Bishop George was "a man of deep piety , of 
great simplicity of manners, a very pathetic, powerful* 
and successful preacher, greatly beloved In life, and 
very extensively lamented in death.'* 

The following motion was adopted: "Moved and 
seconded that each member of this Conference, and 
those hereafter received by this Conference, furnish a 
sketch of his birth, life, conversion, call and entrance 
into the ministry, into the traveling connection, etc., by 
our next Annual Conference." Thus was an effort 
made to preserve the history of the men who served 
the cause in the Kentucky Conference, and to secure 
reliable data for suitable memoirs as the workers 
passed away. 

It was "moved and 'seconded that a committee be 
appointed to take into consideration the propriety of 
publishing a periodical within the bounds of this Con- 
ference/* The committee reported favoring the enter- 
prise, and a commission was appointed to provide for 
such publication, if they deemed it feasible, on condi- 
tion that they should not involve the Conference in any 
financial obligation, and that such publication should 
not be begun until 1,200 subscribers were secured. It 
was not until August, 1829 ( , that the first number of 
The Gospel H<0nald, a sixteen-page magazine, was is- 
sued from Lexington. The publication was afterwards 
enlarged to twenty-four pages, and was quite a lively 
journal Rev. Oliver B. Ross, a local preacher at Lex- 
ington, was secured as the editor. He was a young 
man of splendid ability, and high character, and under 
his editorial management the magazine ranked high as 
a defenctep Ql the doctrines and usages of the Churdu 



132 Methodism in Kentucky . _^__^ 

The primary purpose of the journal, defined by the 
editor was, "to explain, defend, and promote that sys- 
tem of religious doctrine taught by the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church; and to point out the practical benefits 
of her religious services and institutions/' The fol- 
lowing from The Neio England Christian Herald, quo- 
ted as apnlicable to the situation in the West as well as 
In the East, reveals the conditions making su^b. & pub- 
lication necessary; 

There never, perhaps, lias been a time since Methodism was 
first preached in New England, when such combined, uniform, 
and persevering efforts were made on the part of Calvinists to 
put down the growing influence of Methodism as have been made 
during the past year. Every practicable means has seemingly 
been used to effect this object. Erroneous and artfully written 
anonymous pamphlets have been circulated, in which the Meth- 
odists have been caricatured, vilified and slandered to the up- 
most. Religious periodicals under Calvinistic direction and in- 
fluence, in various parts of our country have engaged in ^ the 
work. ... In some parts it appears that conferences of minis- 
ters have 'been holden, committees chosen, regular plans adopted, 
and all this, it would seem, with the design to prevent the in- 
crease and usefulness of that people whom God has so signally 
blessed from the beginning. 

The Calvinistie Magazme and The Western Lumi~ 
nary were waging- a relentless war upon Methodism in 
the West and The Presbyterian Advocate, a monthly 
issued from Lexington, vigorously joined in the con- 
flict. "That a united attack upon the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church is now making by the Presbyterian prints 
in every quarter is too plain to be denied, and, further, 
it is too violent to be misunderstood, 11 With great abil- 
ity did the editor and others for two years defend the 
Church against these assaults of Calvinism, Gradually 
the discussion shifted to a debate with Campbellism, 
which, under the lead of Alexander Campbell, was, at 
that time exceedingly pugnacious, and was gaining a 
strong position in Kentucky^ Put at the end of two 



Methodism in Kentucky 183 

years, Mr, Ross died of tuberculosis, and The Gos- 
pel Herald, for want of finances, ceased to exist* Un- 
doubtedly the magazine accomplished a fine work for 
Methodism during the time it was in existence. Read- 
ers of the present day can hardly imagine the bitter- 
ness and recklessness with which other denominations 
assailed Methodism during that period. Prior to the 
planting of Methodism in this country, every religious 
denomination operating in America was intensely Cal- 
vinistic. Today there is not a denomination that 
would endorse the doctrines then boldly proclaimed 
from pulpit and press. Those early days of our Con- 
ference history were militant days. 

At this session of the Conference, the death of 
Thomas Atterbury and of Thompson J. Holliman was 
announced, but no memoirs were furnished for publica- 
tion. Nine men were transferred out of the Confer- 
ence, viz., Michael Taylor and William Crane to the 
Illinois Conference; Thomas A. Morris to the Ohio; 
and William Peter, Fountaine E. Pitts, Lewis M. Wood- 
son, John W. Ellis, George W. Martin, and Nathan 
Johnson to the Tennessee Conference. 

Five were discontinued Pleasant Hines, Jeremian 
Hunt, Joseph Kelly, James M. Gulp, and Jefferson E. 
Parish ; most of these on account of health failure, and 
at their own request. 

Five were granted location Green Malone, Rich- 
ard D. Neale, Henry Hunt, Simon Peter, and Elisha 
Simmons. Most of these located only temporarily, and 
were soon back in the itinerant ranks. Blachley C. 
Wood, who was restored to the effective list the year 
before, had to be placed again among the Superan- 
nuates, as was also Stephen Harber. 



134 Methodism in Kentucky 

Nineteen were admiiied on trial. Of these, Israel 
Lewis, John D. Carrick.* Leonard George and Charles 
Haff served but one year. 

James Savage was a man of ability. After serving 
one year on the Limestone circuit as the colleague of 
Samuel Veach and Hiram Baier, he was appointed 
Agent to solicit funds for Augusta College. But for 
some reason, no doubt at his own request, he was dis- 
continued at the end of his second year. He made his 
home in Germantown, where for many years he was a 
merchant, but labored as a local preacher, and wielded 
an influence over that whole section. He prospered In 
business, and, after the division of the Church, in 1844, 
he entered the northern branch, and with very little as- 
distance, built the M. E. Church at Germantown.f 

Samuel Julian traveled the Livingston and Yellow 
Banks circuits and was then transferred to the Illinois 
Conference. Joseph Carter was admitted for the third 
time, and his persistence, in the face of poor health 
or adverse circumstances, is indicative of earnest de- 
sire to serve in the ranks of his itinerant brethren. 
His name soon disappears. 

Hamilton C. Ulin is said to have been a man of 
more than ordinary ability, but he remained in the 
Conference only three years, retiring an account of 
impaired health, located at Shepherdsville, Kentucky, 
and practiced 'medicine until his death in 1845. He 
maintained Ms relation to the Church as a local 
preacher. 



*He removed to Ohio and for a while engaged in business in 
Springfield, where he died April 11, 1836, 

f James Savage was the grandfather of the Bevs. F. A., E. 
C., and J. E. Savage, of the Kentucky Conference, 



Methodism in Kentucky 135 

In our first volume, we mentioned the fact that 
Winn Malone gave four sons to the Methodist ministry. 
Isaac Malone, who was admitted this year, was one of 
these sons. After five years of service on hard circuits, 
he was compelled to retire. He located in Muhlenburg 
county, where he resided for many years. 

Joseph G. Waxd, son of K*v. James Ward, whom 
we noticed in Vol. I, traveled for twelve years in the 
Kentucky Conference, filling such charges as Madison, 
Germantown, Shelby, Newcastle, Kw/ling 'Green, Hard- 
insburg and Hartford, then located, and finally went to 
Arkansas, where he gave many years of efficient labor 
in building up the kingdom in that part of our great 
country. 

Thomas Wallace and Andrew Peace, after l a few 
years of acceptable labor here, went to Missouri, and 
each performed an important part in pushing forward 
Methodism in that State. Richard Bird in 1834 was 
transferred to the Illinois Conference, and Robert Y. 
McReynolds, after twelve years in Kentucky, went to 
the Rock River Conference in Northern Illinois. 

Thomas Waring remained in Kentucky. He was a 
man of deep piety and eminently useful Worn down 
by incessant labors, he superannuated in 1840, then lo- 
cated in 1845. His home was in Green county, and his 
end was tragic. In 1848* he went to Missouri on busi- 
ness. 

On liis return home, he passed through Elizabethtown on 
horseback about sundown. On the following morning- his hat, 
saddle-'bags, and some valuable papers, were found about two 
miles from Elizabethtown, but he was never seen afterward. It 
was supposed that he had received a large amount of money 
while in Missouri, and for this he was doubtless murdered, and 
his body concealed, so that the most vigilant search has never 
been able to find it. He had, however, failed to receive the 
money he had expected, so that his murderer was disappointed. 
His horse was sold a few days afterward, in Owensboro, by a 
stranger. Bedford* 



136 Methodism in Kentucky _ 

Hooper Evans, a native of Maryland, came to Ken- 
tucky in childhood, and was converted at sixteen. "He 
was- not satisfied with his attainments in religious 
life," but "immediately after his conversion sought 
that 'perfect love' that casteth out all fear, and con- 
tinued to enjoy the blessteg of sanctiftcation. A holy 
atmosphere seemed to surround him, so that every 
person who enjoyed his society would feel that they 
were in the presence of a man of God/' Bedford. 
Many of these early preachers were indeed saintly 
men, Mr, Evans labored in the Conference until 1834, 
when on account of an affection of his lungs, he super- 
annuated. He died at the home of his brother, John 
Evans, in the city of Louisville, July 28, 1837. 

William B. Landrum was born in Virginia, but 
came to Kentucky when only seven years of age. After 
a winter at Boonesboro, his parents located on Upper 
Howard's Creek, in Clark county, where brother Lan- 
drum grew to manhood. Reared in a Christian home, 
a regular attendant upon religious services from child- 
hood, he was early made a subject of saving grace. He 
united with the Church at a cajnp meeting held near 
old Ebenezer Church, in 1821, after a sermon preached 
by EL E. Bascom. 

Brother Landrum taught school for some time, but 
was admitted on trial in 1828, and his first charge 
wa,s the Little River circuit, near Hopkinsville. For 
nearly fifty-one years he remained a member of the 
Kentucky Conference, traveling the hardest circuits 
and districts in the Conference. He did not rank as a 
great preacher, but was an humble man, serving the 
people faithfully, and holding their love and confidence 
as few men have done. Next to Marcus Lindsay he was 
regarded by the people of the Big Sandy Valley as the 



Methodism in Kentucky 137 

most useful man who ever labored In those parts. A 
year before his deatl; he published the "Life and Labors 
of Wm. B* Landruwi" which, while falling far below 
the standard of a good autobiography, contains so 
many references to people and places that it has been 
of great value to the writer of these pages. He died at 
Ms home in Laurel county, Kentucky, June 2, 1879. 
The writer of his memoir. Rev. Stephen Noiand, says : 
'The preaching of Father Landrum was of the relig- 
ious kind, full uf the Holy Ghost. Many a young 
preacher would do well to imitate it in this regaid. He 
never made an error in doctrine; he always preached 
Christ as a personal and present Savior, and his proofs 
were constant and appropriate quotations of Scripture 
and frequent selections of verses from our own hymn- 
book. . . . Many souls did he bring to Christ. Many 
will rise up in the last great day and call him blessed/' 
Absalom Wooliscroft was an Englishman, of 
marked eccentricities. We do not know when he came 
to America. He was for fourteen years a member of 
the Kentucky Conference, sa.nd "was highly respectable 
as a preacher, and excelled as an exhorter and as a 
singer." In 1841, he made a visit to his relatives in 
England, then located in 1842. Later he removed to 
Illinois, where .he died from poison taken through mis- 
take. He ranked well as a preacher and was emi- 
nently useful As illustrative of his eccentricities, Red- 
ford tells a story of him while he served Shelby circuit 
about 1832. He had an appointment at Pleasant Grove 
church, but when the hour came for the service, the 
rain was pouring in torrents. Yet, Wooliscroft felt it 
his duty to go. When he reached the church, no one 
was there. Hitching his horse, and taking his saddle 
inside, he knelt in the pulpit and prayed. He then 



Methodism in Kentucky 1S9 

In the Methodist Church. Admitted on trial only a few 
days later, he was sent to the Breckinridge circuit, and 
from that time until he superannuated in 1880, he filled 
the leading appointments in the Kentucky and Louis- 
ville Conferences. He remained in the Kentucky Con- 
ference until 1858, when he was transferred to Louis- 
ville. He filled such appointments in the Kentucky 
Conference as Shelbyville, Frankfort, Lexington, 
Maysville, and Cynthiana, 'and was the first Agent for 
the Preachers' Aid Society. After going to Louisville, 
he served Eighth Street, Walnut Street, -and Shelby 
Street in that city, and was Presiding Elder of the 
Louisville District three years. In that Conference he 
served Henderson, Owensboro, and other important 
charges* His last work wa^ as Agent for the Method- 
ist Widows and Orphans' Home. He died soon after 
his superannuation in 1880. He was pre-eminently a 
pastor-evangelist. Revivals marked his ministry, ev- 
erywhere he went, and he then organized and trained 
his converts after they were converted. He was never 
ranked as a great preacher, but there was something 
about his preaching that gripped and moved his hear- 
ers to better, nobler living. Describing his first sermon 
&t Shelbyville, Dr. Redford says, "His sermon was 
brief, delivered in plain, conversational style. In it 
there was nothing great, according to the estimation 
of the world ; there was no rhetorical display, no burst 
of eloquence, no flash of lightning, no peal of thunder; 
it was the message of life and salvation, delivered, not 
in 'enticing words of man's wisdom/ but in the sim- 
plicity of gospel truth." Under his ministry there was 
perhaps, the greatest revival Shelbyville has ever wit- 
nessed* nearly two hundred persons being converted 
and the whole .town and community stirred as never 



Methodism in Kentucky 



arose and began to sing, "Amazing grace! how sweet 
the sound." While singing this splendid old hymn, a 
stranger passing along the road, going from Frankfort 
to Newcastle, and hearing the sound of singing, sup- 
posed <a congregation were engaged in worship, and 
thought he would stop out of the rain and enjoy the 
service. Wooliscroft continued singing until he had 
finished the song, then arose and read a chapter from 
the Scriptures, making brief comments as he went 
along. After this he knelt and prayed fervently, es- 
pecially for the stranger who wa-s present He then 
announced his text, "Prepare to meet thy God," and 
preached an impressive sermon, closing with a warm 
exhortation. He then invited any one present who "de- 
sired- to flee the wrath to come and be saved from his 
sins/' to come forward for prayer. The stranger went 
forward and knelt at the altar. After prayer and 
song, he arose, professing to have found the Savior. 
Wooliscroft then opened the doors of the Church, and 
the stranger gave the preacher his hand. Receiving 
Mm as a probationer, he gave him a letter to that ef- 
fect, pronounced the benediction, and closed the ser- 
vice, doubtless feeling that he had been led of the 
Spirit in that good day's work. 

Perhaps no more useful man ever belonged to the 
Kentucky Conference than George W. Brush. Born in 
Rockbridge county, Virginia, October 28, 1805, his 
parents removed to Shelby county, Kentucky, when he 
wa$ a mere babe- At nineteen he was teaching school 
in Bullitt county. His parents being Presbyterians, the 
family were prejudiced against the Methodists and 
seldom heard them preach. But the subject of our 
sketch was converted under the ministry of Richard 
D. Neale, and, in October, 1828, was licensed to preach 



Methodism in Kentucky 139 

in the Methodist Church. Admitted on trial only a few 
days later, he was sent to the Breckinridge circuit, and 
from that time until he superannuated in 1880, he filled 
the leading appointments in the Kentucky and Louis^ 
ville Conferences. He remained in the Kentucky Con- 
ference until 1858, when he was transferred to Louis- 
ville. He filled such appointments in the Kentucky 
Conference as Shelbyville, Frankfort, Lexington, 
Maysville, and Cynthiana, 'and was the first Agent for 
the Preachers* Aid Society. After going to Louisville, 
he served Eighth Street, Walnut Street, and Shelby 
Street in that city, and was Presiding Elder of the 
Louisville District three years. In that Conference he 
served Henderson, Owensboro, and other important 
charges. His last work wa&' as Agent for the Method- 
ist Widows and Orphans' Home. He died soon after 
his superannuation in 1880. He was pre-eminently a 
pastor-evangelist. Revivals marked his ministry, ev- 
erywhere he went, and he then organized and trained 
his converts after they were converted. He was never 
ranked as a great preacher, but there was something 
about his preaching that gripped and moved his hear- 
ers to better, nobler living. Describing his first sermon 
l at Shelbyville, Dr. Bedford says, "His sermon was 
brief, delivered in plain, conversational style. In it 
there was nothing great, according to the estimation 
of the world ; there was no rhetorical display, no burst 
of eloquence, no flash of lightning, no peal of thunder; 
it was the message of life and salvation, delivered, not 
in 'enticing words of man's wisdom/ but in the sim- 
plicity of gospel truth." Under his ministry there was 
perhaps, the greatest revival Shelbyville has ever wit- 
nessed* nearly two hundred persons being converted 
and the whole .town and community stirred as never 



140 Methodism in Kentucky 

before. 

Rev. James A. Lewis, in his address 'at the Jubilee 
Session of the Louisville Conference in 1896, says of 
him: 

George W. Brush possessed a unique and attractive person- 
ality. He had a genial presence, ready wit, flowing humor, ten- 
der sympathy, and strong common sense. He was self-poised, 
well informed, well rounded. He had a good voice, under fine 
control. He was of medium height, well-knit frame, fine, op^n 
face, lighted up by dark, fine eyes, above which rose the dome- 
like forehead, crowned with steel-gray hair. Whether on circuit, 
station, or district, or in the field as agent, he was always 
and everywhere a successful man. His largest successes, how- 
ever, were in the pastorate. In his earlier years he was a great 
revivalist. On his first circuit there were two hundred and six- 
ty conversions. He filled our best appointments successfully, 
and was a great favorite with his brethren. He was a member 
of the Louisville Convention, which organized the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. His sermons were short, pithy, spir- 
itual, and frequently powerful. He lived to a green old age, dy- 
ing November 30, 1870. 

Francis Landrum, Samuel Heliums, and James 
Ward were re-admitted this year, but all of them have 
been noticed heretofore. 

It was in 1828 that Martin Euter was transferred 
to the Kentucky Conference and took charge of Augus- 
ta College as its President. For eight years he had been 
in charge of the Book Concern at Cincinnati, having 
established the Concern and conducted it successfully 
for that length of time. He was one of the great men 
of the day. He was among the makers of Methodism: 
"Itinerant, pioneer, missionary, educator, author, and 
practical Christian statesman." Son of a blacksmith, 
Job Ruter, he was born in Charlton, Worcester county, 
Massachusetts, April 3, 1785. When about fifteen years 
of age and while studying at Bradford he boarded with 
Mrs. Peckett, an English lady who had been the house- 
keeper for John Wesley and who had been a bandmate 
of Miss Bosanquet, afterwards Mrs. Fletcher of Made- 



Methodism in Kentucky 141 

ley. He was much aided by her advice and encourage- 
ment, and in 1800, when only fifteen, he received li- 
cense to exhort, and soon after was licensed to preach. 
He was a most remarkable preacher from the be- 
ginning. In 1801 he was admitted into the New York 
Conference and for several years served pastorates and 
Districts in New England and Canada. Having an in- 
satiable hunger for knowledge, he was a hard student, 
and mapped out for himself a broad and comprehen- 
sive course and became proficient in it. Algebra, 
Geometry, and Astronomy were subjects which he af- 
terwards taught in college, though most proficient in 
the classical and oriental languages. He prepared a 
grammar of the Hebrew language, knew Chaldee and 
Syri'ac so thoroughly that while at Cincinnati, he was 
offered a professorship in Oriental Languages in the 
Cincinnati College. The degree of M.A. was conferred 
upon him by Asbury College, of Baltimore, in 1818, and 
that of DJD. by Transylvania College in 1822. He is 
said to have been the first Methodist preacher ever to 
receive the honorary title of D.D. He was Principal 
of Newmarket Academy; was the first President of 
Augusta College after its organization as a full-fledged 
college ; was President of Allegheny College from 1833 
to 1837 ; then, after going to Texas as Superintendent 
of the Texas Mission, a town, Eutersville, was named 
in his honor and Rutersville College was established at 
that place. Besides his Hebrew Grammar he pub- 
lished, while President of Augusta College a small 
treatise entitled, "A Conjugation of French Regular 
Verbs." While in Cincinnati, he prepared an elemen- 
tary series of books consisting of an Arithmetic, Spell- 
ing Book, a Primer, and a Scriptural Catechism. La- 
ter he published "The Martyrs, or a History of Perse- 



142 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

cution," compiled largely from Fox's Book of Martyrs* 
and a "History of the Christian Church," which for 
years was in the Course of Study for young ministers, 
Upon volunteering to go to Texas as a Missionary,^ he 
was accepted, and upon reaching that field, threw him- 
self with great energy into the work. He was not per- 
mitted to continue his labors very long. While he 
succeeded in laying the foundations of a great work in 
the new Republic, he was stricken with typhoid, and 
died, in Washington, Texas, May 16, 1838, 

1829. Apart from a resolution endorsing the 
American Colonization Society, we find very little in the 
proceedings of the Kentucky Conference of 1829 that 
would be of interest to our readers. "Blessed is that 
nation whose annals are dull." When a Conference 
runs smoothly and applies itself to- its regular work, it 
generally means progress without friction, and 'an in- 
crease in the work. The session this year was held again 
in Lexington. Bishop McKendree was in the chair, 
though Bishop Roberts was present and presided 
nearly all the time. 

We have tried to make it clear that the Methodist 
Church, in the South, as well as in the North, always 
condemned the institution of slavery. From the very 
beginning they declared it an evil and sought ia way 
for its extirpation. The controversy between the two 
sections was not over the character of the institution 
some pro-slavery, some anti-slavery but over the 
proper method of dealing with it. The North insisted 
upon an immediate and wholesale emancipation of the 
slaves, effected by law, or by force, if need be. Not be- 
ing face to face with it, the people of the North could 
not understand the many delicate and complicated 
problems involved, nor did they seem able to compre- 



Methodism in Kentucky 



hend'What it would mean to throw three million ig- 
norant and undisciplined freedmen upon the people of 
the South. While property interests determined the 
attitude of many, we think it safe to say that nine- 
tenths of the Christian people of the South favored 
some plan of emancipation, granted as the slaves were 
ready to receive it The American Colonization So- 
ciety was organized for the purpose of promoting 
emancipation, and of taking those who had been grant- 
ed freedom, out of the disadvantageous conditions un- 
der which they must live in this country, transport 
them to the land of their "fathers, and colonize them in 
a land of their own in Liberia, on the West coast of 
Africa. Thousands were liberated and removed to this 
colony. The -General Conference had heartily com- 
mended this movement and the resolutions of the Ken- 
tucky Conference expressed their approval and pledged 
their support of the enterprise. The Conference al- 
most unanimously favored this plan. Several mem- 
bers of the body were, from time to time, Agents of the 
Colonization Society, and many of our .slave-holding 
Methodists freed their .slaves 'and paid their transpor- 
tation charges under the fostering care of the Society. 
At this Conference of 1829, it was reported that 
John Fisk, the devout, the amiable, the brilliant young 
preacher, had died during the year, and Jonathan 
Stamper was appointed to preach his funeral sermon, 
According to the manuscript journal of the Confer- 
ence, William Brown, Abram Long, Lewis Parker, T. 
N. Ralston, David Wright and Abel Robinson located.* 

*In a good many Instances the printed Minutes do not agree 
with the Manuscript Journal. Where disagreements occur, 
I prefer to follow the manuscript, 



144 Methodism in Kentucky ^ r 

John D. Carrick, Leonard 'George, Israel Lewis, 
Charles Haff, Samuel Kenyan, and Simpson Duty were 
discontinued. 

Of the twenty men admitted on trial, very few re- 
mained in the Conference more than a few years, and 
perhaps none of them attained any great distinction as 
ministers good, true men they were, and useful in 
their respective fields of service, but none of them were 
outstanding in the affairs of the Church. Joel Grover 
and Harrison Goslin dropped out of the ranks at the 
end of one year. Thomas M. Eke served two years. 
His first was spent on the Jefferson circuit, and the 
second as "Agent to form Sabbath schools and to raise 
collections to procure libraries/' Bedford, who knew 
him well, says of him : 

He was a man of remarkable gifts. His literary attainments 
were of high order. Before he entered the ministry, he enjoyed 
superior educational advantages, which were promptly im- 
proved. In retiring from the Conference, he lost ^ none^ of the 
energy that he displayed as an itinerant, but carried with him 
into the local ranks the zeal and devotion to the Church which 
distinguished him as an evangelist. He spent a great portion 
of Ms life in Oldham county, where he taught school, and 
among the local preachers in that portion of the State he was 
pre-eminent. In his personal appearance he was by no means 
attractive. He was low in stature, his features not well propor- 
tioned, and cross-eyed, to which he added an indifference to 
dress. His preaching was generally of a controversial style, and 
against the dogmas of Calvinism, the exclusiveness of the Bap- 
tist Church, and the tmscriptural teachings of Campbellism, he 
dealt his heaviest blows. We have heard him portray Calvinism 
in all its ugliness and deformity, until, abashed, it seemed to 
skulk away from public gaze. We have been present when he 
arrayed before his audience the exclusive views of the Baptist 
Church, both in reference to close communion and baptism, 
until the advocates of the measures he opposed trembled In his 
presence. We have listened to his fearless denunciation of Camp- 
bellism, which he denominated infidelity, until its adherents grew 
livid with rage. And I have heard him preach on the genuine- 
ness and authenticity of the Holy Scriptures until infidelity 
paled and trembled before the scintillations of divine truth. The 
influence, however, of his sermons was often impaired by the 
withering sarcasm that fell from his lips. In the evening of Ms 




O' Ar. K, r 



Methodism in Kentucky 145 

life, to the surprise of the Church of which he had been for so 
many years a useful and honored minister, he withdrew from 
its communion, and entered the Baptist Church! 

Elijah Knox located after traveling three years. 
John Williams labored on Danville, Winchester, Madi- 
son, and Taylorsville circuits, was sent to Mount Ver- 
non, failed to attend to his appointment, and for this 
and some other things was expelled from the Confer- 
ence. W. A. H. Spratt was assigned to Port William 
and Cumberland, then transferred to Missouri, where 
he located in 1835. Thomas P. Vance served five years, 
married, and while on his way to his appointment at 
Henderson with his bride, was stricken with fever and 
died. William P. McKnight was a Pennsylvanian by 
birth, and a man of splendid attainments. After serv- 
ing Little Sandy, Limestone, Russellville, Newport and 
Covington, he was sent to Louisville with that excellent 
pastor, William Holman, but after being there a while, 
his health gave way. Wishing to get back among his 
kindred, he started for Pennsylvania, and got as far 
as Lancaster, in that State, where he died among 
strangers. His death was a triumph. 

Thomas C. Cropper was another man of more than 
ordinary talents. Born in Lexington, he was very 
early brought to a knowledge of pardoning grace, and 
began his work for the Lord. He was licensed to ex- 
hort before he was fifteen, licensed to preach at six- 
teen, served two years under the presiding elder, and 
was admitted on trial in 1829. He served Hartford, 
Monroe, Glasgow, Bowling Green, and Frankfort, and 
hoping that a more southern climate would restore his 
failing health, he transferred to the Tennessee Con- 
ference and was stationed at Tuscumbia. He then 
went further South, but was not able to do work as a 



146 Methodism in Kentucky 

regular minister; located, and for 'a time, practiced 
medicine in Louisiana and Mississippi He died in 
great peace, April 25, 1844. 

Thomas P. Farmer was a man of robust health and 
splendid constitution. He labored successfully for five 
years; located temporarily, intending to re-enter the 
Conference in 1836 ; but an attack of fever ended his 
life, July 24, 1836. 

Wilson S. McMurray toiled on several Kentucky 
charges for about six years, among them Livingston, 
Wayne, -and Bowling Green circuits, and Mt. Sterling, 
and Hopkinsville Stations, then went to- Missouri, and 
finally to Illinois, where hu died of cholera in 1850. 
He was a Kentuckian, but we are not informed as to 
the place of his birth or as to his early life.* 

Buf ord Parris traveled Wayne, Fleming, Henderson, 
Christian, Livingston, and Greenville circuits, then lo- 
cated. 

William Helm, "a good, plain, scriptural preacher," 
traveled Bowling Green, Henry (two years), Breck- 
inridge, and Shelby circuits; Russellville, Danville, and 
Harrodsburg -stations, and Versailles circuit, then loca- 
ted in 1838. 

Hooper Crews was on the Salt Eiver circuit two 
years, Green River two years, and on Russellville and 
Cynthiana circuits one year each, then was transferred 

*The following letter to the author from the late Bishop W. 
F. McMurry will be of interest to the reader: "My father was 
born in Missouri, but his father, William McMurry, was born in 
Bradfordsviile, Kentucky, and moved to Missouri a'bout 1832 or 
1833. I have no record of the McMurray of whom you write, but 
I doubt not he is of the same stock. There was a Wilson Mc- 
Murray who was a great preacher, who went to Illinois^ to the 
Northern division of the Church. He worked a while in Mis- 
souri, and I think he came there from Kentucky, making his 
home, for the time being, with my grandfather/' 



Methodism in Kentucky 147 

to Illinois where he served during a long life time. At 
one time he was in charge of Indiana Avenue church, 
Chicago. 

For more than fifty years, John Sandusky was a 
Methodist preacher, "able, sincere, effective/' Born in 
Marion county, he was a descendant of the pioneers 
who established "Sandusky ? s Station." He was com- 
pelled to locate twice on 'account of his health, and at 
one time received a transfer to the Rio Grande Confer- 
ference, though his name does not appear among the 
appointments of that Conference. For about fifteen 
years he was a superannuate, living in the vicinity of 
Perryville or Mackville, but on October 15, 1874, he 
was transferred from the Church militant to the 
Church triumphant. "A man of marked character, and 
calculated to be a useful and effective citizen in any 
position. Brave and unselfish, generous and just, he 
had the love and confidence of all who knew him. . . , 
His style of preaching was clear and forcible, and his 
manner warm and zealous. He was greatly gifted in 
grayer." Memoir. 

Martin L. Eads, Jesse Button and John F. Young, 
after a few years in Kentucky, joined the hosts that 
were moving to Missouri, and spent most of their min- 
isterial life in that State. Martin L. Eads was born, 
converted, and licensed to preach in Virginia. In 1816, 
he came to Harrison county, Kentucky, and remained 
a local preacher until this year, 1829. He was sent the 
first year to Lexington circuit. He continued to fill 
good 'appointments until 1839, when he located and re- 
moved to Missouri. Here he gave many years of faith- 
ful service to the cause of Christ, dying January 8, 
1870. "He was u man of unswerving integrity. He 
never made a contract that he did not fulfil ; he never 



148 Methodism in Kentucky 

assumed an obligation that he did not know how it was 
to be met," He died with this message on his lips: 
"Tell my brethren that, when dying, I realize the atone- 
ment of Jesus to be broad enough for me to stand upon 
forever/' 

Jesse Button was the son of Rev, Elijah Sutton, of 
Henry county. He was an acceptable worker here in 
Kentucky until in 1842, when he went to Missouri, and 
for forty years served the cause as a member of tho 
Missouri Conference. 

John F. Young was a native of Nicholas county, 
Kentucky, born June 2, 1807. Happily converted sev- 
eral months, after he united with the Church, he was 
soon after licensed to preach. In the early part of 
1829, when the great revival under Jamieson and Ral- 
ston was sweeping the Mount Sterling circuit, and the 
work became so great that help had to be summoned, 
John F. Young and Israel Lewis were employed by the 
Presiding Elder and labored for nine months under 
his direction. After his admission on trial he was 
assigned to Cumberland, then to Madison, Somerset, 
and Mount -Sterling circuits, then went to Missouri, 
He was a good and faithful preacher of the gospel 
He died at Florida, Missouri, in 1865. 

Bluford Henry traveled six years, then located and 
made his home at Greensburg. He married a daughter 
of Rev. Thomas Lasley, the heroic missionary to Lou- 
isiana. At a later period in life, he removed to Texas, 
resided there, and preached as a local preacher in 
Collins county. 

Lastly, but few men have entered the Kentucky 
Conference who possessed more of the requisites of a 
popular and useful ministry than Thomas H. Gibbons, 
but he was spared to the service only eight years, when 



Methodism in Kentucky 149 

his exhausted body fell a victim to disease and death. 
Born in Springfield, Kentucky, July 19, 1807, he was 
converted at a Methodist camp meeting in Nelson coun- 
ty when about twenty-one years of age. A year later 
he was licensed to preach by a Quarterly Conference 
held at Beech Fork, and admitted on trial at the Con- 
ference of 1829. His first appointment was to the 
Lewis circuit, lying along the Ohio River between 
Maysville and Portsmouth. Then in regular course he 
was assigned to Elizabethtown (two years), Glasgow, 
Cynthiana, Winchester, Ebenezer and Athens, then to 
Georgetown. An excellent preacher, faithful under all 
circumstances, with an abounding zeal for the salva- 
tion of souls, possessing the love and confidence of his 
people, he threw himself without reserve into the Mas- 
ter's work, and many souls were converted and added 
to the Church. On the Georgetown circuit, every token 
pointed to, a great revival in the immediate future. On 
June 15, he and his colleague, John Beatty, began a 
meeting at Muddy Ford, but Brother Gibbons was that 
day stricken with fever, from which he died, June 24, 
1838. His death was glorious- Among his last words 
were these: "Is this death? It is but the valley of the 
shadow of death. There is no substance here nothing 
to intervene between Thee and my soul. If this be 
death, it is nothing to die !" After a moment's pause, 
he said : "Friends and brethren, in glory meet me ; wife 
and children, in glory meet me ; brethren and members 
of the Church in Georgetown, in glory meet me ; Chris- 
tians in Georgetown and Scott county, on the bright 
fields of ineffable glory meet me/' 

1830. In the manuscript Journals of the Confer- 
ence prior to 1836, no statistics are recorded except 
those of membership. Among the archives of the Con- 



150 Methodism in 



ference, though these are very defective, we find the 
reports of the stewards of the Conference, and these 
give us interesting information concerning the salaries 
paid the preachers in the good year 1830. The claims 
of all the preachers in the State four Bishops, six 
Presiding Elders, eighty-three pastors, and a dozen or 
more superannuates, was $17,340.35 1-3, an average 
of less than $175. On these claims there was paid, by 
the several Districts, circuits and stations, a total of 
$7,754751/2- From special collections to be applied on 
the most necessitous cases, $121,75. From the profits 
of the Book Concern, $300.00, and from the Chartered 
Fund, $80.00; making, in all, the sum of $501.75 to be 
divided among the most needy. It is interesting to 
know that, on the Kentucky District, the allowance 
of the Presiding Elder, Jonathan Stamper, was $280. 
Of this he was paid $100. On the Augusta District, 
Richard Corwine had an allowance of $232, and re- 
ceived $146.62V&. On the Green River District, George 
MeNelly was allowed $280, and received $114.40. 

Among the stations, two preachers were sent to 
Louisville, and the allowance of H. H. Kavanaugh was 
$200, and that of Littleton Fowler, $100. Both were 
paid in full. Russellville allowed Burr H. McCown 
$100, and paid it. Maysville paid Edward Stevenson 
the full amount of his claim, $232. Lexington, on an 
allowance of $-200, paid "William Holman the full 
amount, but Cynthiana paid Isaac Collard only $112 on 
a claim of $272. Winchester circuit allowed its two 
preachers, John Sinclair and Thomas Wallace, $300, 
but paid just half this amount. Cumberland circuit 
paid James L. Greenup and John P. Young only $21.50 
each. Fleming circuit, with 1005 white, and 154 col- 
ored, members, paid Francis Landrum $175, and 



Methodism in Kentucky 151 

Thomas P. Farmer, $85. Greenville circuit, with a 
total membership of 323, paid Thomas W. Chandler 
$48.66^, while Christian circuit, with over 600 mem- 
bers, paid George W. Bobbins $70, and William Phil- 
lips $35. 

These figures throw a good deal of light on the 
frequency of locations and transfers from the Confer- 
ence. While of course the cost of living was not then 
what it is now, yet the question arises, How did these 
men live ? The truth is, many of them did not live on 
the salaries they received. Some few had resources 
other than the pittances paid them, or else they were 
compelled to. do as .so many of them did locate and go 
into some other work in order to extricate themselves 
from debt and get clothing and food for themselves 
and families. Some sold farms that had come to them 
by inheritance, in order to serve the cause of the Christ 
who had died for them. Undoubtedly this state of 
affairs was due in part to the influence of the "Hard- 
shell" Baptists who constantly inveighed against 
salaried preachers, and in part to the attitude of the 
Methodist preachers themselves, whose boast was that 
they did not preach for money. 

When the Conference met this year in Eussellville, 
Bishop Joshua Soule was in the chair, and William 
Adams was again elected secretary. A good resolution 
was adopted at the opening session in these words: 
"The Conference resolves not to spit tobacco spittle on 
the floor of the Conference and church." In those days 
nearly everybody chewed tobacco, and we are pleased 
to note that a sense of decency, in this matter, pre- 
vailed in Conference! 

It had been customary in making the appointments- 
to leave men without appointment at their request, in 



152 Methodism in Kentuclcy 

order that they might make an extended visit, or give 
themselves to the care of some enterprise in which they 
were concerned. This Conference passed unani- 
mously a resolution stating that, in their judgment, it 
was "inconsistent with the interests of the itinerant 
connection to return any preacher on the Minutes, 
'Without an appointment at his own request 5 " 

The great work of Sabbath Schools was then de- 
manding the interest of the Churches, and the Confer- 
ence resolved "to use their best endeavors to raise Sab- 
bath Schools in every neighborhood under their several 
charges/' Thomas M. Bice was appointed to "travel 
throughout the Conference for the purpose of raising 
Sabbath Schools and to collect money for Sunday 
School libraries." 

Greenup Kelly had died on July 4th. At the pre- 
ceding Conference he had been appointed to Hopkins- 
ville, but his health soon failed, and he went to the 
home of his parents in Indiana, where his very prom- 
ising career was ended. 

Mostly at their own request, the Conference discon- 
tinued Harrison Goslin, James Savage and Joel Grover, 
the last of whom had traveled but four months of the 
year. Abraham Baker, Samuel Veach, George W. Rob- 
bins, William Phillips, John G. Denton, David Tunnell, 
and J. C. Crow were granted locations. John Redman, 
Samuel Heliums, and Milton Jamieson were placed on 
the superannuate list John Sinclair and William H. 
Askins were transferred to the Illinois Conference, 
both of them excellent men. Abraham Long, whom we 
have already noticed, was re-admitted, and twelve new 
men admitted on trial, viz., John Harrison, John 
Beatty, James King, Pleasant Alverson, William & 
Evans, Robert F. Turner, Hartwell J. Perry, Daniel 



Methodism in Kentucky 153 

S. Capell, Franklin Davis, Micajah H. Clark, Joseph 
Carter, and George B. Harlan. 

This was the third time Joseph Carter had been 
admitted. Pleasant Alverson was a local preacher 
from the Hardinsburg circuit, forty-seven years of age 
and had held license to preach for nineteen years. He 
traveled but one year, and died near Big Spring, Ken- 
tucky, in 1851. Micajah Clark remained in the Con- 
ference but one year, and George B. Harlan and Frank- 
lin Davis but two years. After one year on Gasper 
River and two on Logan circuit, Daniel S. Capell loca- 
ted, removed to Missouri, and was admitted into the 
Missouri Conference, where he labored faithfully until 
1852, when he left Missouri, and died while on his way 
to California. John Beatty remained in the Confer- 
ence until 1841, when he located and made his home in 
Scott county. William 'S. Evans was compelled to lo- 
cate two or three times, and finally went to Missouri. 
Feeble health compelled Robert F. Turner to locate 
after three years on the Greenville, Logan, and Bowl- 
ing Green circuits, but after a year's rest, he again en- 
tered the Conference, traveling six years on Taylors- 
ville, Livingston, 'Greenville, Lafayette, Prestonsburg, 
and Glasgow circuits, again locating in 1840. 

James King had a rather remarkable record. Of 
the twenty-two years of most efficient service, eleven 
of them were spent as Presiding Elder of the Bowling 
Green (two terms), Harrodsburg and Hardinsburg 
Districts. He was one of the best men in the Confer- 
ence. He possessed the unbounded confidence of all 
who knew him, was very devout, and his work in be- 
half of Methodism in Kentucky will be as lasting as 
eternity. In 1852 he was placed on the superannuate 
list, where his name remained until his death, which 



154 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

occurred in Barren county, October 22, 1856. 

Hartwell J. Perry was an honored member of the 
Kentucky Conference of the M. E. Church, and of the 
M. E, Church, South, for forty-five years. While not a 
star of first magnitude, he was a good man, an ^ac- 
ceptable preacher, -and filled some of our best appoint- 
ments. When, in 1845, the Kentucky Conference was 
called upon to decide whether It would adhere to the 
North or to the South, his vote is recorded in favor of 
adhering to the Methodist Eip-iscopal Church, .South. 
For four years thereafter he was Presiding Elder of 
the Harrodsburg District, was one year in charge of 
Covington and Soule Chapel, in Cincinnati, and 
filled with satisfaction other circuits and stations until 
1865'. At the Conference held in Covington that year, 
he was one of the "Loyal Eighteen" who located and 
went into the Kentucky Conference of the M. E. 
Church, Here he labored until 1883, when he was 
superannuated. While attending a camp meeting at 
Junction City, not far from his home in Danville, his 
horse became frightened by a train, and Brother Perry 
was thrown from the buggy and his leg broken. He 
was taken to the camp ground, where he died Septem- 
ber 7, 1885. His funeral was conducted in the M. E. 
Church, at Danville, by Rev. J. G. Bruce, of the M. E. 
Church, assisted by Rev. E. H. Pearce, pastor of the 
M. E. Church, South, at that place. 

John Christian Harrison was another of the "Loyal 
Eighteen." He was admitted on trial in 183-0. He was 
the son of Rev. Samuel Harrison, brief mention of 
whom was made a few pages back. He was a man of 
more than ordinary ability, and a leader of men. He is 
described as being "somewhat above the average in 
size, with a well-developed, symmetrical form. His 



Methodism in Kentucky 155 

features were regular, his countenance open and be- 
nign, while he looked at you affectionately with a 
kindly blue eye." Few men have been amcfag us who 
stood higher in public esteem or who did a better work 
than he In the charges and on the Districts he served. 
As a preacher, he ranked among the best. His ability 
as an administrator was excellent, and the leading pul- 
pits and most important positions in the Conference 
were open to him. He was a North Carolinian by 
birth, but was brought up chiefly in Mercer county, 
Kentucky, Like most of the men of his day, his edu- 
cational advantages were limited, but he acquired a 
good common school education, and by close and dili- 
gent study, made himself a scholarly man. He, too, 
voted adherence to the Southern Church in 1845, and 
was a delegate to the Convention at Louisville where 
the M. E. Church, South, was organized, though with 
William Gunn and George W. Taylor he voted against 
the organization. In the Conference of 1865, Brother 
Harrison located as one of the "Loyal Eighteen/' and 
united with the Kentucky Conference of the M. E. 
Church. He was recognized as a leader in that Confer- 
ence until his death, which occurred in Covington, 
March 11, 1878. His last words were, "Clinging to the 
Cross." 

1831. As already stated, the only time Bishop 
Elijah Hedding ever presided over the Kentucky Con- 
ference was at Louisville, in 1831. Bishop Roberts was 
a corpulent man, and having to ride horse back, his 
corpulence often caused him to be late at his Confer- 
ences. He arrived on Saturday of this session, presided 
'part of the time, and signed the Minutes with Bishop 
Hedding. William Adams was again secretary. 



150 Methodism in Kentucky 

Delegates to the General Conference to meet at 
Philadelphia, on May 1, 1832, were elected at this Con- 
ference as follows : Peter Akers, Martin Ruter, Jona- 
than Stamper, B. T, Crouch, Marcus Lindsay, William 
Adams, H. EL TCavanaugh, G. W. Taylor, Richard Ty- 
dings, H. B. Bascom, J. & Tomlinson, John Tevis, and 
George McNelly 13. The Conference then did what 
very few Conferences had done up to that time, viz., 
elected three alternate delegates George C. Light, 
Henry McDaniel, and Richard Corwine. In the Gen- 
eral Conference the question of the legality of this 
was referred to a Committee on Privileges and Elec- 
tions, who reported favorably, and their report was 
adopted, thus establishing the custom of electing alter- 
nate delegates to attend in case any of the principals 
are unable to be present. 

Henry B. Bascom had just been elected to the Chair 
of Moral Science and Belles-Lettres in Augusta College, 
and had returned to Kentucky after an absence of ten 
years. In the meantime, through the influence of 
Henry Clay, who was a particular 'friend and ardent 
admirer of Bascom, he had been elected Chaplain of the 
House of Representatives at Washington, having no 
knowledge of it until his election was announced. His 
term as Chaplain ended, he traveled largely through 
the East and established there his reputation as a 
pulpit orator. He was then for three years President 
of Madison College, at Uniontown, Pennsylvania. His 
election as a delegate to the General Conference by his 
Kentucky brethren, so soon after his return, was a rare 
manifestation of confidence and esteem. 

Martin Ruter had been President of Augusta Col- 
lege since 1828, and he had at once stepped into a place 
of leadership in the Conference. He was, in every 



Methodism in Kentucky 157 

sense, worthy of the confidence and esteem of Ms 
brethren. 

The class admitted on trial at this Conference was 
smaller than usual but remarkable for the character 
and ability of the men received. It consisted of Lewell 
Campbell, Carlisle Babbitt, Edward L. Southgate, Sr., 
and Joseph D. Barnett, from the Kentucky District; 
Thomas HaU, from tBe Augusta; William Phillips, 
from the Rockcastie; Learner B. Stateler and Elijah 
Sutton, from the Ohio; and Minor Cosby, from the 
Green River District. 

Thomas Lasley, who, in 1804, went as a missionary 
to Mississippi and Louisiana, and who so heroically 
braved the dangers and endured the hardship of that 
difficult field, was re-admitted at this Conference, and 
placed at once on the list of supernumeraries, but in 
1835-7 he was able to preside over the Greensburg 
District. He located again in 18&8. 

A remarkable man was transferred to this Confer- 
ence this year from the Baltimore Conference, though 
in, his old age. He was placed at once on the superan- 
nuate list. We refer to John Littlejohn. 

John Littlejohn was "born in Penrith, Cumberland county, 
England, December 7, 1756. His family emigated to America 
about 1767. He was awakened under the ministry of John King, 
in 1774, and through the earnest preaching of John Sigmon, he 
sought and obtained remissions of sins. He was one of twelve 
persons who constituted the first society formed in Alexandria. 
He entered the Conference in 1777, and after traveling two 
years, he married and returned to the local ranks. After loca- 
tion, he settled in Leesburg, Virginia, where he remained until 
1819, when he removed to Kentucky and settled in Louisville. 
At ia later period he came to Warren county, and finally to Lo- 
gan. In 1831, he was readmitted in the Baltimore Conference, 
transferred to the Kentucky, and placed on the superannuate 
list, on which he remained until May 18, 1836, when "his death 
was as triumphant as Ms life had been useful and exemplary." 

But few men in the American ministry have ranked with 
Littlejohn., During the brief period in which he performed 



158 Methodism in Kentucky 

the duties of a pastor, lie was one of the most efficient and useful 
preachers in the Church. Remarkable for his- intellectual en- 
dowments, his consistent piety, and his uncompromising devo- 
tion to the hureh, thousands waited upon his ministry, and 
through his instrumentality were awakened and converted to 
God. ... He is said to have been one of the most eloquent men 
in the American pulpit. We remember to have heard him 
preach when he was seventy-nine years of age, and though ne 
had lost much of the fire of his youth, yet his voice was one of 
the sweetest to which we have ever listened. His head was white 
as snow, his step was faltering, but as he repeated the story ot 
the cross, his eye kindled with animation, and words of rapture 
fell from his lips. Redford. 

His death occurred during the session of the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1836, and when the news reached 
that body, they passed resolutions expressive of their 
appreciation of "his character, his virtues, and his use- 
fulness as a minister of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church for more than sixty years/' In the Kentucky 
Conference, Bascom was appointed to preach his 
funeral sermon. 

Of those received on trial, Edward L. Southgate 
traveled Hinkston circuit one year, located one year, 
re-entered the Conference and spent one year each at 
Bardstown and Elizabethtown, then located again. He 
was highly connected, and a man of large means. His 
home was in Newport, Kentucky. 111 

It is easy to idealize men, and to overestimate them 
when they are gone, especially when they die young. 
We forget their limitations and their faults, and make 
heroes and great men out of them, when in reality 
they are only common men. The historian needs to be 
on his guard at this point. But judged by any stand- 
ard, William Phillips was not an ordinary man. He 



*He was the father of the beloved Rev. E. L. Southgate, D. 
D., whom the older people of both the Kentucky and Louisville 
Conferences remember with great affection, and under whose 
ministry the writer was converted* 



Methodism in Kentucky 159 

was out of an old Maryland family, who came to Ken- 
tucky in 1795, and established their home in Mont- 
gomery county. There is disagreement as to the place 
of his birth, whether in Montgomery or Jessamine 
county, but the date was May 7, 1797. He was not con- 
verted until he was about thirty years of age, which 
event occurred at Old Fort meeting house. Very soon 
after he was licensed to preach. His first appointment 
was to Winchester circuit, then for two years he was 
assigned to Lexington circuit. In 1834 he was ap- 
pointed to Newport and Covington station, and the 
following year he was returned to that appointment, 
with Hartwell J. Perry as Ms assistant. This year he 
acted as assistant Editor of The Western Christian Ad- 
vocate, published in Cincinnati. In 1836, he was elected 
to this position by the General Conference, but in less 
than a month afterward, he was stricken with fever 
from which he died, August 4, 1886. "As a practical 
preacher he had few equals in the West; while his 
persuasive powers contributed to his success in win- 
ning souls to Christ." He was efficient in every de- 
partment of the work of the ministry, but it was as 
'a writer and polemic that lie achieved his greatest 
success. "Campbellism was just at that time in its most 
aggressive and dogmatic stage, Alexander Campbell 
knd Barton W. Stone had united their forces in 1832, 
and, inflated by their success after merging their or- 
ganizations, they were making determined warfare 
upon all other denominations. "They were especially 
distinguished for their propensity to disputation. Not 
only the preachers, but the private members of that 
communion, sought every opportunity, whether in 
public or private, to arraign the religious faith of evan- 
gelical Christwv* *4 *o call in question the piety of 



160 Methodism in Kmtiwky 

all who dissented from their dogmatical 
Professing to take the Bible alone as their cr\eedJ)ak f 
they entirely repudiated the agency of the Spirit in the 
salvation of the sinner, and derided the doctrine of the 
witness of the Spirit/' Uader the influence of Mr. 
Campbell, this Church drifted from the spiritual moor- 
ings of Mr. Stone, placed an emphasis upon baptism 
by immersion that was really fantastic, and some at 
least, settled down in a state of legalism that was des- 
titute of almost every element of real spirituality. We 
are glad to say that a reaction has set in, and that ffie 
denomination is now feeling its way back to better 
things. Campbell boldly took the position that "Im- 
mersion and regeneration are two names for the same 
thing." A list of the propositions debated about that 
time by Rev. Milton Jamieson and Elder Joseph Davis 
will show the doctrinal attitude of the Campbellites: 
"1. Infant Baptism is destitute of Divine Authority. 
2, Immersion is Essential to Baptism. 3. Immer- 
sion, Regeneration, and the New Birth all mean the 
same thing. 4. Baptism as taught by the Apostles is 
an essential prerequisite for the remission of sins. 
5. The direct Operations of the Spirit of 'God are un- 
necessary to the exercise of faith." 

Phillips threw himself into this controversy and 
proved to be a most doughty champion of the Methodist 
faith. His logic, his sarcasm, his ridicule were wither- 
ing, and his writings did much to check the onslaughts 
of the protagonists of "the gospel in the water." His 
"Strictures on Campbellism" was a strong book, and 
his rhyme beginning, 

"Ho! Every mother's son and daughter, 
Here's the gospel in the water," 



Methodism in Kentucky 161 

made ridiculous the positions of his polemical antagon- 
ists. He possessed a mind of superior order, was spec- 
ially gifted as a writer, and his untimely death was 
keenly felt throughout Kentucky. 

Joseph D. Barnett was for fifty-five years a mem- 
ber of a Methodist Conference. All but five years of 
this time were spent in what is now the Louisville Con- 
ference territory. He died at his home in Elizabeth- 
town, Kentucky, March 23, 1886, and from his Memoir 
in the General Minutes we take the following charac- 
terization : 

He was appointed to Elizabethtown at the Conference of 
1836, with A. C. DeWitt for his colleague. Here he had one of 
the greatest trials of his life. He refers to it in his diary. In 
the summer of 1837, being- deeply convinced that his work was 
prucing no fruit, and greatly depressed in spirit, he decided 
to give up the work of the ministry and return to his home. 
Having declared his purpose to his Presiding Elder, Bev. Thom- 
as Lasley, that wise man prevailed on him to make one more 
effort, which he did. He preached at the old stone church, Har- 
din county. He was remarkably successful. Many sinners 
were brought to repentance, and the sermon is spoken of to this 
day. A great revival followed, and, reaching from appointment 
to appointment, wrapped the whole circuit in a spiritual flame. 
During the next four months about four hundred persons were 
converted, -and as many added to the Church. It was during this 
revival influence that he preached a wonderful sermon at Eliz- 
abethtown. It was the first Sunday of his meeting there. Hia 
text was 2 Tim. 4:6-8. Nearly fifty persons crowded into the 
altar crying for mercy He had no more temptation to leave 
the ministry. . . . Like almost all the preachers of his day, he 
was able to make 'a clear, strong statement of Methodist doc- 
trine. A saintly man himself, he insisted on holy living in the 
Church. He was punctual to meet his engagements, did not 
disappoint his congregations, took time enough to do his work, 
was never in a hurry, was never behind time. He was no theor- 
ist, but had a practical cast of mind. He labored for results; 
he preached for immediate effect, and was most generally suc- 
cessful. During his ministry he received a great army into the 
Church seven thousand souls. Have we ever had a more suc- 
cessful man in our Conference?. ... Of his last days we copy 
from a note written by his pastor, R. W. Browder: '"His end was 
full of peace. ,He said repeatedly: 'My house is in order; I am 
ready to go. Half of my family are in heaven, and I want to 
see them. Many who have joined the Church under my ministry 
are there, a,nJ 111 be no stranger/ * 9 



12 Methodism in Kentucky 

Minor M. Cosby "was a young man of good under- 
standing, great industry, and hopeful carriage, in and 
out of the pulpit. His piety was deep, consistent and 
uniform." He began his work with great promise of 
usefulness, but after four years on the Greenville, Dan- 
ville, Winchester, and Henderson circuits, he fell, the 
victim of fever. His death was one of great triumph. 

Thomas Hall was a native of Maryland, brought up 
in the city of Baltimore. "His mode of life and man- 
ner of preaching were somewhat peculiar. He loved 
to move among the children of nature, and commune 
with those objects which had been formed by 'God's 
own hand; hence, he preferred sparsely settled and ob- 
scure regions as his fields of labor. It is said that he 
seldom preached more than fifteen minutes. He spent 
most of his time visiting from house to house, and 
made the poor the special object of his care and atten- 
tion. He was a very large man, and in middle life his 
strength was equal to his frame. His movements were 
quick and vigorous, and, from choice, he often traveled 
on foot, though leading a horse by his side. As he 
neared the close of life, he expressed a single regret: 
that he had not prayed more. ... He was a godly 
man, and rests in heaven." Memoir. 

For twenty-four years there were few names more 
familiar to the people of the present Kentucky Confer- 
ence than that of Carlisle Babbitt. He was bora in 
Vermont. He came to Ohio, where he was converted 
in a camp meeting held near Dayton, then came on 
into Kentucky and was a member of the class admit- 
ted on trial in the Kentucky Conference in 1831. He 
was an earnest, zealous man, and successful as a 
preacher. He filled some of our best circuits and sta- 
tions, and for two years was Presiding Elder of the 



Methodism in. Kentucky 163 

Maysville District. In 1855 he located and went to 
Illinois, where, in 1857, he entered the Southern Illi- 
nois Conference, and for seven years served with the 
same degree of acceptance with which he had served 
in Kentucky. He died June 26, 1864. While in Ken- 
tucky he was for some time Agent of the Preachers' 
Aid Society of this Conference. 

Lewell Campbell was one of the best men in our 
ministry. He gave but six years to the work in Ken- 
tucky, serving the Ohio circuit one year, Newcastle two 
years, Christian circuit two years, then Logan and 
Taylorsville one year each. He volunteered to go to 
Texas as a missionary. This work was, at that time, 
attached to the Mississippi Conference, and such was 
the scarcity of preachers that he was assigned to New 
Orleans, instead of Texas. He gave sixteen years to 
District work in Mississippi, was a delegate to the 
Louisville Convention, and represented his Conference 
in every General Conference of the M. E. Church, 
South, until his death in I860. He was a close student, 
and became intellectually and theologically a man of 
great strength. 

He was constitutionally ardent and impulsive in his temper- 
ament, and sometimes, for a moment, he would yield to his im- 
Eassioned nature, and give utterance to extreme opinions; but if 
e ever learned tliat he had incautiously wounded the feelings 
of any one, he became the more afflicted of the two, and em- 
braced the earliest opportunity for explanation and reparation. 
After becoming the head of a family, he was often annoyed 
with the temptation, that some meiriber of Ms household might 
sicken and die during Ms long absence from home. This led 
him to seek that entire consecration to God which would enable 
him to commit his family into His hands when far away from 
them, and, to use his own expressive language, 'I asked God to 
sanctify me wholly, and he did it, and since that time I have had 
but little anxiety about sickness and death in my family when 
away from home, doing my Master's work/ Redford. 

The last name -on the list is that of the most noted 
of them all; 



164 Methodism in Kentucky 



Perhaps the sturdiest frontiersman known to the entire his- 
tory of Methodism was Learner B. Stateler, who was horn in 
Ohio county, Kentucky, July 7, 1811, and who died in Corvallis, 
Montana, May 1, 1896. His greatness was that of John the Bap- 
tist and other wilderness pioneers of the kingdom of God 
quenchless zeal and untiring self-devotion. Stateler joined the 
Kentucky Conference in 1831 and at once responded as a volun- 
teer for service in the then distant and uncultivated field of 
Missouri. During his experience in that State he had held 
charges at St. Louis and other points, and was- missionary to 
the Choctaw Indians. About 1836 he was sent to what is now 
the State of Iowa, being the first Methodist preacher to enter 
that region. Here he organized the beginnings of Methodism 
west of the Upper Mississippi. For fourteen years thereafter 
he served amongst the tribes of the Indian Territory, assisting 
in the organization of the Indian Mission Conference. After 
1854 he labored in the Kansas- Mission Conference, being there 
in the days of the bitter border warfare of the anti-slavery 
contest. In 1862 he crossed the Rocky Mountains and organ- 
ized the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in Denver, and 
amid many sufferings and hardships planted the Church in the 
valleys and villages contiguous thereto. In 1864, with his fami- 
ly, he started across, the mountain roof of the continent for 
Montana, where again he became the Church's pioneer and left 
as a monument to his zeal and devotion the congregations and 
the Annual Conference organization in that land of peaks and 
infant rivers. Not content with sowing here, he crossed the 
farther Rockies into Oregon, literally chopping his way through 
the mountain chaparral, and preached a time in the Williamette 
Valley, thus practically belting the continent with his mission- 
ary lahors. From Oregon he returned to Montana, where he 
finished his course. He was without the culture of the schools, 
but left an effective written record of his many labors. Du- 
Bose, History of Methodism. 

The gain in membership during this quadrennium 
was small. The number of white members as given 
in the manuscript Minutes of 1827 was 20,220. In 
1831 the number is 21,513, a gain of 1,293. The num- 
ber of colored members in 1827 was 3,650. In 1831 
the number is 4,584, a gain of 944. 



CHAPTER VII 
FROM 1832 TO 1836 

Kentucky Methodism was not greatly affected by 
the General Conference of 1832. This session was held 
in Philadelphia, May 1st. At the preceding session, 
Martin Ruter was secretary, but at Philadelphia, 
Thomas L. Douglass, of the Tennessee Conference, was 
elected to this position. Peter Akers, who led the 
Kentucky Conference delegation, was elected Assistant 
Editor of The Christian Advocate and Journal wwl 
Zion's Rerald, the official organ of the Church, pub- 
lished in New York, but declined to accept the place. 
He was then Agent for Augusta College, and that fall 
transferred to Illinois. 

Bishop Enoch George had died during the year, and 
James Osgood Andrew and John Emory were elected 
Bishops. The name of Bishop Andrew will be before 
us many times as we proceed with our history. He was 
a Georgian, the son of a Methodist preacher. Con- 
verted at thirteen, he was licensed to preach at eight- 
een, and almost immediately thereafter was received 
on trial in the South Carolina Conference. Bishop 
Simpson says of him: "He was an active, earnest, 
forcible, and emotional preacher, and won for himself 
u high position in the confidence and affections of the 
Church." Prior to 1844, when his nominal connection 
with slavery became the occasion of the division of 
Episcopal Methodism, he was one of the most effective 
and acceptable Bishops the Church ever had. This 
matter will be fully discussed when we reach that 
period in our history. He frequently presided over 

165 



166 Methodism in Kentucky 

the Kentucky Conference and was much beloved by 
our people. 

John Emory had been connected with the Boole 
Concern at New York for eight years, four as Assistant 
Agent, and four as Agent. When elected Bishop he 
was only forty-three. He was a graduate of Washing- 
ton College, Maryland, and a most brilliant young 
man. He entered on the practice of law, but soon gave 
up this profession for that of the ministry. He joined 
the Philadelphia Conference in 1810, and filled ap- 
pointments in Philadelphia, Wilmington, Baltimore, 
Washington, and Annapolis. From the beginning he 
manifested unusual ability. His brethren elected him 
a delegate to the General Conferences of 1816, 1820, 
1828, and 1832. He excelled as a writer and was the 
author of several treatises defending the doctrines and 
polity of his Church. He presided over the Kentucky 
Conference but once, and that was at its first session 
after his elevation to the episcopacy. His tragic death 
on December 16, 18S5-, was a shock to the entire 
Church. Having removed with his family to a farm a 
few miles out from Baltimore, he left home on the 
morning of December 16th, to drive into the city. 

"Aibout two miles from Ms house he was found by a wag- 
oner, lying* insensible and bleeding* by the side of the road. He 
had either jumped or been thrown from the carriage while it 
was in rapid motion, and his skull was fractured by the fall. 
He was unconscious until about seven in the evening, when he 
expired. His remains were deposited beside those of the venera- 
ble Asfoury in the vault under the pulpit. The degree of D. D, 
had been conferred upon him several years before his death. 
Bishop Emory was a man of unflinching- integrity, of great 
strength of will, and of more than ordinary discretion. As a 
writer he was clear, forcible, and accurate, and as a presiding 
officer self-possessed and systematic. His early death was a 
great loss to the 'Church, Few ministers have equaled him in 
accuracy of scholarship, broad and comprehensive views, fer- 
tility of genius, and in administrative ability." 



Methodism in Kentucky 167 

Prior to this session of the General Conference, 
each of the Bishops was required to travel throughout 
the entire extent of the Church, so as to severally su- 
pervise its interests ; hence, the presence of all at the 
annual sessions of the Conferences. But the territory 
had now become so large, and the methods of travel 
were so slow and taxing, that this seemed impractical, 
and it was recommended that they "make such appor- 
tionment of the work among themselves as shall best 
suit, in their judgment, most effectually to promote the 
general good/' It was also requested that the Bishop, or 
a Committee appointed by him, should, in each Annual 
Conference, recommend a suitable course of study for 
under-graduates, and appoint committees to examine 
them on the same. It was ordered that no one should 
be ordained a deacon or elder until he had passed an 
approved examination on this Course of Study. Prior 
to this time, courses of study had been recommended 
by the Bishops, but no provision had been made for 
examination on these courses, nor was passing an ap- 
proved examination necessary to ordination. 

The Committee on Boundaries recommended, and 
the General Conference ordered, that all that part of 
Kentucky lying west of the Tennessee River be taken 
from the Kentucky, and added to the Tennessee Con- 
ference. This territory, known as "Jackson's Pur- 
chase," is now a part of the Memphis Conference. 

1832. The Kentucky Conference for 1832 met at 
Harrodsburg. Bishop Emory was in the Chair, and 
is said to have presided with all the precision and dig- 
nity of an experienced chairman. 

On Saturday of the session, Bishop McKendree 
came into the Conference room, and gave the brethren 
what proved to be his farewell address. In the prime 



168 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

of his manhood, he had labored in this field more as- 
siduously and more effectively than any other man; 
but the tremendous wear and strain of such labors had 
Broken him, and he was now an old man, tottering 
upon life's verge. He tenderly exhorted the brethren 
not to depart from the old Methodist landmarks, but to 
abide by our doctrines and discipline, and to maintain 
our lofty ideals. He then tenderly prayed for them and 
gave them his blessing. It was his last visit to the 
Kentucky Conference. Before reaching his brother's 
home in Tennessee, he was too feeble to sit up and a 
bed had to be arranged for him in the carriage. While 
he preached occasionally and performed some other 
labors in the South after this, he never visited Ken- 
tucky again. He died March 5, 1835. 

, The manuscript Minutes contain a few personal 
notes of interest. Peter Akers was transferred to the 
Illinois Conference, and soon became there what he 
was here a leader among his brethren. James Ward 
is marked in the Minutes, "Gone to Illinois/' but he 
was soon back in Kentucky, pursuing his beloved work 
as a pastor. At the request of that organization in 
Kentucky, George C. Light was appointed Agent for 
the American Colonization Society. 

When the name of a certain brother was called, it 

is stated: "Brother was represented as 

having been in the habit of gallanting the females to 
the injury of his ministry. It was resolved that Broth- 
er be required to promise the Confer- 
ence that he will, in future, desist from such practice 
which promise he made in the presence of the Con- 
ference he was then elected to elder's orders." 

It is also stated that John Christian Harrison, "be>- 
ing in difficulties on the subject of Infant Baptism, was 



Methodism in Kentucky 169 

not admitted" into full connection, but was continued 
on trial. By the next year he had solved his difficul- 
ties to the satisfaction of himself and the Conference, 
was received, and became one of the stalwart leaders 
in the Conference. 

As our readers are aware, the funds for the relief 
of needy preachers, and their widows and orphans, 
was small. The Conference went on record as feeling 
that those superannuates whose circumstances were 
such that they could do without their little stipend 
should relinquish it for the benefit of the more needy. 
Barnabas McHenry and others did this, asking that 
their shares be divided among the more "necessitous 
cases/' In order to allow these small funds to be di- 
vided among the more needy, some of the preachers, 
when health failed, located instead of taking a super- 
annuate relation. 

The worst scourge of cholera that ever visited this 
pan of the United States made its appearance in 1832, 
though it was not at its worse until in 183& Quite a 
number of the towns in Kentucky had already been 
visited, and it was almost certain that there would be 
a recurrence of the dread disease the next year. The 
Conference observed Saturday, October 19th, as a day 
of humiliation -and prayer, and requested Jonathan 
Stamper to preach a sermon on that day. This he did, 
using as a text 1 Kings 8 :37-40, a part of King Solo- 
mon's prayer at the dedication of the temple. The Con- 
ference further set the fourth Friday in November as 
a day of prayer and invited the whole Church to join 
hi supplications for the removal of the plague. The 
Conference, in their resolutions, confessed their convic- 
tion that the visitation was "a dispensation of divine 
justice in consequence of our national and individual 



170 Methodism in Kentucky 

sins," and that, in all such circumstances it became us 
to humble ourselves before the Most High. 

But another scourge, worse than this of the cholera, 
was at this time sweeping the land. Never, perhaps, 
In the history of our country was drunkenness more 
prevalent than it was at the beginning of the third 
decade of nineteenth century. Every tavern had its 
bar, every cross-roads its groggery, every eating place 
served liquors, and in the estimation of most persons it 
was a mark of a gentleman to drink! In the harvest 
field, at house raisings, log rollings, corn huskings, at 
elections, drink was abundant Peter Cartwright tells 
us he had known of baptizings where the bottle was 
freely used, even by the preachers who officiated ! But 
a conscience had been awakened in the Church, and a 
great protest was coming up from the Christian people 
of the land. At the General Conference at Philadel- 
phia, more petitions came before the body on this sub- 
ject than upon any other. In our former volume we 
called attention to the fact that, in the West, the Meth- 
odist Church was the first, and, for a long time, the 
only temperance society in this part of our country. 
At this session of the Conference, a committee was 
appointed to take this vital subject under considera- 
tion. The Kentucky Conference went on record at a 
very early date as opposed, not only to dram drink- 
ing, but to the manufacture and sale of intoxicating 
liquors in any form. In taking this attitude, she of 
course met with the scorn and ridicule and bitter op- 
position of the makers, venders and drinkers, and 
from society in general, but let it be said to her credit 
that the Conference never for a moment receded from 
her position or compromised with the evil. By its at- 
titude toward this great curse, Methodism in Kentucky 



Methodism in Kenlmcky 171 

undoubtedly lost its influence with many people of 
wealth and social standing, but we do not hesitate to 
say that in this State the Methodist Church has done 
more for the cause of temperance than any other 
agency in the field. 

At this Conference of 1832, it was announced that 
Franklin Davis had died during the year. E. L. 
Southgate was discontinued; Thomas G. Reece, James 
L. Greenup, Wilson S. McMurray, Elijah Knox, A. EL 
Stemmons, and John W. F. Tevis, located. N. G. Ber- 
ryman, J. C. Crowe, and Samuel Veach were re-admit- 
ted at this Conference. 

Of the twelve men admitted on trial at this Confer- 
ence, Joseph W. Shultz remained* but one year; William 
G. Bowman was discontinued at his own request after 
two years of travel; Herrington Stevens, after giving 
three years in western Kentucky, was compelled to 
superannuate for a year, then located and practiced 
medicine in Livingston county; James H. Brooking and 
Thomas S. Davis were both in the work for five years 
before locating; while Foster H. Blades and Lorenzo 
D. Parker each gave six years to the service. These 
were good men, but broken health or other adverse cir- 
cumstances cut short their careers before they achieved 
distinction of the Conference. John Nevius, located in 
1839, while William McMahon took this relation one 
year later. Gilby Kelly, Richard Holding and Richard 
Deering remained in the work longer and each rend- 
ered a notable service in the itinerant field. 

Gilby Kelly was out of that fine Pulaski county fam- 
ily of Kellys who gave to the Church so many stalwart 
Methodists and so many excellent Methodist preachers. 
Clinton. Gilbert, Samuel and Albert were four broth- 
ers who became members of the Kentucky Conf erenee, 



172 Methodism in Kentucky 

while Gilby Kelly, Jr., a son of Samuel E>lly ? was one 
of the greatest pastors among the ministers of the M. 
E. Church. South. Gilby Kelly, Sr., after presiding 
over the Covington District for three years, was sent, 
with health shattered, to the Burlington circuit, and 
died there in February, 1847. He was "endowed with 
a strong mind* which he cultivated by giving himself 
to reading and study, and became a respectable scholar, 
and showed himself a workman not to be ashamed." 

Richard Holding was a most popular and successful 
minister. He was born in Scott county ; was converted 
when about twenty-three, and united with the Ken- 
tucky Conference in 1832. For thirty-three years he 
labored as pastor with rare acceptability and efficiency. 
He was never Presiding Elder ; he was never a mem- 
ber of the General Conference; he sought no prefer- 
ment at the hands of his brethren ; but his record is on 
high. Wherever he went revivals sprang up and souls 
were brought to Christ. While he and Daniel S. Barks- 
dale were on the Yellow Banks circuit, there was a re- 
vival in the small society at Owensboro in whicli a hun- 
dred and fifty were converted, and something like four 
hundred were brought into the kingdom in various 
churches of the circuit. His last appointment was at 
Washington and Shannon, in Mason county, and at the 
end of his two years there he located. We regret that 
such a man did not take a superannuate relation and 
remain a member of the Conference, We are not ad- 
vised as to his life after this, nor as to the time or place 
of his death. 

Perhaps the most talented man admitted this year 
was Richard Deering. He was not only talented but 
saintly. He was born in Greenup county, Kentucky* 
Converted, and feeling called to preach, he traveled one 



Methodism in Kentucky 173 

year the Hinkstone circuit under the direction of the 
Presiding Elder, then in 1832 was received into the 
Conference. He was sent to the Fleming circuit as 
the colleague of Richard Corwine. A great revival 
swept over that large circuit and hundreds were con- 
verted and added to the Church. Almost everywhere 
he went, revival fires were kindled, and souls were 
saved. For sixty years he was a Methodist preacher. 
In 1846, he was transferred to the Louisiana Confer- 
ence and stationed in New Orleans. For three years 
he was Presiding Elder of the New Orleans and 
Opelousas Districts. Not long after returning to Ken- 
tucky, he located, but was re-admitted into the Louis- 
ville Conference in 1857, and served Walnut Street, 
Twelfth Street, Bowling Green, and other stations and 
circuits, and was Presiding Elder of the Louisville Dis- 
trict for three years. He was later transferred back to 
the Kentucky Conference, where his last days were 
spent. 

We have said that he was a saintly man. He was 
one of a very few men we have seen whose faces liter- 
ally shone with the light of the divine glory. We shall 
never forget that face while he was assisting in the ad- 
ministration of the Sacrament at the session of the 
Kentucky Conference at Lexington, in 1890. An an- 
gel's face could not be much more luminous. His 
biographer, Rev. Drummond Welburn, says of him : 

For more than sixty years the pulpit was to Mm a throne of 
power, and the pastorate a most delightful and successful field 
of loving labor. The wonderful effect of his youthful preaching 
would to the present generation seem almost incredible. Fre- 
quently congregations would press forward toward the place 
of prayer or raise triumphant shouts over deliverance from sin. 
Take a single example: When Dr. Bascom had preached in the 
morning, and Professor McCpwn in the afternoon, with most 
astonishing eloquence, tout with no perceptible effect, Brother 
Deering came weeping to the pulpit at night, and' in less than 



174 Methodism in Kentucky 

half an hour over eighty persons were converted. Such results 
of his labor has strengthened Kentucky churches for more than 
half a century. ... In his latter years he, without fanatical 
folly, delighted to tell of the second coming of his Divine Re- 
deemer, and scripturally to set forth the excellence of entire 
sanctmcation and Christian perfection. He also frequently 
tested the efficacy of effectual, fervent prayer to heal the body 
as well as the soul. Much of his work with the afflicted seemed 
little less than miraculous. The Instantaneous cure of a well- 
developed case of cancer, on which two of Louisville s most -emi- 
nent physicians had twice used the knife and declined to oper- 
ate a third time, deeply impressed my own mmd, because I had 
long known intimately, and highly esteemed, all the persons 
connected with the case. 

He died in Chattanooga, Tenn., on August 15, 1892, 
and is buried in Eastern Cemetery, near the grave of 
Bishop Basco-m. He was a brother of Rev. Seriah 3. 
Deering and the father of Rev. John R. Deering, D. D,, 
who is remembered so well by our older people. 

It was in this year 1832 that an event occurred 
which profoundly affected all the Churches in this part 
of the world. After the great revival at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, Barton W. Stone and four 
others withdrew from the ministry of the Presby- 
terian Church, and Stone became the leader in the es- 
tablishment of the "Christian," or '"New Light," or 
"Stoneite" Church. By 1832 they had gathered quite a 
numerous following and had organized many churches 
in this part of the State. Stone's plea for the union of 
all Christians on the Bible alone, appealed to the 
masses of the people, and they, without stopping to 
analyze the plea, or to discriminate between the words 
of the Scriptures and somebody's interpretation of 
those words, flocked to Ms standard. Many came out 
of other Churches to swell the number adhering to the 
new organization. Stone was a good man, deeply spir- 
itual, and, though accused of denying the deity of 
Christ, denied the charge, and, in the main, had, up to 



Methodism in Kentucky 175 

this time, kept in line with other orthodox Christians, 
except on the matter of baptism. His main plea for 
the union of Christians was much needed. Never were 
denominational lines more closely drawn, nor theo- 
logical hair-splitting carried to greater extent, and 
never was denominational prejudice more unreason- 
able than at this period of our religious history. Even 
at the present time, our denominationalism and con- 
sequent divisions among Christian people may be set 
down as one of the greatest hindrances to the success 
of Christianity. 

Alexander Campbell, an Irishman by birth, edu- 
cated at Edinburgh University, and a Presbyterian 
minister, came to America about 1805. He became 
dissatisfied with the teachings of the Presbyterian 
Church, especially in the matter of the mode of bap- 
tism and the baptism of infants. For a time he united 
with the Baptists. But it was not long before he began 
to advocate doctrines for which they could not stand, 
and breaking with them, he started out on an inde- 
pendent line. It was in 1823 that he entered Kentucky 
and held his debate with Mr. McCalla, a Presbyterian 
minister at Washington, Mason county. From that 
time on he labored much in Kentucky, holding meet- 
ings in all the principal Blue Grass towns, and making 
terrific assaults upon all the denominations. He in- 
veighed against the baptism of infants, took the ground 
that immersion alone was baptism, and championed t'he 
old doctrine taught by Bishop Bull and others in Eng- 
land, that baptism is for the remission of sins that 
"Immersion and regeneration are two names for the 
same thing." He also denounced all creeds as mere 
hum'an productions, and urged that they be thrown 
into the discard and that "all Christians unite upon the 



176 Methodism in Kentucky _ 

Bible." 

He and Stone had much in common. So, after two 
or three conferences, they agreed to unite their forces, 
and, early in 1832 the union was effected and they be- 
gan with great zeal the work of uniting the various 
groups that had been gathered by each. Stone did not 
succeed in taking all of the New Lights with him into 
the union. Some of them bitterly opposed the merger, 
and that Church remains in existence to this day. Stone 
removed, in 1834, to Illinois, and the leadership of the 
combined following fell into the hands of Campbell. 
In many respects he was a stronger man than Stone ; 
was well-equipped; gifted in power of statement; de- 
lighted in controversy ; was independent and dogmatic, 
and well qualified for leadership. But under his lead- 
ership the Church lost much of that spirituality for 
Vhdch Stone had always plead. Concerning tne union, 
Stone, in his Biography (Page 78) says: 

This (union) was easily effected in Kentucky. . . . This un- 
ion, I have no doubt, would have been as easily effected in other 
States as in Kentucky, had there not been a few ignorant, head- 
strong-, bigots on both sides, who were more influenced to retain 
and augment their party, than to save the world by uniting ac- 
cording to the prayer of Jesus. Some irresponsible zealots 
among the Reformers so called, (followers of Campbell), would 
publicly and zealously contend against sinners praying, or that 
professors should pray for them they spurned the idea that 
preachers should pray that God would assist them in declaring 
his truth to the people they rejected from Christianity all who 
were not baptized for the remission of sins, and many such doc- 
trines they preached. The old Christians, who were unacquaint- 
ed with the preachers of information amongst us, would natur- 
ally conclude these to be the doctrines of us all; and they rose 
up in opposition to us all, representing our religion as a spirit- 
less, prayerless religion, and dangerous to the souls of men. 
They ran to the opposite extreme in Ohio, and in the Eastern 
States. I blame not the Christians for opposing such doc- 
trines, etc.* 



t confusion prevailed among the people on many 

points of doctrine. ^ Having no standards of interpretation, a 
perfect Babel of opinions was lield and preached among them. 



Methodism in Kentucky 177 

Following this union of the forces of Stone and 
Campbell, there was a period of disputation, proselyt- 
ing, debating, and denominational warfare, such as 
Christianity has not seen in any other part of the 
world. It could be said of the new organization as it 
was of Ishmael, their "hand was against every man, 
and every man's hand was against" them. For more 
than thirty years this continued. A history of this 
period has not yet been written. We shall have more 
to s:ay about it later. 

1833. When the Conference met at Harrodsburg in 
1832, the dark shadow of a fearful epidemic of cholera 
was resting upon the State. When the weather grew 
warm in 1833, the scourge returned with great vio- 
lence. In Lexington there were nearly five hundred 
victims. All the towns in the Blue Grass were visited, 
and those along the rivers were especial sufferers. Nor 
did the inland towns of western Kentucky escape. It 
was a dreadful visitation, and death and bitter weep- 
ing were the portion of many households. Davidson, 
in his History of the Presbyterian Church in Kentucky, 
gives a vivid account of this epidemic in Lexington. 

In tne short space of nine days, fifteen hundred persons were 
prostrated, and dying at the rate of fifty a day. The horrors of 
that period no one can adequately conceive. The rain fell in 
unprecedented torrents, while the incessant grlare of lisrhtning 
and the roll of thunder made the night terrific. Amid the up- 
roar of the elements the watchers sat mournfully in the cham- 
ber of death; and all night, during the lull of the storm, might 
he heard the feet of the anxious messengers hurrying alone: the 
street, and besieging: the doors of the apothecaries and pWsi- 
eians. Within a fortnight it was computed that about five hun- 
dred persons fell victims, notwithstanding half of the population 
had fled at an earlier period. The panic was terrible. . . . The 
streets were deserted. The market-place was desolate. . . . The 

Campbell himself says: "Every sort of doctrine has been pro- 
claimed by almost all sorts of men, under the broad banners, 
and with the supposed sanction of the begun reformation,." Mil. 
Harb. Vol. VI, Pg. 64. 



178 Methodism in Kentucky 

graveyards were clicked. Coffins were laid down at the gates by 
the score, In confused heaps; and among; them, horrible to rel- 
late! corpses wrapped up only in the bed^othes m wtoch they 
had but an hour or two before expired. There they lay, each 
TOitins their turn to be deposited in the long . trenches which 
were hastily dug for the necessities of the occasion. 

Two of the most eminent ministers of the Kentucky 
Conference fell victims of the scourge Barnabas Mc- 
Henry and Marcus Lindsay. MeHenry, now old, had 
been one of the most honored and beloved ministers in 
the State, while Lindsay was in the full strength of his 
manhood and an acknowledged leader in the Church. 
John B. Power had died during the ye:ar, but not from 
cholera. 

It was under such a cloud of sorrow and depres- 
sion that the Kentucky Conference met at Greensburg, 
September 11, 1833. Bishop Roberts again presided. 
George C. Light was appointed to preach the sermon 
in memory of the dead. Isa-ac Malone, Daniel H. Tevis, 
Moses Clampett, William McEeynolds, Samuel Hel- 
iums, and Robert F. Turner located, E, L. Southgate, 
William Outen, John W. Riggin, Claiborne Pirtle, John 
Carr Harrison, Moses Evans, Daniel Sherwood, Thom- 
as E. Thompson, Elijah M. Bosley, Eli B. Grain, and 
Alberry L. Alderson were admitted on trial. 

Of those admitted, E. L. Southgate had been pre- 
viously admitted and discontinued at the end of one 
year. This time he served for two years, then was 
discontinued at his own request. He was a good man, 
but business affairs seemed to forbid his continuance 
in the itinerant ranks. 

At the end of one year, Daniel Sherwood was- dis- 
continued on account of bodily afflictions, and Clai- 
borne Pirtle at his own request. The name of William 
Outen disappears after two years of service, and 



Methodism in Kentucky 179 

Thomas E. Thompson located at the end of three yaars* 
Moses Evans remained in Kentucky until 1836, when 
he removed to Missouri. John Carr Harrison located 
in 1838. John W. Biggin traveled for twelve years. 
His fields of labor were altogether in what is now the 
Kentucky Conference, and his last charge was New- 
port. "He was a steady, uniform, and faithful minis- 
ter of God ; modest, and rather diffident in his manner, 
plain and striking in his presentation of truth, and 
though of only medium abilities, was generally beloved 
by those who knew him. He will long be remembered 
by the people on many of the circuits in this Confer- 
ence." Memoir. 

Alberry L. Alderson c&me from Hart county, Ken- 
tucky, and after long years of service in the itinerancy, 
he retired to his native county and there spent his last 
days, and there he was buried. He died in 1871. Dur- 
ing Ms ministerial career, he was twice forced to lo- 
cate on account of ill health but he made for himself a 
record that is indeed enviable among his brethren. In 
an address at the Jubilee of the Louisville Conference 
in 1896, Dr. James A. Lewis says of him : 

He was rather above medium height, of fine mold and bear- 
ing. His dark, curling, chestnut hair swept back from an ample 
brow. His complexion was florid, his face intellectual, his voice 
deep and flexible. He was a prince in the pulpit. He entered 
the ministry in 1833. He was a man of studious habits, and be- 
came a good scholar and a profound theologian. His doctrinal 
discourses ranked with the best of his- day. His memoir says: 
"Thousands flocked to hear him, and sat entranced while truths 
divine came burning from his lips." He was an able polemic. 
No ordinary foeman was worthy of his steel. He belonged to 
that class of declaimers of whom Bishop Kavanaugh was the last 
survivor. In disposition he was modest and retiring; but in 
character, robust and grand. 

Eli B. Grain was born in Boyle county, but In early 
life removed to Barren, and was brought up under the 



180 Methodism in Kentucky 

care of Rev. James Gulp, a local preacher, who, in 1827, 
entered the Conference on trial, but retired after only 
one year of service. Brother Grain was converted in 
his early manhood, entered the ministry and was for 
thirty-four years a member of Conference. When the 
Louisville Conference was organized, he fell into that 
body, and for nearly thirteen years was a superan- 
nuate in that Conference. He was "tall and of rather 
commanding appearance. Able as a preacher and full 
of the Holy Spirit, his sermons carried great power 
and were fruitful in results ... In social life, as well 
as in the pulpit, he was an elegant and refined gentle- 
man." Lewis. He died June 10, 1867. 

After laboring on the Somerset, Glasgow, Burkes- 
ville, Wayne, Columbia, Winchester and Hardinsburg 
circuits, at the Conference of 1840, E. M. Bosley was 
reported as having died during the year. No memoir 
of him was furnished, and we have no knowledge of 
the time or place of his decease. 

1834. At the Conference held in Mount Sterling 
in 1834, Bishop Soule presiding, twenty-two men were 
received on trial, viz., Ezekiel Mobley, Henry Edmund- 
son, Peter Taylor, Reuben W. Landrum, Eobert Fisk, 
James M. Buckhannon, Daniel S. Barksdale, Robinson 
E. Sidebottom, Solomon Pope, Alexander Robinson, 
Clinton Kelly, Thomas Rankin, James D. Holding, Hen- 
ry Vandyke, John C. Niblack, George W. Merritt, 
George W. Simcoe, William M. Grubbs, George Switzer, 
Albert Kelly, Napoleon B. Lewis, and Matthew N. Las- 
ley. 

Want of adaptability to the work of the itinerancy, 
ill health, and death removed most of these men from 
the work in a few years. Ezekiel Mobley and John C. 
Niblack were discontinued at the end of one year; 



Methodism in Kentucky 181 

James Buekhannon at the end of two years ; Henry Ed- 
mundson and Reuben W. Landrum* at the end of three 
years; George Switzer served for five years, while 
Henry Vandyke, Daniel S. Barksdale, Solomon Pope, 
and Matthew N. Lasley each gave six years to the Con- 
ference. Henry N. Vandyke was a most excellent man. 
Dr. Bedford, who knew him intimately, says of him: 
"Although he was not brilliant as a preacher, yet his 
talents were of a very high order. He was a close 
thinker and an untiring student, and prepared his ser- 
mons with much care and delivered them with great 
fluency and ease. He attracted large congregations' to 
the house of Gad, and through his labors and zeal 
many were brought to Christ. We never knew a better 
man, nor one in whose life were more fully developed 
the excellencies of Christian character, nor one who 
was more universally loved." While serving the Shel- 
byville and Brick Chapel charge, in 1835-6, he married 
Miss Marie Louise Soule, a daughter of Bishop Soule. 
She was at that time a teacher in Science Hill School. 
Mr. Vandyke was not strong enough to bear the strain 
of itinerant work, and after serving such places as 
Shelbyville, Mount Sterling, Frankfort, and Cynthiana, 
his health failed completely and death ended his use- 
ful career in 1841. His death bed was the scene of 
great triumph. 

After six years of successful labor on large ciis 
cuits, Daniel S. Barksdale, health greatly impaired, 
located, and took up his residence at Hillsiboro, Flem- 



*From a letter to tlie author by Rev. P. C. Eversole, of the 
Kentucky Conference, we learn that Rev. R. W. Landruna lies 
buried in Breathitt county, about ten miles from Jackson, on a 
point of land between Lost Creek and Troublesome. His widow 
and a number of descendants are still (1936) living in that 
section. 



182 Methodism in Kentucky 

ing county, Kentucky. Here he lived for more than 
forty years. He was a man who enjoyed the implicit 
confidence of the people, and was most useful in the 
local relation, as well as when a member of the Confer- 
ence. He died in 1887.* 

Solomon Pope was the son of that earnest and use- 
ful local preacher of Barren county, Rev. Richard 
Pope. While a member of the Kentucky Conference, 
the charges he occupied were rough and hard, and he 
located at the end of six years. 

Matthew N. Lasley was the son, and the grandson, 
of Methodist preachers. His grandfather, Manoah 
Lasley, settled in the Green River country, not far from 
Greensburg, at an early date, and his home was the 
center around which the Green River circuit was after- 
wards formed. Matthew's father was the Rev. Thomas 
Lasley, the intrepid missionary to Louisiana. It is 
said that, after his conversion, Matthew Lasley felt it 
his duty to preach the gospel, yet shrank from under- 
taking the sacred calling. His struggle was severe. 
One day, while plowing in the field he decided the mat- 
ter, "left his plow in the furrow, midway the field, and 
started to a quarterly meeting held on the Glasgow cir- 
cuit, where he was licensed to preach by George W. 
Taylor, who placed him on the Eurkesville circuit, 
as the colleague of Thomas C. Davis/* He was a clear, 
forcible preacher, not only successful in leading souls 
to Christ, but was greatly beloved wherever he went, 
He located in 1840, but was soon persuaded to take 
the place on the Glasgow circuit of a brother who had 

*His son, William H. Barksdale, was one of the writer's dear- 
est friends. He lived at Flemings&urg, Kentucky, and as a 
church worker, could do more things and do them better than 
any one else we have known in that part of the State. 



Methodism in Ke^ti^cby 183 

failed to go to his work. He was quite a revivalist and 
many were converted and added to the Church under 
his ministry. This was, indeed, the standard by which 
the efficiency of a man was gauged in those days. Ev- 
ery itinerant was his own evangelist and if he could 
not lead souls to Christ it greatly discredited him in the 
estimate of his -brethren. 

The two Kellys, Clinton and Albert, were brothers 
of Gilby Kelly, who was received on trial in 1830. Dr. 
John E. Godbey, whose mother was a Kelly, tells us in 
Lights and Shadows of Seventy Years: 

My father had two brothers who were preachers; my mother 
four. They were all Methodists. My father's brothers, John and 
Joshua, served in the Kentucky Conference. My mother's broth- 
ers, Clinton, Gilby, Samuel, and Albert, all served for a time in 
the Kentucky Conference, but later Samuel transferred to the 
West Virginia Conference, and Clinton and Albert emigrated to 
Oregon. ... I have record of twenty-eight Methodist preach- 
ers descended from the families of my grandparents. I am sure 
there were others." Lights and Shadows of Seventy Years. 
P. 1. 

Dr. Qodbey's mother, who was Sena Kelly, married 
a preacher, Josiah Godbey and had four sons and 
a son-in-law who were Methodist preachers in Mis- 
souri. . These Kellys were all good men. Albert re- 
mained in the Kentucky Conference for twelve years, 
and Clinton thirteen years, before going to Oregon. 

Dr. Godbey gives us another interesting item con- 
cerning his uncle, Clinton Kelly, which is illustrative 
of the times and customs of the people of those early 
days. Practically all the shoes that were worn in those 
days were made in the home. Most men with large 
families added shoe-making to their accomplishments 
in addition to farming, preaching, or what not. Dr. 
Godbey says : 

The circuit riders of those times preached nearly every day. 
I have known a preacher to carry his hammer, awl, last, and 



1S4 Methodism in Kentucky 

leather In Ills saddlebags, and sit down and peg away making 
shoes while the congregation came in, and economize time in 
the same way where he lodged in the homes of the people, buca 
was the custom of Clinton Kelly, my uncle." Lights and hhad- 
ows/' P. 14. 

James D. Holding- was said to have been a very de- 
vout and lovable man. Born In Scott county, In 1810, 
he was converted at fourteen, chiefly through the Influ- 
ence of his godly mother. Licensed to preach when 
about twenty-four, he gave thirteen years to the active 
ministry before death overtook him. He was uniform- 
ly successful. His preaching was of the hortatory 
kind, and his appeals to sinners were sometimes very 
powerful Many were saved under him. In 1846 he was 
sent to the Taylorsville circuit, where he died some time 
in 1847. He Is burled in the graveyard by the .old 
Kockbridge church, now a part of the Shelby circuit. 
He was a brother of Richard Holding, of whom notice 
has already been given.* 

From a letter written by his son, Professor H. K 
Taylor, late of Southern Methodist University, Dallas, 
Texas, we learn that Peter Taylor was -born at Wigan, 
Lancashire, England, February 28, 1809, With four 
brothers and three sisters, he came to America in 1817, 
and settled near Marietta, Ohio. He was a student of 
Augusta College during the time H. B. Bascom was a 
professor in that institution. Uniting with the Ken- 
tucky Conference in 1834, he remained a member of 
that body until his death in 1871, with the exception 
of a few years in a local relation. After his superan- 
nuation in 1859, he lived in Stout's Bottom, on the 

*He was the father of Miss Nannie Holding-, Missionary, arid 
founder of Holding Institute at Laredo, Texas. On his tomb- 
stone are inscribed these words, "Rev. J. D. Holding of the Ken- 
tucky Conference, age 37 years; died at his post, "full of f aith," 
kaving received 1200 souls into the Church of Christ." 



Methodism in Kentucky 185 

Ohio River, a few miles below Vaneeburg, Kentucky, 
Here he was very useful as a preacher, and a neat lit- 
tle brick chureh in that neighborhood bears the name 
of "Peter Taylor Chapel" Prof. Taylor gives this 
incident, illustrative of his character: 

He was a gospel preacher, forceful in exhortation and ap- 
pealing in presenting the gospel of love. He had a fine voice, 
and for years was the leader of the singing in the Annual Con- 
ferences. He had a wonderful influence over rough and wicked 
men. During the Civil War, a troup of Union soldiers came to 
his home and demanded -dinner. His wife, a strong rebel, at first 
refused to get the dinner, but by the persuasion of her husband 
finally did so, but would not go into the dining room where the 
dinner was ^served. Her husband, however, took his place at 
the table, said grace, greatly to the astonishment of the soldiers, 
and before the meal was over, had most of them in tears. When 
the meal was concluded the leader said, "Mr. Taylor, may we 
have some corn and apples ?" He responde-d, "Certainly," and 
he filled their sacks. No damage or foraging was done to his 
property as long as those soldiers remained in the country."* 

William M. Grubbs was a product of Franklin 
county, Kentucky, but when a small child his parents 
removed to Logan county, near Russellville. Here he 
was converted in a great revival which began under 
the preaching of the Presiding Elder, Isaac Collard. 
Though reared in the Baptist faith, he at once joined 
the Methodist Church and received baptism at the al- 
tars of the church. After entering the ministry In 
1834, he married the only daughter of Jonathan 
Stamper, and in 1841 transferred with him to the Illi- 
nois Conference. After the separation of the Church 
in 1844, both returned to Kentucky, where Mr. Grubbs 

*Prof. Henry K. Taylor graduated from Kentucky Wes- 
leyan College in 1879, and for two years had charge of the De- 
partment of Science in that institution. He was afterwards 
President of Logan College, at Russellville, then of Kentucky 
Wesleyan College. At the time of his death, in 1935, he was in 
the Extension Department at Southern Methodist University. 
The writer was a student under him while he was teaching 
in Kentucky Wesleyan, and we were ever warm personal friends. 



186 Methodism in Kentucky 

labored until 1857, when he located. He removed to 
Indiana and became a member of the South East In- 
diana Conference of the M. E. Church. After his su- 
perannuation he lived in Madison, Indiana, where he 

died. 

Robinson E. Sidebottom was one of our steady, 
practical men, who succeeded well in such appoint- 
ments as Glasgow, Springfield, Richmond, and Flem- 
ingsburg, and though never taking first rank, was al- 
ways useful in whatever place he was assigned. He lo- 
cated in 1855.* 

Born in Russellville, Kentucky, September 25, 1809 ; 
uniting with the Church as a seeker of religion in 
1830; realizing the pardoning love of God while in a 
class-meeting one week later; licensed to preach in 
1832; traveling the Livingston circuit under the Pre- 
siding Elder one year this is the brief record of Na- 
poleon B. Lewis up to the time of his admission on trial 
in 1834. He "possessed a vigorous mind, and a high 
degree of what we call force of character. He was a 
laborious, faithful, and successful minister of Christ. 
Many hundreds of souls will, in eternity, magnify the 
grace of God in him as their spiritual father. He was 
a holy man ; and a man of one work, and 'he died at his 
post/ " Memoir. f 

Robert Fisk was a brother of Rev. John Fisk, 
whom we have sketched in a former chapter. Born 
in Montgomery county, Kentucky, near the old Grassy 



*He was the father-in-law of Rev. D. B, Cooper, of precious 
memory. 

fHe was the- father of Rev. John W. Lewis, D. D., late of the 
Louisville Conference, and one time Editor of the Conference or- 
gan, The Central Methodist. 



Methodism in Kentucky 187 

Lick church, converted, and entering the ministry this 
year, he was for forty-seven years a member of Con- 
ference the Kentucky Conference until 1846, then of 
the Louisville Conference until 1881. During all this 
time he was recognized as one of the excellent men of 
the Conference and was entrusted with some of the 
best charges and districts. 

Thomas Rankin was a member of the Kentucky 
Conference of the M. E. Church, South, from the organ- 
ization in 1845, until 1865, when, with seventeen oth- 
ers, he located and united with the Kentucky Confer- 
ence of the M. E. Church, being one of the "Loyal 
Eighteen" who withdrew from the Southern Church 
at that time. We regret that we have so little infor- 
mation about him. While in the Southern Church he 
had good appointments, indicating that he was a man 
of some parts. His death occurred in 1881, 

The member of this class of twenty-two who re- 
mained in the work for the longest time was George 
W. Merritt. Born in Fincastle, Virginia, August 17, 
1807, he came to Winchester, Kentucky, 1827. Here 
under the preaching of Henry McDaniel and Milton 
Jamison, he was brought into the Church, and soon 
afterwards happily converted. Removing to Lexing- 
ton, he was there licensed to preach by William Gunn, 
and after entering the Conference in 1834, he gave 
forty-five years of unbroken service to the cause of 
Christ. In 1879, he was placed on the supernumerary 
list, on which he continued until his death, September 
25>, 1886. His home during the six years he sus- 
tained this relation was Anchorage, Kentucky. His 
biographer says: "His lively sermons, earnest exhor- 
tations, fervent prayers, sweet singing, and gentle- 
manly deportment, gave him the affections of the peo- 



Methodism in Kentucky 



pie of all classes. ... In calling sinners to repent- 
ance he was remarkably successful. His vigilance and 
activity made him equally efficient in building up all 
the interests of the Church. In personal appearance 
Brother Merritt was dignified ana venerable. Tafy 
erect, graceful, with firm, elastic step, he could not 
fail to attract respectful attention even among crowded 
thousands. His white hair, clear complexion, bright 
eyes, and agreeable voice, will not soon be forgotten/' 
The writer remembers him well His flowing beard 
was the whitest we have ever seen; while his ruddy 
countenance and general bearing made a lasting im- 
pression on our youthful mind. 

But while the working forces of the Conference 
were being augmented by the acquisition of these 
twenty-two men, three of those who had been pre- 
viously admitted Daniel Sherwood, Claibourne Pirtle, 
and William G. Bowman were discontinued; Hartwell 
J. Perry temporarily took a superannuate relation; 
John Williams was expelled for ceasing to travel with- 
out the consent of the Conference, and Daniel S. Ca- 
pell, Thomas H. Gibbons, Joseph G. Ward, Thomas C. 
Cropper, Washington Fagg, and John Sandusky loca- 
ted. Thomas Vance died during the year, and J. P. 
Young and Thomas W. Wallace were left without ap- 
pointment in view of their expected transfer to the 
Missouri Conference, George C. Light was transferred 
to the Missouri, Richard Bird to the Illinois, and 
Charles M. Holliday to the Indiana Conference. Rich- 
ard Corwine was appointed Agent for the American 
Colonization Society. 

The movement looking to the establishment of a 
church paper to be issued from the Book Concern at 
Cincinnati, which was so heartily endorsed by the 



Met-Jwdism in Kentucky 189 

Conference the previous year, had resulted in the es- 
tablishment of The Western Christian Advocate, with 
Thomas A. Morris as editor. The first number of this 
paper came from the press in April, 1834, and we pre- 
sume has not missed an issue since that day* It has 
been in all these years a large factor in the affairs of 
the Methodist Church in the Middle West. The fact 
that Dr. Morris was its editor, added greatly to its pop- 
ularity in Kentucky. 

1835'. When the Conference was in session at 
Shelbyville in 1835, there was a keen sense of the losses 
the Church had sustained. Five of the members had 
died during the year Benjamin Ogden, one of the two 
first Methodist itinerants 1 to enter the Kentucky wild- 
erness had triumphantly passed to his reward soon 
after the close of the previous session. Samuel Harri- 
son was gone. William Outen and Minor M. Cosby, 
both promising young men, had been cut off at what 
was supposed to be the beginning of careers of great 
usefulness. Francis Landrum, who had, during his 
ministry, received five thousand persons into the 
Methodist Church, had gone from labor to rest. And 
the beloved William Adams, the scholarly preacher, 
the faithful pastor, the secretary of the Conference for 
thirteen years, had answered the roll call on high. 
Besides this, ten men located from that session, viz., 
William Cundiff, H. J. Evans, Richard L Dungan, T. 
P. Farmer, N. G. Berryman, Bluford Henry, John 
Johnson, C. L. Clifton, Blachley C. Wood, and George 
Richardson; and Ezekiel Mobley, John C. Niblack, 
George W. Simcoe and E. L. Southgate each had asked 
for and received a discontinuance. Seven were ad- 
jnitted on trial, and four were re-admitted. 

Bishop James Osgood Andrew presided over this 



190 Methodism in Kentucky 

Conference. It was his first visit to Kentucky, and both 
in the pulpit and chair he made -a fine impression on 
the people. His reputation as a preacher had preceded 
him, and this he is said to have fully sustained. As a 
presiding officer he had few equals, and his brotherly 
attitude toward the members of the Conference and his 
pronounced spirituality won him a place in the affec- 
tions of our people which he never lost 

As William Adams had been taken by death dur- 
ing the year, William Phillips was elected secretary in 
his stead. 

The question of slavery was becoming more and 
more acute. The aims and methods of the American 
Colonization Society were by no means approved by 
all. A strong contingent were favorable to an imme- 
diate and final abolition of slavery from American soil, 
and opposed to transporting the negroes to a foreign 
land. The Conference this year appointed a commit- 
tee to consider the relative merits of immediate and 
gradual emancipation and report their findings. An 
elaborate report, written by Dr. Bascom, was sub- 
mitted. In it they declare again the unalterable oppo- 
sition of the Conference to slavery, considering it an 
evil and deploring its existence among us. They also 
pledge the Conference to do everything that is lawful 
and right to extirpate the evil. But when it comes to 
methods by which this is to be done, they point cut in 
no uncertain terms the evils that would follow if 
three million ignorant slaves should be suddenly turned 
loose upon the land, and the disadvantages to the freed- 
xnen themselves if such a course should be attempted. 
They strongly approve a gradual emancipation and 
colonization of the negro in the land of his ancestors, 
just as soon as their welfare can be secured. The 



Methodism in Kentucky 191 

Conference unanimously adopted the report 

As the General Conference was to meet in the 
spring of 1836, the following delegates were elected to 
represent the Kentucky Conference: H. B. Bascom, B. 
T. Crouch, E. Stevenson, J. Stamper, H. H. Kavanaugii, 
and G. W. Taylor, with Josiah Whitaker and J. C. 
Harrison as alternates. 

Of the seven persons admitted on trial, William 
Burns died during the year. Alexander Kessinger was 
discontinued at the next Conference. William M. 
Crawford, a capable man, remained in the work until 
1844, when he located. Thomas Malone was super- 
annuated in 1844. Thomas DeMoss remained In Ken- 
tucky until 1845, when he located and went to Mis- 
souri, where he gave several years of acceptable ser- 
vice in the Missouri Conference. John C. C. Thomp- 
son was quite a revivalist and a most excellent man. 
His labors were marked by the conversion of many 
souls and the building up of the Church wherever he 
went. In 1865, when the "Loyal Eighteen" located 
and went into the M. E. Church, Mr. Thompson sym- 
pathized with them but was not one of the Eighteen. 
He received his appointment to Shannon and Sardis, 
where he had labored the preceding year. However, a 
few days after the close of the Conference session he 
was visited by one of the "Eighteen," a meeting was 
held in the congregation at Sardis, the church was di- 
vided, and Mr. Thompson went off with the secession. 
Having married a Miss Overstreet, in Jessamine 
county, he finally located his family on a farm in that 
county, and after a few years in the Kentucky Confer- 
ence of the M. E. Church, death ended his useful life 



192 Methodism in Kentucky 

in 1882.* 

The best known member of the class of 1835 was 
George S* Savage. He was born in Lewis county, Ken- 
tucky, February 2, 1813; was baptized In infancy by 
Rev. William McMahon ; became clerk in the store of 
a relative in Gennantown; united with the Church tin- 
der Rev. Samuel Veach, and was converted May 28, 
1828. His first work in the Conference was on the 
Versailles circuit as the colleague of T. N. Ralston. 
This year "he traveled 2,323 miles, preached 225 ser- 
mons, received 50 into the society, and obtained 33 
subscribers for the Christian Advocate." (Great suc- 
cess attended his work on the Minerva circuit the fol- 
lowing year, but his health failed, and he was com- 
pelled to locate During this year on the Minerva cir- 
suit a house of worship was erected in the town of 
Dover. He was re-admitted in 1839, and on the Ger- 
mantown circuit to which he was assigned, 307 per- 
sons were received into the Church. His health was 
still precarious, and his labors far exceeded his 
strength. Two or three times after this he was com- 
pelled to rest awhile. In 1849, he and his excellent 
wife, Mrs. Cleara Bright Savage, opened a school for 
girls in Covington, Kentucky. In two -and a half years 
the number of pupils increased from thirteen to one 
hundred and thirty-five. Relinquishing the school in 
Covington, he went to Glasgow, Mo., and took charge 
of the Glasgow Female Academy, where he remained 
three years. Returning to Kentucky, he and his wife, 
in the fall of 1854, took charge of the "Mfllersburg- 



*Tlie writer was baptized in infancy by Rev. J. C. C. Thomp- 
son. He was then pastor of the Sharpsburg and Bethel circuit 
in the bounds of which our parents lived. He was a dear friend 
of my father and mother. 




REV. JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT 



Methodism in Kentucky 1&3 

Male and Female Institute," out of which grew Ken- 
tucky Wesleyan College and the Millersburg College 
for Girls. After several years of most successful oper- 
ation of this instution, he took charge, in 1866, of the 
work of the American Bible Society for Eastern Ken- 
tucky, and for thirty-two years he labored for that 
great institution. His field was enlarged from tin** 
to time until he was made District Superintendent of 
the two States of Kentucky and Tennessee. Required 
to keep very careful account of his work, his reports 
show that he traveled for this Society 525,268 miles, 
and superintended the distribution of more than 1,250,- 
000 Bibles. He was one of the best known and best 
loved men in these two States. When he died at the 
age of ninety-two years, the business houses in his 
home town of Winchester were closed during his 
funeral service, and the sessions of Kentucky Wes- 
leyan College and of the public schools were closed, 
the students marching in a body to- the church. Pure 
in life, courteous in manner, able in administration, a 
preacher of more than average ability, in every depart- 
ment of his labors he brought credit and honor to 
Methodism in this State. Besides his work in the min- 
istry, he studied medicine and practiced in this pro- 
fession for a time. 

The increase in membership during the quadren- 
nium from 1831 to 1835, was 2,638 white members, and 
402 colored; making a total membership in the Con- 
ference of 29',147. 

It was in the winter of 1833 that -a very remarka- 
ble man John Newland Maffitt reached Kentucky. 
He was engaged in revival services in Cincinnati, and 
great interest and much success were attending the 
meetings, Edward Stevenson and Jonathan Stamper 



194 Methodism in Kentucky 

were the preachers in charge at Louisville, though 
Stamper lived at Shelbyvilk, and left the management 
of the Church's affairs largely to Stevenson. Hearing 
of the wonderful meetings in Cincinnati, Stevenson in- 
vited Maffitt to come to Louisville, which he did, re- 
maining for more than a month. Great interest pre- 
vailed from the beginning. "Scores came to the altar, 
and many professed to find pardon/' For several years 
Maffitt was much in Kentucky, holding great meetings 
at Lexington, Georgetown, Versailles, Frankfort, 
Bardstown, Danville, Harrodsburg, Mount Sterling, 
and perhaps other places. Hundreds professed con- 
version and were added to the Church. These revivals 
quickened the zeal of pastors and people of other 
places and the fires kindled upon the altars of the 
Church in these cities, spread quickly to other commu- 
nities and resulted in a general awakening throughout 
all central Kentucky. While the Methodists were the 
chief beneficiaries, other denominations shared in the 
gracious work. 

John Newland Maffitt was a genius and in some re- 
spects a man of mystery; "for some thirty years one of 
the most extraordinary and anomalous pulpit orators 
of the nation." (Stevens) . He was an Irishman, born 
in the city of Dublin, December 28, 1794. In youth he 
was frivolous and gay, but at nineteen was powerful- 
ly awakened, and after a protracted struggle, was mast 
happily converted. He was convinced that it was his 
duty to preach the gospel, but his first attempt was a 
failure. For a time he gave up all idea of preaching, 
but continued to exhort and work for the salvation of 
souls. He was much blessed in this work, and though 
without authority from the Church, he continued to 
labor in this way for some time. "Handsome in per- 



Methodism in Kentucky 195 

son, graceful In his manners, tender In his address, 
and endowed with a powerful and persuasive elo- 
quence, he soon occupied a place in the popular thought 
that could be claimed, perhaps, by no man of his age 
in the Emerald Isle/ 5 (Bedford), 

Coming to America in 1819, he was admitted on 
trial in the New England Conference in 1822. and was 
made Conference missionary. He remained a member 
of this Conference for ten years, being twice assigned 
to Boston, once to Portsmouth, and to other import- 
ant charges. He located in 1832 and came West In 
1833, he was re-admitted into the Tennessee Confer- 
ence and made Agent of La Grange College, of which 
Robert Paine was President. The following year he 
was elected to the chair of elocution in that College, 
and continued in this position for two years* The 
regularity of a Conference relation did not seem to be 
congenial to him, so in 1836, he asked for and obtained 
a location, and never again was a member of a Con- 
ference. 

In 1833, in connection with Lewis Garrett, Mr, 
Maffitt established The Western Methodist, now The 
Christian Advocate, of Nashville. After locating in 
1836, Mr. Maffitt again visited Kentucky, and spent 
much of the next four years in this field, holding great 
revivals in various towns as already stated. 

Mr. Maffitt was an enigma. That he was a very 
eloquent preacher, with a very magnetic personality, 
and an unusual power over a congregation, cannot for 
a moment be questioned. But these qualities were 
mixed with weaknesses and glaring inconsistencies 
that greatly detracted from his ministry, and con- 
stantly placed the man under suspicion and criticism. 
Few men have preached in this section, with greater 



19-6 Methodism in Kentucky __ 

success, or have been subjected to severer censure. 
Sometimes audiences were so enraptured by his elo- 
quent presentation of gospel truths that they would 
rise to their feet while he was preaching; then when 
out of the pulpit he would do and say things that 
would shock the sensibilities of all who heard him. 
Bedford gives him his unqualified endorsement as a 
great evangelist and Christian gentleman, and seems 
to think that the criticisms cast upon him were only 
evidences of bitter hatred and persecution. ^ But there 
must have been some ground for the opposition. Jon- 
athan Stamper tells us that, when he came to Louis- 
ville in 1833, he announced -at once that he could not 
work under any man's direction, but must have the 
entire control of matters in his own hands. After 
being there a month or more, it was found out that 
Maffitt had entered into an agreement with the people 
of the church where he had been invited to hold the 
meeting, to preach for them twice every Sunday for 
six months, and that they were to give him fifteen 
hundred dollars for his services! Of course Stamper 
and Stevenson refused to be set aside in this manner, 
but it brought them into direct conflict with their peo- 
pie, and when Stamper entered the pulpit the follow- 
ing Sabbath, some of his own people hissed him ! He 
says: 

Shortly after this, several circumstances occurred which 
made Maffitt odious. Matters grew worse and worse, until he 
was compelled to leave the city, and then the church in Louis- 
ville, notwithstanding their headlong course, frankly acknowl- 
edged to me that they had acted both foolishly and wickedly. 
.... Maffitt's converts were like the stony-ground hearers. 
Most of them soon fell back into the world, and declared them- 
selves to be no longer of us. It is a lamentable fact that his 
revivals were of a frothy character, and, after all, I am firmly 
eoiivinced that his ministry was a great injury to the Church. 
As a man, he was a mystery I never could solve. He certainly 
possessed rare talents as a speaker, and held his audiences un- 



Methodism in Kentucky 197 

der more perfect control than any one I ever heard, His voice 
was musical as a lute, and he could modulate it with a's much 
ease as a musician does his instrument. He manifested great 
zeal, and would, without fear or hesitation, approach any one on 
the subject of religion, seldom failing to bring them to the altar 
of prayer. Autumn Leaves, No. 29. 

It Is true that this judgment of a man who had 
been brought into such unpleasant relations with the 
evangelist should be taken with some allowance. But 
Stamper was not alone in this judgment. Mrs. Julia 
A. Tevis, in Sixty Years in a School Room, while a lit- 
tle more considerate of his weaknesses, clearly indi- 
cates that she did not approve of many things in Maf- 
fitt's conduct. He appears to have been wof ully lack- 
ing in common sense. As Dr. Abel Stevens says, "Ho 
was eccentric, simple and indiscreet as a child ; a para- 
dox of goodness, greatness and weakness/* (History 
of Methodism, P. 560). Reckless in the use of money, 
he was much in debt. In social life he was indiscreet, 
but we have never heard that he was guilty of any im- 
moral conduct. He was married twice. His first wife 
was said to have been very beautiful but not in sym- 
pathy with his work as a minister. After her death, 
he, though considerably past fifty years of age, fool- 
ishly married a girl only seventeen. The writer has 
in his possession a sheet containing several -articles 
taken from The National Police Gazette, in which he 
is accused of all manner of infamy and his character 
blackened by the most outrageous charges. The arti- 
cles are written in such style and with such venom as 
to completely discredit them, though it is scarcely be- 
lievable that such could have been written without 
some sort of provocation. While holding a meeting in 
a small suburban church near Mobile, Alabama, these 
articles were republished in a paper in that city. It 
was the last straw. After the appearance of the arti- 



108 Methodism in Kentucky 

eles, he was greatly disturbed and unable to sleep. In 
a few days he died, literally of a broken heart. A post 
mortem showed that one side of the organ had burst ! 
He died May 28, 1850, and was buried in Magnolia 
Cemetery, near the city of Mobile, 

In closing this chapter we call attention to the fact 
that the size of the Methodist houses of worship did not 
grow in proportion to the growth of the Conference 
body. It is scarcely to the credit of Methodism that 
the sessions of the Kentucky Conference were, for a 
number of years, held in buildings other than our own 
church buildings. In 1832, the Conference met in the 
courthouse, at Harrodsburg; in 1836, in the Masonic 
Hall at Louisville; in 1837, in the State Capitol, Frank- 
fort; 1839, Masonic Hall, Russellville ; 1840, Baptist 
church, Bardstown; 1841, "Reformed" church, Mays- 
ville; 1842, Old Medical Hall, Lexington; 1843, Old 
Medical Hall, Louisville; 1844, Presbyterian church, 
Bowling Green ; 1845, Legislative Hall, Frankfort. Af- 
ter the Louisville Conference was organized, both 
bodies frequently met in borrowed buildings. 



CHAPTEE VIII 

FROM 1836 TO 1840 

The acts and doings of a General Conference do not 
concern this History, unless they affect the welfare of 
the Church in Kentucky. When a Bishop is elected, he 
becomes the servant of the whole Church, and Ken- 
tucky is interested as well as any other part of our 
Methodism. Important measures of a general char- 
acter must, of course, receive our notice. 

The General Conference of 1836 met in Cincinnati 
the first time a General Conference had been held in 
the West. At the beginning of the quadrennium then 
closing, there had been six Bishops. McKendree and 
Emory had died during the quadrennium. The health 
of Bishops Roberts, Soule, and Hedding was seriously 
impaired. It was evident that the Episcopacy must 
be strengthened. Three men were chosen, viz., Bev- 
erly Waugh, Wilbur Fisk, and Thomas A. Morris. 
Wilbur Fisk was traveling in Europe at the time of his 
election, and when he returned to America, he felt it 
was his duty to remain President of Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, at Middletown, Connecticut, and so declined to 
be consecrated as Bishop. 

Beverly Waugh was a native of Fairfax county, 
Virginia. He was born October 25, 1789. At the age 
of twenty he was admitted on trial in the Baltimore 
Conference, and soon was filling its most prominent 
appointments* In 1828, he was elected Assistant Book 
Agent at New York, and when John Emory was ele- 
vated to the episcopacy, he was made principal Agent. 
Elected a Bishop in 1836, it is said that, in the twenty- 

199 



200 Methodism in Kentucky 

two years he held that office, he was never absent from 
one of his Conferences. Bishop Janes has said of 
him : "During his whole term of episcopal service it is 
believed that he traveled about 100,000 miles by all 
sorts of conveyances, preached 2,000 sermons, presided 
over 150 Conferences, and ordained from 2,500 to 3,000 
deacons and elders, besides services rendered on vari- 
ous special occasions." Bishop Simpson testifies that 
he evinced, "nothing of the prelate, but much of the 
father in Christ, and always had the confidence and 
respect of his brethren. His remains rest in Mount 
Olivet Cemetery, Baltimore, near those of Bishops As- 
bury, George, and Emory/' He died February 9, 1858. 

Bishop Morris has already had notice in these 
pages. He was transferred from Ohio to the Kentucky 
Conference in 1821, and served pastorates and Dis- 
tricts here until 1828, when he returned to Ofhio. In 
1834, when The Western Christian Advocate was es- 
tablished, he was elected Editor. "To the charming 
simplicity, both of taste and manners, which eminently 
characterized him in tail the walks of life, he added the 
graces of a genuine nature and beautiful Christian 
character. As a preacher he was chaste, sincere, and 
many times greatly eloquent. As a Bishop he was con- 
siderate, careful, and judicious, and never forgetful of 
the most humble of his brethren in the administration 
of his high office/' Simpson. He died Sept. 2, 1874. 

In 1833, in conjunction with John Newland Maffitt, 
Lewis Garrett began the publication, at Nashville, 
Tennessee, of The Western, Methodist. To this Gen- 
eral Conference, Mr. Garrett, who was now sole pro- 
prietor and editor, addressed a communication, offer- 
ing to turn over the paper to the Church on certain 
conditions. The outcome of the negotiations was that 



Methodism in Kentucky 201" 

the General Conference authorized the publication of 
the paper at Nashville, and called it The Southwestern 
Christian Advocate, with Thomas Stringfield as editor. 
Later, the name was changed and the paper is now The 
Christian Advocate, of Nashville. Thomas A. Morris 
having been elected a Bishop, Charles Elliott was made 
editor of The Western Christian Advocate at Cincin- 
nati, and our own brilliant William Phillips assistant 
editor. 

An attempt was made at this General Conference to 
remove from the Apostles' Creed, the 'phrase "holy 
catholic church," and substitute for it some other form 
of words of like meaning. The effort failed, but the 
General Conference ordered a footnote placed In the 
Discipline explaining that by "the holy catholic church 
is meant, The Church of God in general." This may 
suffice for the person with a copy of the Discipline in 
hand but it brings no enlightenment to the person who 
hears it repeated in the Apostles Creed or the Baptis- 
mal service. 

The slavery question was again to the fore. There 
were a few "Abolitionists" in the General Conference, 
but the movement had but scant sympathy from the 
body at large. New England was the center of the 
agitation, and Orange Scott the leader of the new cru- 
sade. Two of the Conference delegates* delivered lec- 
tures in Cincinnati, advocating the abolition of slavery, 
and drew from the Conference a sharp rebuke for so 
doing. The Conference "disapproved in the most un- 
qualified sense" the action of the two members, and al- 
most unanimously declared that "they are decidedly op- 

*George Storrs and Samuel Norris, botli of the New Hamp- 
shire Conference- "The General Conferences." prepared by 
Bishop T. B. Neely; P. 117. 



202 Methodism in Kentucky 

posed to modern abolitionism, and wholly disclaimed 
any right, wish, or intention to interfere in the civil and 
political relation between master and slave/ 5 The com- 
mittee appointed to draft a pastoral address to the 
Church were instructed "to take notice of the subject 
of modern abolition, that has so seriously agitated the 
different parts of our country, and that they let our 
preachers, members, and friends know that the Gen- 
eral Conference are opposed to the agitation of that. 
subject, and will use all prudent means to put it down/ 1 
Scott issued a pamphlet, purporting to be "An Address 
to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, by a member of that body/ 7 This pamphlet 
was, by a resolution passed (97 to 19), condemned as 
'"containing reports of the discussion on modern aboli- 
tion, palpably false, and calculated to make an impres- 
sion to the injury of the character of some of the mem- 
bers engaged in the aforesaid discussion, is an outrage 
on the dignity of this body, and meriting unqualified 
reprehension." Thus emphatically did the General 
Conference of 1836 take its stand in opposition to the 
abolition movement. Who would have thought that 
within eight short years abolition would dominate the 
Church and bring about the unfortunate division of 
American Methodism, 

It will be interesting to our readers to know that 
this General Conference passed a resolution requesting 
the Ohio Conference to restore William Burke to his 
original ministerial standing. At its next session the 
Ohio Conference complied with this request, and the 
old veteran again took his place in the ministry of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

1836. The Kentucky Conference in 1836, met in 
the Masonic Hall, in Louisville, October 19th. No 



Methodism in KenlmJci/ 203 

Bishop was present at the opening session. Jonathan 
Stamper was elected President, pro tern, and proceeded 
to organize the Conference. At the afternoon session, 
however, Bishop Soule, who had been delayed by sick- 
ness in his family, having arrived, took the chair. 
George McNelly was again elected secretary. 

At that time the Kentucky Conference could boast 
oi an unusual number of strong men. H. B. Bascora 
was an acknowledged leader, and the amount of work 
he did during a Conference session is amazing. Few 
men have ever been honored by appointment on so 
many important committees, or have rendered so many 
services to a Conference. H. H. Kavanaugh was second 
only to Bascom. Jonathan Stamper, Edward Steven- 
son, Benjamin T. Crouch, Richard Cor wine, George W. 
Brush, William Holman, John Tevis, George W. Taylor 
Joseph S. Tomlinson, and others, were strong men and 
made the Conference one of the very strongest in the 
Church. 

William Burns, a young man on trial ; John Little- 
John, the veteran ; and Henry S. Duke, the beloved Pre- 
siding Elder of the Lexington District, were reported 
as having died during the year. Dr. Bascom was re- 
quested to preach their funeral sermon, -and to prepare 
memoirs of these and of Barnabas McHenry, William 
Adams, and others who had in recent years passed to 
their reward. 

Alexander Kessinger, James Buckhannon, and R. 
W. Landrum were discontinued at their own request 
after one year of service ; while Thomas E. Thompson, 
James G. Leach, James Redman, and Herrington 
Stevens were located. Charges had been brought 
against Buford Farris, and he was suspended from all 
ministerial functions for a year. John F. Young was 



204 Methodism in Kentucky _ ^ __ ^ 

transferred to the Missouri Conference, while Wylie 
B. Murphy was transferred to Kentucky from the Hols- 
ton, T. N. Ralston from the Illinois, and Absalom B. 
Fox from the Ohio Conference. Washington Fagg was 
readmitted, 

Thirteen men were received on trial, viz., Greenup 
Barker, Andrew J. McLaughlin, John Waring, Sey- 
bourne Crutchfield, William B. Maxey, Robert G, 
Gardiner, Edwin Roberts, William James, James J. 
Harrison, Alanson C. DeWitt, George S. Gatewood, 
Aaron Rice, and Theophilus Powell 

Of these, Oreenup Barker, Seybourne Crutchfield, 
and Theophilus Powell were discontinued at the end 
of one year. Barker was from Falmouth, Crutchfield 
from "Somerset, and Powell from Pikeville.* 

James J. Harrison was discontinued at the end of 
one year, but later was admitted again and gave a short 
while to the work. John Waring labored on the Flem- 
ing and Greenupsburg circuits, then located. William 
Maxey, excellent in song and in evangelistic fervor, lo- 
cated in 1840, and Edwin Roberts died in 1842. Few 
men have manifested the zeal and effectiveness in soul- 
saving that characterized Edwin Roberts. Revivals 
followed wherever he went, and Roberts Chapel, in 
Jessamine county, and Mt. Edwin, in Woodford county, 
were named in his honor and stand as monuments to 
the memory of this good man. His zeal literally con- 
sumed him, and he burned himself out in six years ! 

Aaron Rice "was strong of body and of a cheerful 
and happy disposition. At first he was considered of 
little promise, but his improvement was rapid, and al~ 



*Greenup Barker ^as the father of Bev. T. W. Barker, lat 
of the Kentucky Conference. 



Mefhodum in Kentucky 205 

though he was but six years a traveling preacher, he 
became an able and useful minister of the gospel." 
Jubilee Louisville Conference, P. 87. 

William James was from Logan circuit. After 
traveling nine years he located in 1845. 

George S. Gatewood came into the Conference from 
Madison circuit. He was another splendid revivalist. 
When the writer was pastor of the Stanford circuit in 
1895, he found persons who still remembered a meet- 
ing he held at Walnut Flat, Lincoln county, sometime 
between 1840 and 1849. " He located in 1851, but went 
to Texas, -and in 1869 was re-admitted in the Trinity 
Conference, where he did most notable work until his 
death in 1886. In his memoir it is said : "We venture 
the .assertion that no man living or dead has had more 
conversions or added a greater number to Texas Meth- 
odism in the last thirty-five years than has George S. 
Gatewood." 

Eobert G. Gardiner, recommended for admission 
from Louisville, spent but one year in what is now the 
Kentucky Conference, and that was on the Shelby cir- 
cuit in 1836. For ten years his work was in the west- 
ern part of the State, and when the Louisville Confer- 
ence was organized in 1846, he fell into that Confer- 
ence. In 1855 he became Principal of the Hardinsburg 
Male and Female High School, a position he held until 
1860. In 1861, he became a chaplain in the United 
States army, and served the 27th Regiment until the 
close of the war. He located in 1865, and afterwards 
joined the Kentucky Conference of the M. E. Church. 
His death occurred in 1888. 

Upon the organization of the Louisville Conference 
in 1846, its first Secretary was Alanson C. DeWitt, one 
of the class admitted this year. In an address at the 



206 Methodism in Kentucky 

Jubilee Session of that Conference in 1898, Rev. James 
A. Lewis says of him : "He was the first secretary of 
this body, and served, in all, fourteen years. He had 
every requisite for this office : an accurate ear, a ready 
pen, a clear mind, a fine voice, and unfailing courtesy. 
He received a good education far his day, read much, 
thought much, and wrote much. He was well In- 
formed, a fine sermonizer, a popular preacher, and an 
elegant Christian gentleman. Forty years ago he was 
considered a pulpit orator. He had not been effective 
since 1858. He was blind for the last sixteen years. 
He has no doubt entered into the realm of light. He 
died December 10, 1892." 

Andrew J. McLaughlin traveled the Burlington, 
Hopkinsville, Mt. Pleasant, Taylorsville, Covington, 
and Jefferson circuits, and was superannuated in 1843. 
He was continued in this relation in 1844, but joined 
the Ohio Conference of the M. E. Church in 1845. 

1837. The Hall of Representatives, at Frankfort, 
was the place of meeting for the Kentucky Conference 
in 1837. Bishop Roberts, for the last time, presided 
over his Kentucky brethren. He had been with them 
often and they respected <and loved him. 

As soon as the Conference was organized, Thomas 
Waring offered a resolution, asking for the appoint- 
ment of a committee "to take under consideration the 
necessity and expediency of publishing the Minutes of 
this Conference for the use land benefit of the preachers 
and members within its bounds." At this time a mere 
skeleton of the Conference Journal was published in 
the General Minutes, but no other publication of the 
Journal of the Kentucky Conference had been made. 
For some reason the brethren did not favor it, and the 
resolution was defeated very much to the regret of 



Methodism in Kentucky 207 

the future historian. 

The preachers were very much wedded to the cir- 
cuit plan. There had been some tendency toward mak- 
ing stations out of small towns, which hampered the 
operations of the preacher and gave him a meager sup- 
port. A resolution was passed, asking that a com- 
mittee study this matter, and so arrange the appoint- 
ments as to cut out the stations (except in cities) , and 
"form small circuits, consisting of from ten to twelve 
appointments, and that some principal town be at the 
head of every such circuit, and that one or two preach- 
ers be appointed to all circuits, as their needs may de- 
mand." The seven Presiding Elders were made the 
committee, but the action of the Conference had but 
little effect in checking the trend toward station work. 

Abraham Funk, of LaGrange, had died during the 
preceding year, and the announcement was made that 
he had left a bequest of $5,000 to the Methodist Book 
Concern. It was ordered that the money, which was 
in the hands of William Gunn, be paid over to the 
Agent at Cincinnati. 

From the beginning, the Kentucky Conference has 
been furnishing men for the work in other States. The 
reader of these pages can scarcely have failed to notice 
the frequency with which men have been transferred 
to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, or Mississippi. At 
this session the rumor got into the air that H. H. Kav- 
anaugh was to be transferred to Missouri, and resolu- 
tions were passed respectfully requesting Bishop Rob- 
erts to leave him in this Conference. This was done. 

Andrew Peace and Hiram Baker, who had located 
sometime before, were re-admitted at this Conference. 
Biaker located the following year, and Peace was trans- 
ferred, in 1840, to Missouri. 



208 Methodism in Kentucky 

Moses B. Evans was also transferred to Missouri, 
and Bradford Frazee, who had come to us from Ohio 
in 1835, was transferred to Mississippi, where from 
1836 to 1839, he was President of Elizabeth College, 
perhaps the oldest college for women in all the South. 

As already stated, James J. Harrison, Theophilus 
Powell, Greenup Barker, and Seybourne Crutchfield 
were discontinued, Barker was discontinued on ac- 
count of family afflictions, and Crutchfield because he 
owned slaves. M. L. Eads, A. D. Fox, T. S. Davis, Bu- 
ford Farris, A. L. Alderson, Henry Edmundson, George 
S. Savage, W. S. MeMurray, and Luke P. Allen were 
located. Hooper Evans, a most godly man, was lost by 
death, July 22, 1837. 

A class of sixteen was received on trial, viz., Wright 
Merrick and Wesley G. Montgomery, from the Minerva 
circuit; Williams B. Kavanaugh, from Mt. Sterling Sta- 
tion; John B. Perry, from Newcastle circuit; William 
D. Matting, from Lebanon; Joel Peak, from Burling- 
ton; Walter Shearer, from Liberty; Albert H. Red- 
ford, from Shelbyville; Lorenzo D. Harlan, from Glas- 
gow; Edmund M. Johnson, from Cynthiana; John C. 
Hardy, from Little Sandy ; Moses Levi, from Louis- 
ville; Jesse P. Murrell, from Columbia; William McD. 
Abbott, from Port William ; while Jedidiah Foster and 
Calvin Lewis came to us from Ohio. 

Of these who were this year admitted on trial, 
Wright Merrick and Jesse P. Murrell were, at their 
own request, discontinued at the end of one year.* 
William D. Matting, who came to us from the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, and wias said to have been a 

*Wrig:ht Merrick was Principal of the Junior section of the 
Preparatory Department of Transylvania University while Dr. 
Basccm was President of that institution. 



Methodism in Kentucky 209 

fine preacher, after serving the Elizabeth, Danville, 
Salt River, and Millersburg circuits, located. At the 
same time, Calvin Lewis located after traveling the 
Princeton, Logan, Minerva and Covington charges. 
Lorenzo D. Harlan gave nine years to the work, lo- 
cating in 1846. We know but little of him. . 

Walter Shearer was in the Conference ten years 
before he located in 1847, but he was not at ease in the 
local relation. When the Western Virginia Conference 
was organized in 1850, he was re-admitted in that Con- 
ference, and for twenty-six years labored faithfully 
and efficiently on circuits and districts in West Vir- 
ginia. He was born near Monticello, Wayne county, 
Kentucky, September 12, 1813, and died December 
17, 1878, 

Edmund M. Johnson came into the Conference from 
the Cynthiana circuit, and gave eleven years of labor 
to hard appointments, then located in 1848. 

Wesley Grimes Montgomery was born in Licking 
county, Ohio ; was converted and joined the Methodist 
Church when thirteen; licensed to exhort when only 
seventeen. Receiving the best education he could get 
in the subscription schools of his neighborhood, he 
spent one year in Dennison University, then two and a 
half years in the University of Ohio. He taught a 
high school in the city of Columbus, after which he 
came to Augusta College, from which he graduated In 
1837. Received into the Conference that same year, he 
spent twelve years in the itinerancy. In 1845, he went 
to Indian Territory and taught a school among the 
Choctaw Indians. Returning to Kentucky, he was 
made Presiding Elder of the Guyandotte District, then 
a part of the Kentucky Conference. His last work in 
this Conference was on the Flemingsburg circuit, but 



210 Methodism in Kentucky 

here Ms health failed, and he was compelled to locate. 
He married Miss Julia A. Plummer, of Fleming county* 
then went to Northwestern Ohio, where he taught 
school and farmed until October 27, 1892, when he died, 

John B. Perry was an Irishman, born In Belfast, 
Ireland, May 23, 1813. His father brought him to 
America when he was three years old, and they lived 
in Philadelphia. In 1836, he came to Kentucky. He 
was then a preacher and traveled the Newcastle cir- 
cuit under the Presiding Elder. In 1846, he fell into 
the Louisville Conference, labored there until 1853, 
when health failed, and, until July 1, 1874, he was on 
the superannuate list. "In many respects, a model 
Methodist preacher. He was never unemployed 
never triflingly employed doing everything at the 
time, and having time for everything." In his memoir 
it is said that "he was remarkable for his childlike, 
unsuspecting simplicity of character an Israelite in- 
deed, in whom there was no guile." 

Joel Peak was another of the men who fell into the 
Louisville Conference at its organization. Born in 
Mason county, he was brought up in Scott, and was 
converted and joined the Church in 'Georgetown, He 
was in the active ministry twenty-two years, and a 
supernumerary land a superannuate fifteen years. "A 
fine singer, an earnest, practical preacher, sometimes 
even powerful/' In earlier life he was quite a revival- 
ist. Many were brought to Christ through his efforts. 

Moses Levi was a converted Jew, and ta most extra- 
ordinary man. We shall allow Dr. Bedford to tell us 
about him: 

He was born in Charleston, South Carolina, April 4. 1786. 
His parents were lineal descendants of Abraham, and claimed 
to be of the tribe of Levi, and brought up their son in the Jew- 
ish religion. He was converted in 1820* We have no advice as 



Methodism in Kentucky 211 

to the time lie came to Kentucky. We first saw Mm at the Con- 
ference held In Shelbyville, In 1835, where lie was a visitor, and 
where his sweet singing attracted niuch attention. We learned 
that he resided In Louisville, where he was engaged In business 
as a merchant tailor, and was useful as a local preacher. At 
the Conference of 1837 he was admitted on trial. Without the 
advantages of an English education, and, indeed, without being- 
able to read, he passed a creditable examination before the com- 
mittee to examine applicants for admission on trial of which 
Mr. Bascom was chairman. He answered the questions submit- 
ted to him, on geography and history, with as much accuracy 
as though he had been a diligent student in these departments. 
Not a line of Blair's Rhetoric had ever been read to him, and yet 
his examination was highly creditable. The figures he em- 
ployed, and the Illustrations he used, though not the same as 
those used by the distinguished author, were equally forcible 
and expressive. On English grammar he was at fault in the 
theory, but passably accurate In practice. "I could never," he 
said to Mr. Bascom, "see the sense in going over nouns, com- 
punctions, insurrections, and congregations." In the books on 
theology he was entirely at home. Orthodox In his religious 
belief, he was prepared to defend with signal ability the cardi- 
nal truths of the Bible. When asked by Mr. Bascom whether 
he had read the works of Wesley and Fletcher, Ms reply was, 
**You may report that I believe them all, with the exception of 
Mr. Wesley's sermon on the resurrection of the inferior animal 
creation." With the Bible and Hymn-book he was perfectly fa- 
miliar. We have been present when he read his lessons from 
the Old and New Testaments, with the Bible before him, and 
when he would line Ms hymn, although he did not recognize a 
letter. We have heard him when he quoted in support of his 
positions as many as sixty passages of Scripture In a sermon, 
giving the chapter and verse, with the most perfect accuracy. 

On the LaGrange circuit, where we now find him (1838), 

the churches where he preached were crowded with people who 
were attracted by the truths of the Bible as presented by this 
son of Abraham, With a keen, ringing voice he could be dis- 
tinctly heard in the largest assemblies, and he proclaimed the 
tidings of a Redeemer's love, and invited the Church to a higher 
life, and sinners to repent and turn to God. While Ms singing 
attracted hundreds, many more were aroused by Ms powerful 

exhortations Before he left for the ensuing Conference four 

hundred and thirty-three persons had "passed from death unto 
life," and "were added to the Church." Western Cavaliers. 

This is very remarkable. We shall attempt no ex- 
planation. Dr. Bedford was also admitted at this Con- 
ference, and was present at the examination of which 
he speaks. Moses Levi organized the church at Bloom- 
field. Wherever he went revivals resulted His death 



212 Methodism in Kentucky 

was reported at the Conference of 1852, but no memoir 
of him appears. 

Of the class admitted In 1837, fhc best known is 
Albert Henry Bedford, author of "The History of 
Methodism in Kentucky/' "The Western Cavaliers/ 9 
and other books. He was born In St. Louis, Mo., No- 
vember 18, 1818. Meeting with a painful accident in 
early childhood, his right arm was crippled, and he 
was handicapped by It as long as he lived. An uncle, 
S. W. Topping, brought the boy to Shelbyville, Ken- 
tucky, and determined to give him a classical education 
and fit him for an honorable &nd lucrative profession. 
With an unusually bright mind, the young student 
made rapid progress in his studies, mastering the lan- 
guages and sciences with great readiness. Attending 
a Methodist Sunday School, he was early awakened 
to Ms need of salvation, and it was not long until he 
was graciously converted. Much to the chagrin of 
his uncle, who, at that time was a disciple of Tom 
Paine, he felt his call to the ministry and finally yielded 
to it His first appointment after his admission to the 
Conference was Manchester Mission in the mountains 
of Eastern Kentucky. "Full of zeal and full of energy, 
of wonderful vivacity and superior intelligence and 
talent, he won his way wherever he went. Revivals, 
conversions, and enlargement of the churches cheered 
him In every charge." Memoir. 

As a preacher he showed marked ability, his ser- 
mons being characterized by clearness, strength, and 
earnestness. Thoroughly orthodox, he soon became 
an able defender of the doctrines and usages of his 
Church, "As a debater he was strong, self -poised, and 
fearless. Quick to discover the weak points of his an- 
tagonist and press forward his stronger points in oppo- 



Methodism in Kentucky 213 

sition, he generally won the field and -bore away the 
palm." The degree of Doctor of Divinity was con- 
ferred upon him by two universities, and he was soon 
known throughout the Church and country. In 1844, 
when the great division of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church took place, he was on the Minerva circuit, 
which included the town of Augusta. Joseph S. Tom- 
linson, then President of Augusta College and a very 
able man, one who was pronounced by some "the 
ablest debater in America," took a strong stand in fa- 
vor of the North, determined to take with him into the 
Northern Church the congregations of the Minerva 
circuit. Though much younger and less experienced 
than Dr. Tomlinson, Bedford met him time after time 
in public debate, and so ably defended the position of 
the South that he saved every church in the circuit to 
Southern Methodism, except the church at Augusta! 

In 1846, Dr. Redf ord was transferred to the Louis- 
ville Conference, of which he remained a member until 
his death. 

He liad a rare talent for business and a keen eye to judicious 
investments, and was one of the few itinerant preachers who 
rose from poverty to comparative wealth. He was a man of 
extraordinary industry, and never lost any time nor threw away 
his opportunities to gain a point. He bought and sold more 
books than his brethren, and added the profit to his salaries. No 
man could surpass him in obtaining- subscribers to the church 
periodicals. His success as a book-seller marked him out as the 
man to take charge of the Louisville Conference Book and Tract 
Depository, and his management there led to his election as 
Book Agent at the General Confeence of 1866. For twelve of 
the best years of his life he battled with the varying fortunes of 
the Publishing House, alternating between bright hopes of 
ultimate recovery from its misfortunes and dark visions of fi- 
nancial ruin, until, worn and weary with the burden, he was re- 
lieved by the election of his successor by the General Confer- 
ence of 1878. Pressed in business and broken in health, he 
asked and received a supernumerary relation for two years, 
during which he established in the city of Louisville a religious 
newspaper called The Southern Methodist, in the interest of 
which he traveled extensively and labored assiduously, aiding 



214 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

Ms brethren in their protracted meetings, and doing some of 
the best preaching of his life, expressing great desire to be once 
more fully enlisted in the pastoral work. In 1880, he was ap- 
pointed by Bishop Kavanaugh to the Bowling Green District. 
His last work was in Bowling Green Station, to which he was 
appointed for two years by Bishop McTyeire, and in which he 
reported a considerable Increase in the membership. Here he 
was stricken with a fearful fever, from the effects of which he 
never recovered. Memoir. 

Besides The History of Methodism in Kentucky, a 
work of three volumes, bringing that history down to 
1832; and The Western Cavaliers, a continuation of 
that history to 1844, Dr. Bedford wrote "The Life and 
Times of H. H. Kavanaugh," U A History of the Organi- 
zation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South," and 
two or three other books of less importance. The 
Church will ever be indebted to Dr. Bedford for his 
historical researches and for his able defense of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Every future his- 
torian of the Church must make use of the produc- 
tions of his pen. He died at Nashville, Tennessee, Oc- 
tober 17, 1884, at the age of sixty-six. "So passed away 
one who bad been for many years as influential and as 
much honored as any man whose name was ever re- 
corded on the roll of the honored dead in the annals 
of the Louisville Conference/' Memoir. 

For many years the name of Jedidiah Foster was 
familiar to Methodists in the Eastern part of the State. 
He was a good man and did a good work on better class 
circuits. He was not one of the "Loyial Eighteen" who 
located and went to the M. E. Church in 1865, but his 
sympathies were with them, and though he received 
an appointment as Presiding Elder of the Shelbyville 
District that year, he withdrew from the Southern 
Church in time to unite with the Kentucky Conference 
of the M. E. Church which met in March, 1866, He 
came to us from the Ohio Conference in 1837. We are 



Methodi-sm in Kentucky 215 

not familiar with Ms history after he went to the M. 
E. Church, though he lived long after forming this con- 
nection. He died in 1896. 

William McD. Abbett was bom in Pennsylvania in 
1803, of Baptist parentage. He came to Carrollton, 
Kentucky, when about fifteen years of age. In 1826, 
the venerable Henry Ogburn officiating, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Margaret S. Winslow, of Carrollton, a 
daughter of one of the finest Methodist families in the 
State. He was in the ministry for fifty-one years, dur- 
ing which time he served such appointments as Dan- 
ville, Lebanon, Versailles, Frankfort, LaGrange, and 
Harrodsburg. He spent four years each on the Mays- 
ville, Covington, and Shelbyville Districts. For four 
years he was Superintendent of the Kentucky Institute 
for the Education and Training of Feeble Minded Chil- 
dren, and for two years was chaplain of the State 
Prison at Frankfort. He superannuated in 1875, and 
returned to Carrollton where he lived until his peace- 
ful death in 1888. At his death he left, in trust, to the 
stewards of the Carrollton church a legacy of $1,000 
stock in the Carrollton National Bank, the yearly divi- 
dend to be equally divided between the Preachers* Aid 
Society of the Kentucky Conference and the Woman's 
Missionary Society of Carrollton. "An intelligent, 
devoted, practical, successful Methodist preacher." 

It was a little remarkable that William McD. Ab- 
bett and John C. Hardy should join the Conference to- 
gether, each serve for forty-one years, die the same 
year (1888), and be subjects of the same memorial ser- 
vice. John Collins Hardy was a native of Ohio. After 
reaching his twenty-first year, he was licensed to 
preach by Rev. John Collins, (for whom he was 
named) and traveled for two years in the Ohio Con- 



216 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

ierence. He was then discontinued at his own re- 
quest, came to Kentucky, and In 1837 was admitted 
Into the Kentucky Conference. From the first he was 
recognized as an able preacher, though he wias too 
modest and retiring to push himself into any sort of 
favor with the people or with the appointing power. 
When it is stated that he was assigned to such charges 
as Lewis, Millersburg, Paris, Mt Sterling (twice), 
Georgetown, and other of the best circuits in the east- 
ern part of the Conference, it will be inferred that he 
was a man of real merit. He was uniformly successful 
in his pastorates, and led many to Christ. He was re- 
tired in 1861, married Miss Malinda B. Fitch, of Lewis 
county,* and made his home not far from Tollesboro 
until his death, May 20, 1888. He was buried in the 
graveyard that surrounds old Bethel church, about 
four miles east of Tollesboro. 

We have reserved until the last the name of Williams 
Barbour Kavanaugh, youngest brother of Bishop H. 
H. Kavanaugh. He was born in Clark county, Febru- 
ary 17, 1807. It was the policy of Mrs. Kavanaugh to 
have each of her sons learn a trade, and her youngest 
was not an exception to this rule. He was apprenticed 
to a tanner and currier, as was his brother Benjamin. 
When in his thirteenth year, he was happily converted, 
with him a distinct -and well-defined experience. His 
first appointment was to the Jefferson circuit. After 
remaining in the Kentucky Conference for three years, 
he was transferred to the Eock River Conference in 
Illinois, and appointed a missionary among the Sioux 
Indians. He returned to Kentucky in 1843, traveled 
until 1849, located for a few years, was re-admitted, 

*She was a sister of Dr. Josiah Fitch, long a member of the 
Kentucky Conference. 



Methodism in Kentucky 217 

and spent four years on the Covington, and two years 
on the Maysville District. In 1862, when the Kentucky 
Conference was held at Flemlngsbnrg, and no Bishop 
could get through the lines of the Federal army in or- 
der to preside, he was elected President and presided 
over the session. In 1878 he was transferred to the 
Los Angeles Conference, where he presided over the 
Los Angeles District for four years, then over the San 
Luis O'bispo District. Family afflictions induced Mm 
to return to the Kentucky Conference, where he con- 
tinued in active service until 1889, when he was su- 
perannuated. His biographer says of Mm: 

He was a man of brawn and brain, who cared little for the, 
matter of outward appearances, and though genial in temper, 
was indifferent to the conventionalities of society. He was a 
careful reader, who aimed to develop and assimilate what he 
read. Sometimes his thoughts led him into speculative chan- 
nels. His pulpit deliverances were usually concise and logical 
and were characterized more by the doctrinal than evangelistic 
quality. He was a sower rather than a reaper a pioneer blaz- 
ing the way through the forests of error and preparing the way 
for the coming kingdom. He was always at his best in the 
pulpit, a preacher rather than a pastor. Some considered him 
the equal of his two distinguished brothers, Dr. B. T., and Bish- 
op H. H. Kavanaugh. Comparisons, however, need not be made 
as each had gifts and adaptations peculiar to himself. Brother 
Kavanaugh was the last of a trio of stalwart preachers, whose 
memories will -be preserved in the history of the Church, and 
who have contributed much in giving our Kentucky Conference 
connectional fame. 

Brother Kavanaugh died In Pendleton county, July 
31, 1892, when In his eighty-sixth year. He lies buried 
at FSalmouth, Kentucky, 

1838. Service upon the circuits of the Kentucky 
Conference was still hard in 1838. Not many of these 
circuits had fewer than twenty preaching places, and 
required four or five sermons a week, and three or 
four weeks to make a round. While we have no statis- 
tics on the matter, we know that few of the charges in 



218 Methodism in Kentucky/ 

the Conference had parsonages, and generally, if the 
preacher was married, he had to provide his own 
house In which to live. The strain upon the men was 
still 'severe and many of them dropped out of the work 
in a few years. Of the eleven men admitted on trial 
In 1938, only four remained beyond eight or ten years. 

George W. Simeoe, coming up from the Falmouth 
circuit, had been admitted in 1834, but at the end of 
the year was discontinued because he had "failed to at- 
tend to his work." This time he remained three years 
and was discontinued by vote of the Conference. 

Bedford tells us that few young men in the minis- 
try gave greater promise of usefulness than did Peter 
0. Meeks. He came to the Conference this year with 
a recommendation from the Minerva circuit. He was 
a graduate of Augusta College. His first appointment 
was to the Fleming circuit as the colleague of James 
Ward. Then with Richard Deering, he traveled the 
Danville and Harrodsburg circuit. After a year at 
Barboursville, he was assigned to Versailles, but early 
in the year he fell a victim to the cruel shafts of death, 
and thus were blighted all the fair promises of a most 
useful career. 

Elihu Green, another of the class of 1838, died in 
1843, at the close of a successful year on the Bowling 
Green circuit. He was from Madison county, and 
came of that excellent Methodist family for whom 
Green's Chapel was named. "He was much loved by 
the people of his charge/' Memoir. 

Another who came up this year recommended by the 
Madison Quarterly Conference was Peter Duncan. He 
served but one year in what is now the Kentucky Con- 
ference at Irvine, but met assignments in Louis- 
ville Conference territory at Glasgow, Greensburg, Big 



in Kentucky 219 

Spring", Hartford, Greenville, and Morganfield, then 
after a few years on the list of Superannuates, located 
in 1852. 

David H. Davis was from the Winchester circuit. 
He spent Bine years in the Kentucky Conference, and 
in 1847 was transferred to North Carolina. After a 
year in that State, he located. 

Valentine C. Holding, if related at all to Richard 
and James D. Holding, was very distantly related. Af- 
ter three years at Gr-eenupsburg, Williamsburg, and 
Lebanon, he was discontinued at his own request. 

Allen Sears eaxne recommended from the Burling- 
ton circuit. He served the Conference acceptably until 
1845, when the Conference voted to adhere to the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South. He was one of five 
who voted against adherence to the Southern body, and 
availed himself of the privilege, provided by both the 
Plan of Separation and the Conference Resolutions, of 
adhering, "without blame or prejudice of any kind," to 
the Northern branch of the Church. He connected 
himself with the Indiana Conference. 

Stephen A. Rathbun was one of the four who con- 
tinued in the itinerant ranks beyond the eight or ten 
years. He came to the Conference from the northeast- 
ern part of the State, and the greater part of his 
ministerial life was spent in that section. When the 
Western Virginia Conference was organized in 1850, 
he was a member of that body, and continued in its ser- 
vice until some time during the War Between the 
States. There are no published Minutes of the West- 
ern Virginia Conference from 1860 to 1866. After the 
disturbed conditions incident to the war had subsided, 
and after regular sessions of the Conference were re- 
sumed, the name of Stephen A. Rathbun does not ap- 



220 Methodism in Kentucky 

pear. We are not Informed as to the time or place of 

his death. 

The name of William H. Anderson introduces us 
to a most loveable man, who lived long iand filled many 
important positions. He was born in Wilmington, 
North Carolina, Sept 17, 1817, but was brought up in 
Kichmond, Virginia, whither his father had removed in 
1827. He was prepared for college 'at Wilbraham, 
Massachusetts, and graduated from Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, at Middletown, Connecticut- In 1835, his father 
removed to Louisville, Kentucky, and to this place his 
Son followed him in 1837. Having been graciously 
converted while a student at Wesleyan University, he 
felt that it was his duty to enter the ministry, and was 
licensed to preach in 1838, the same year that he was 
admitted on trial Well educated, with a pleasing per- 
sonality, a popular style in his pulpit administrations, 
deeply religious and with a burning zeal for souls, he 
was remarkably successful from the very first Many 
were brought to Christ in his first charge at Newcastle. 
At LaGrange, then at Bowling Green, he was equally 
useful in building up the Church. In 1842 he was sent 
to the city of Frankfort, and was not only pastor of the 
church at that place, but was Agent for Transylvania 
University. Before the year closed he was called to the 
chair of English in that institution, then under the 
Presidency of Henry B. Bascorn. He retained this po- 
sition for three years, then was appointed pastor of 
the church at Lexington. In 1850 he was elected Edi- 
tor of the Methodist Quarterly Review, but declined to 
accept the position. In 1854, he was transferred to 
Missouri and for five years was President of St. Charles 
College, then for several years was President of Cen- 
tral College. In 1866 he was a delegate to the General 



Methodism in Kentucky 221 

Conference from the Missouri Conference, though, ac- 
cording to the Minutes, lie was at that time pastor of 
Chestnut Street Church, in Louisville, and had been a 
pastor in Louisville for three years! In 1869 he be- 
came President of Wesleyan University at Florence, 
Alabama, where he remained for three years. From 
1876 to 1879, he was President of Kentucky Wesleyan 
College, then located at Millersburg. After resigning 
this position, he taught on-e year at Brooksville, and 
was pastor of the church at that place. He was then 
stationed at Nicholasville, Carlisle, and at Shannon and 
Sardis. He died May 2, 1893, and lies buried in East- 
ern Cemetery, at Louisville, not far from the grave of 
Bishop Baseom. He was scholarly, polished in man- 
ner, a thorough gentleman, an excellent preacher, and 
one of the most beloved men of his day.* He was in 
the ministry for fifty-five years. 

After the death of Elkanah Johnson on January 5, 
1885, we heard Dr. Josiah W. Fitch say on the Con- 
ference floor that he was a truly great man and a great 
preacher. Dr. Bedford pronounces him "one of the 
most remarkable men in the Conf erence." His biogra- 
pher, Rev. George S. Savage, says: 

Brother Johnson was in the ministry forty-seven years, faith- 
ful, earnest, laborious. Not a man of many books, but of the 
Book, preferring that the Bible should be its own commentary. 
Thoughtfully, carefully, analytically, he studied to know the 
mind of the Spirit in Divine Revelation. His manner of preach- 
ing was peculiar. He imitated no one. His sermons were dis- 
tinguished for their soundness, force and power. He com- 
manded attention wherever he ministered, and his labors were 

*Dttring his last years the writer knew him well. He was a 
great friend of my wife's family, having written the obituaries 
of her grandfather, Eev. George Strother, and of her father, 
Rev. Jeremiah Strother. A few months before his death, he was 
in our home at Stanford, Ky., and baptized our little girl, Sara 
Arnold. 



222 Methodism in Kerducky __._._ 

abundantly successful in instructing: and building up the Church. 
His style was pure, chaste, and of the best English, and his ser- 
mons when delivered would be found ready .for the press. 

Born in Shelby county; joined the Methodist Church 
when only ten years old ; converted at fifteen ; licensed 
to preach by Rev. B. T. Crouch, and received on trial in 
1838, he served many circuits and districts during the 
thirty-seven years of his active ministry. He was a 
humble man, but much beloved wherever he labored. 
"So deeply interested was he in the mountain districts 
of Kentucky, and so popular was he among the people 
of this large section of the State, that they conceded it 
was his dominion/' He was familiarly known as "Pap 
Johnson/' He took a superannuate relation in 1875, 
not so much because of physical disability on his own 
part, but rather to be able to care for his invalid wife. 
During his last years he lived at Helena, Mason county. 
He was a member of the General Conference in 1866. 
His last words were, "Ready, Lord!* 

In The Western Cavaliers Dr. Bedford gives this 
illuminating reference to Elkanah Johnson. He and 
Andrew J. McLaughlin had been sent <as co-workers 
to the Taylorsville circuit in 1839. Speaking of their 
work together, Bedford says : 

Never were two preachers more dissimilar than these, and 
no two men labored more in harmony to advance the cause of 
the Redeemer. If the former was more brilliant, the latter 
(Johnson) was more profound; if the one gained the affections 
and favor of the people sooner, the other held them longer; if 
Mr. McLaughlin was more successful in his appeal to sinners, 
Mr. Johnson was better qualified to build up and establish the 
Church. Side by side these two good men preached and labored 
that sinners might be saved. 

One of the great leaders of the Louisville Confer- 
ence was Nathaniel H. Lee. A Virginian by birth, he 
was brought by his parents when a child to Monroe 
(now Barren) county, Kentucky. His father having 



Methodism in Kentucky 223 

lost his money, it was necessary for the young man to 
secure Ms education as best he could. Arranging with 
Dr. Henry Woods, a Presbyterian minister and Presi- 
dent of Urania College, at Glasgow, Kentucky, for the 
payment of his tuition, he attended that institution. 
He taught school In order to meet Ms obligation. He 
expected to study law, but was converted in -a meeting 
at old Mt. Zion Church, In Barren county, under the 
ministry of J. C. C. Thompson, and, after a severe 
struggle, answered a call to the ministry. He was li- 
censed to preach -and received on trial In the class of 
1838. A diligent student, and faithful in all his work, 
he rose rapidly In his Conference and was soon in the 
place of leadership. His biographer says of him: * e He 
was remarkable as a student; he wasted no time; his 
reading was extensive ; his culture of a high order ; Ms 
mental training was exact; his understanding of the 
subjects he studied was clear and exact." He was an 
able debater and ready at all times to defend the doc- 
trines and usages of his Church from all attacks. For 
four years, from 1869 to 1873, he was President of Lo- 
gan College. He spent many years as Presiding Elder 
in the Louisville Conference. In I860, while Presiding 
Elder of the Louisville District, he was thrown from 
a buggy by a run-away horse, and sustained a fracture 
of the hip joint, which lamed him for the rest of his 
life. Notwithstanding, as soon -as he was sufficiently 
recovered, he persisted In his work, riding a side-saddle 
to places he could not reach In his buggy. He wrote 
much for the papers, and was the author of a book 
entitled, "Inunersionists Against the Bible." After 
three years of superannuation, his death occurred at 
his home near Russellville, June 14, 1831. Tiie night 
before Ms death, he called his family adout Ms bed and 



224 Methodism in Kentucky __ 

gave them Ms parting counsel and blessing. He urged 
them to be Christians and meet him in heaven. At 
his funeral, all his children who were not already 
church members, came forward and united with the 
Church of their father. 

It was in the spring of 1838 that John H. Linn was 
transferred from the Baltimore to the Kentucky Con- 
ference. A Virginian by birth, brought up under 
Presbyterian influences, happily converted in his four- 
teenth year, he made choice of the Methodist Church 
as his spiritual home, and was admitted into the Balti- 
more Conference in 1832. Having married a Ken- 
tucky woman, he was induced to transfer to this Con- 
ference. The death of the lamented Gibbons left the 
Georgetown circuit vacant, and Mr. Linn was appoint- 
ed to that charge, and was re-appointed to it at the 
ensuing Conference. He was a fine preacher and one 
of the most lovable men. Few ministers in Kentucky 
have been more popular, or did a more excellent work, 
We are likely to have occasion to refer to him many 
times in the future, hence we postpone further notice 
until later. 

At this Conference of 1838> held at Danville, Bish- 
ops Waugh and Morris were present, though Bishop 
Waugh was the official President. Henry McDaniel, 
who had long been upon the superannuate list, located, 
as did Thomas Lasley, Silas Lee, Hiram Baker, Foster 
H. Blades, John Carr Harrison, William Helm, and 
Milton Jamieson, Thomas H. Gibbons and Lorenzo IX 
Parker had died during the year, and Wright Merrick 
and Jesse P. Murrdl, declining to receive another ap- 
pointment on account of ill health, were discontinued 
at their own request. 

1839. In 1839 the Conference met in Russdlville, 



c HARics &?>ARSO*S fcg Q . K, VAU6HT 




Methodism in Kentucky 225 

with Bishop Joshua Soule in the Chair. At this Con- 
ference Thomas N. Ralston was elected Secretary, 
and was kept in this position for eleven years. He was 
a splendid Secretary and we have heard it said that he 
was the finest reader ever to occupy the Secretary's 
desk. Under his hand there was a very notable im- 
provement in the Minutes, 

While May 24, 1838, was the centenary of the con- 
version of Mr. Wesley, this, 1839, was the centenary of 
the beginning of the United Societies, out of which had 
grown the Methodist Church. A committee consisting 
of J. S. Tomlinson, B. T. Crouch, Jonathan Stamper, 
H. B. Bascom, and Isaac Coll'ard, was appointed "to 
consider and report on the subject of a Kentucky Con- 
ference Centenary meeting," etc. This Committee 
submitted a report, providing for the holding of suita- 
ble services throughout the Conference, and that col- 
lections be taken in each charge, the receipts to be di- 
vided between missions, education, and the fund for 
the relief of superannuates and the widows and or- 
phans of deceased preachers. What amount was real- 
ized from this offering we do not know, though the im- 
pression is strong upon us that the amount was not 
large. 

A communication was received by the Conference, 
asking for the establishment of a school at Hopkins- 
ville but, so far as our information goes, the Confer- 
ence did not endorse the enterprise. 

Augusta College was, at this time, in great financial 
distress. The panic in money affairs, beginning about 
1837, was marked by the wreck of many fortunes and 
many institutions. Never adequately endowed ; all fees 
placed at the very lowest point in order to enable poor 
students to attend; and specie payments having been 



226 Methodism in Kentucky 

suspended by the banks, the resources of the College 
were strained to the utmost. The salaries of the fac- 
ulty were pitiably small During the ten years that 
Bascom served the institution, he was promised an an- 
nual salary ranging from seven hundred to one thou- 
sand dollars, and never received one half of that in 
cash. In order to serve the institution he had relin- 
quished a salary of fifteen hundred, and he himself has 
let it be known that his expenses, during the ten years 
of his service at Augusta, exceeded his income by at 
least five thousand dollars. "All this went to the Col- 
lege and the place, and is a larger amount by more than 
a thousand dollars, than I have received in cash from 
the trustees of the College in all my life." Matters 
were becoming desperate, and the Conference appoint- 
ed a committee of seven Jonathan Stamper, John 
Tevis, B. T. Crouch, Edward Stevenson, Richard Ty- 
dings, Joseph Marsee, and Gilby Kelly to consider the 
affairs of the College. But they were helpless in the 
presence of such financial stringency as then lay upon 
the whole land. It began to be .-apparent that the Col- 
lege could not survive without speedy relief. 

The health of Mr. Bascom was much impaired. 
His father had sickened, and, after a long illness, died 
in 1833, leaving his widow and several children to Baa- 
corn's care. The widow was Bascom's step-mother and 
the children his half brothers and sisters ; but he took 
them to Augusta, procured a cottage, and became their 
protector and provider. During his father's long ill- 
ness, he. had spent much time watching at the bedside, 
and working with his own hands in repairing fences, 
grubbing out bushes and cultivating the fields in order 
to provide food for the family. Besides this he bor- 
rowed heavily in order to provide for them the neces- 



Methodism in Kentucky 227 

sities of life. As a result of this and the small salary 
he received, he became heavily involved in debt, and in 
order to extricate himself, he began delivering lectures 
in various cities. His Lectures on the "Comparative 
Claims of Christianity and Infidelity" were first deliv- 
ered in Cincinnati in response to a request from that 
city. The lectures were afterwards delivered in New 
York, New Haven, Middletown, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, and elsewhere. These lectures, with other ad- 
dresses he was called upon to deliver, added much to 
his fame as a thinker and speaker, but so overtaxed 
his strength that he suffered a complete break-down 
while at Petersburg, Virginia, and was, for some time, 
under medical care. At this session of the Kentucky 
Conference, Bascom had been appointed to give an 
address on Education, but was too unwell to do so. He 
was excused from the task by vote of the Conference. 

A proposition was made at this session to divide 
the Conference, chiefly because of the long distance 
between the eastern and western limits., This, when 
we consider that the only mode of inland travel at that 
time was by horseback or stage coach, seemed a suffi- 
cient reason for a division, but the Conference was not 
yet ready for it. The division was not made until 1846. 
Personally, we wish it had never been made, 

In 1839 the question of temperance legislation was 
receiving most anxious attention from the Methodist 
people. Drunkenness was appalling. The State had 
a very liberal license system, of which the liquor inter- 
ests, then as now, took advantage. From the begin- 
ning the Church had taken strong ground against the 
traffic. The Conference instructed all its preachers to 
have petitions circulated among the people asking the 
Legislature to enact; suitable laws to check the vice of 



228 Methodism in Kentucky^ ; 

intemperance, and to so change the licensing system as 
to lessen the number of grog shops and givt the peo* 
pie a chance to protect themselves from the ravages 
of these promoters of drunkenness and crime. The use- 
of intoxicating liquors wa* amazingly common. Scarce- 
ly any social function could take place without it lied- 
ford tells us that, in 1837 5 he knew a minister of an- 
other Church to preach a funeral sermon in a private 
house. "On the sideboard was to be seen, during the 
service, a gallon-bottle of whiskey. When the servic, 
closed the preacher stepped forward and poured some 
in 'a glass and drank it. In a few moments the bottle 
was empty." He tells also of a gentleman who, one 
evening, sent to the house of a deacon for a glass of 
whiskey for a sick servant, knowing that he kept it 
"He replied that he had only one gallon, -and there was 
a prayer meeting that night at his house, and he could 
not spare it." Peter Cartwright tells of its free use at 
baptizings. The Methodists were the first to cry out 
against this social custom. They were ridiculed and 
abused, denounced as "stingy/ 1 and many refused to 
assist them in their harvests, house-raisings, etc., be- 
cause they would not serve whiskey. We now glory in 
their opposition to a usage that entailed such evil con- 
sequences upon that and future generations. 

The time had again come for the election of dele- 
gates to the General Conference. Remembering their 
experience on a former occasion s the Conference, be- 
fore entering upon the election, resolved that if more 
than the number to which they were entitled received 
a majority of the votes cast, those receiving the high- 
est number should be declared elected. They were en- 
titled to five delegates, ,and Joseph S. Tomlinson, Henry 
B. Baseom, 4ontlMO Stamper, T, N. ftalstaq and 



Methodism in Kentucky 229 

George W. Taylor were elected, with H. H. Kavanaugh 
and B. T. Crouch as alternates. 

George S. Savage, William -S. Evans, and Elchard 
L Dungan were re-admitted, and James J. Harrison, 
who had been admitted in 1836, but was discontinued 
at the end of the year, was again admitted, but served 
only for another year. Nine new men were received 
on trial Of these James I. George located in 1843; 
the name of Samuel P. Turner disappears from the 
Minutes in 1845; John Vance located this same year, 
1845; Jesse Cromwell located in 1846; while John C. 
Basket, "extremely popular among the people," and 
"abundantly useful/' died while on the Irvine circuit in 
the spring of 1844. 

Andrew M. Bailey gave ten years to the work in 
Kentucky and what is now West Virginia, the last 
year on the Barboursville District. He then went as a 
missionary to California, where he served for many 
years in leading stations and Districts. He located in 
1868. 

Aaron Moore was born in Ohio, but was descended 
from an aristocratic English family, his grandfather 
being a member of the British Parliament Yet when 
he arrived at manhood, the subject of this sketch did 
not have even a common school English education. But 
he had been soundly converted, and had a 'burning de- 
sire to preach the gospel. The Conference hesitated to 
receive him, but he possessed a clear head, and had 
unusual gifts in prayer and exhortation, and was fi- 
nally received. He made rapid progress as a preacher. 
The people were soon thronging to hear him. "Warm- 
hearted and genial and a little odd and independent in 
speech and manner, his sallies of wit and humor were 
often greatly enjoyed by the Conference/' (Jubilee 



230 Methodism in Kentucky 

Addresses). He was only two years in what is now 
the Kentucky Conference, the rest of the time until the 
division of the Conference in 1846 ? he labored in the 
western part of the State. He remained in the Louis- 
ville Conference until his death, which occurred at 
Hadisonville, Kentucky, October 15, 1863. 

John F. South was admitted this year and remained 
a member of the Kentucky and Louisville Conferences 
until 1855, when he located. Our information concern- 
ing him is very limited, but judging from the appoint- 
ments he filled, he was quite effective. His last appoint- 
ment was to the Louisville District, and for three years 
previous to that time to the Glasgow District. 

The man of this class who remained in the service 
for the longest time was Seri'ah S. Deering. He was 
licensed to preach an 1834, his license bearing the sig- 
nature of Jonathan Stamper as Presiding Elder. To 
continue in the ministry for sixty-seven years is a priv- 
ilege vouchsafed to but few men, but S. S. Deering was 
granted this distinction. He was five years a local 
preacher, and it was sixty-two years from the time he 
entered the Conference to the time of his death. 

He was born in Greenup county, Kentucky, April 
10, 1815. He was a brother of Rev. Richard Deering, 
who has already had mention in these pages, and who 
was in the ministry sixty-t;vo years. He was not as 
great a preacher as his brother, yet he had a good 
mind, well stored with useful information, and was 
deeply read in the theological literature of his Church. 
Upon his entrance into the Conference he was sent to 
the Yellow Banks circuit as colleague of A. H, Red- 
ford, and before he had been there long a great revival 
broke out in the circuit, and a large number were 
brought to Christ. Brother Deering was exceedingly 



Methodism in Kentucky 231 

zealous and looked well after all the details of his work 
He built churches and parsonages, organized Sunday 
schools, established family altars, supplied his people 
with the literature of the Church, visited from house to 
house, praying with and exhorting persons to give 
themselves to Christ. He was always on the search for 
souls. When camp meetings had fallen into disuse, he 
revived them and established on his circuits at least 
three encampments which continued to exist long after 
their founder was gone Deering Camp, in Nicholas 
county; High Bridge, in Jessamine; and Bethel Grove, 
in Kenton county. Few men among us have been more 
zealous and useful than S. S. Deering. He was twice 
happily married, first, in 1840, to Miss Martha Nail, 
of Hartford, Kentucky, and second, in 1880, to Mrs. 
Mary Stringer, of Richmond, Kentucky. Brother Deer- 
ing died at Nicholasville, January 27 S 1901. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE CALM BEFORE THE STORM 

A flood of petitions and memorials asking for ac- 
tion favorable to the abolition of slavery poured in up- 
on the General Conference of 1836. Of course the 
Church could not abolish slavery. It could, however, 
exert a tremendous influence upon the States. It could 
demand of the various Legislatures the emancipation of 
those held in bondage, and it could free itself from, all 
complicity with the institution by making slave-hold- 
ing ^ bar to membership. But the General Confer- 
ence of 18&6 did neither of these things. On the con- 
trary, the delegates, in a Pastoral Address issued to 
the members of the Church, declared that the respon- 
sibility for the existence or non-existence of slavery 
rested wholly with the Legislatures of the several 
States ; that the constitutional compact which held the 
States together as a nation left the regulation of this 
matter with the States, thus putting it beyond the con- 
trol of either the general government or of any eccles- 
iastical body. This shows clearly the thought of the 
Church at that time. They further declared that "we 
have come to the solemn conviction that the only safe, 
scriptural, and prudent way for us, both as ministers 
and people, to take, is wholly to refrain from the agi- 
tating subject which is now -convulsing the country, 
and consequently the Church, from end to end, by call- 
ing forth inflammatory speeches, papers and pamph- 
lets." This conservative attitude did not check the 
agitation ; it only intensified it. The abolitionists, who 
demanded immediate and uncompensated emancipat- 
tion" redoubled their activities. Defeated in their hope 
of securing favorable action by the General Confer- 

232 



Methodism in Kentucky 233 

ence, they appealed to the people. Public meetings 
were held; anti-slavery societies were organized both 
in the Church and out of it ; papers, both religious and 
secular, were established for propaganda purposes; 
tons of free literature in the form of books and pamph- 
lets were poured out upon the North and the South; 
everything in their power was done to stir up the 
people. 

In this they finally succeeded, both in and out of 
the Church. A tide of anti-slavery sentiment was rap- 
idly rising in New England and other places in the 
North, which reached its full flow a few years later. 
The act of the British Parliament providing for the 
liberation of the slaves in British territory was passed 
in 1833, and gave a tremendous impulse to abolition in 
this country. The anti-slavery sentiment in the 
Church was only a manifestation of that which pre- 
vailed among all classes in the North and East. Per- 
sons who had hitherto been moderates, were being 
swept from their moorings and carried along with the 
extremists. They found it impossible to withstand the 
pressure of the popular current. In New England, An- 
nual and Quarterly Conferences insisted on expressing 
themselves in resolutions, severely criticising and con- 
demning that part of thfc Church in which connection 
with slavery was tolerated. When Bishop Waugh and 
several of the Presiding Elders refused to allow the 
resolutions introduced, taking the ground that they 
were not legitimate Conference business and tended to 
disrupt the Church, they were subjected to severest 
censure and persecution. Bishop Waugh told them 
plainly that such action would split the Church. But 
the extremists would not be deterred by any such con- 
tingency. A convention held at New Market, New 



234 Methodism in Kentucky 

Hampshire, declared in favor of "complete separation 
from the South and slavery, if necessary, In order to 
prevent the destruction of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church In New England." Of course such things 
stirred the .South, and actions and speeches equally in- 
considerate were frequently indulged. The -Church in 
the South, while regarding slavery as an evil, did not 
consider it a sin In itself, and contended that It was a 
matter for the States to regulate and adjust. An open 
conflict between the two points of view was inevitable. 
At the General Conference of 1840 another flood of 
petitions and memorials was let loose nearly all of 
them from New England, not one from the South. 
But the conservatives were still in the majority, and 
abolition received no more favor than at the previous 
session. The abolitionists were discouraged, and for 
a time the agitation almost ceased. Some predicted that 
it would no more trouble the Church. A considerable 
number, however, losing hope of securing their ends 
through the M. E. Church, left It and organized the 
Wesleyan Methodist Church. This movement first 
started in Michigan, but soon the East, by virtue of 
superior numbers and influence, assumed the leader- 
ship. Orange Scott and other strong men joined the 
new organization, and within three years the Wesleyan 
Methodists numbered something like 20,000 members. 
Wholesale secessions threatened to decimate the M. E, 
Church in New York and New England. Political is- 
sues of the day also served to increase the agitation 
and to intensify the anti-slavery feeling. By 1840 It 
was becoming evident that the Church would soon be 
forced to take a more positive stand in opposition to 
this acknowledged evil, or else suffer loss of both mem- 



Methodism in Kentucky 235 

bers and prestige. But the time was not quite ripe for 

it* 

1840. The Kentucky Conference in 1840 met in 
the Baptist Church at Bardstown, Kentucky, October 
14, Bishop Thomas A. Morris in the chair. T. N. Rals- 
ton was again elected Secretary, with W. M. Crawford 
assistant. For the first time the manuscript journal 
contains a list of the members present and of the ap- 
pointments of the preachers for the following year. " 

Perhaps the most important thing done at this 
Conference was the organization of the Preachers'* 
Aid Society. The Constitution of this Society was pre- 
sented by H. B. Bascom, and beyond doubt the men and 
women who have been so greatly benefitted by this 
agency during the ninety-six years of its existence, are 
indebted to this great man for this splendid institution. 
He was not only a great orator, but also a great eccles- 
iastical statesman. (See Appendix A) 

The Constitution adopted at this time provided that 
local preachers and laymen might be members of the 
Society, and the first President elected was John Arm- 
strong, a layman of Maysville. The 1st Vice President 
was B. T. Crouch; 2nd Vice President, Jonathan 
Stamper; Treasurer, H. B. Bascom, and Secretary, P. 
A. Savage, then a local preacher of Minerva, Ken- 
tucky. As originally submitted by Bascom, the Consti- 
tution provided that the membership fee should be two 



*The propositions affirmed by the abolitionists and denied by 
the conservatives may be stated thus: All slave-holding is sinful. 
No slave-holder should be retained in the communion of the 
Christian Church. The Methodist Episcopal Church is largely 
responsible. for the continuance of slavery in the United States. 
The Discipline should be changed so as to exclude all slave-hold- 
ers. Immediate and unconditional emancipation is the duty and 
right of all." McTyeire, History, P, 10. 



236 Methodism in Kentucky 

dollars annually, but on motion this was amended and 
the fee fixed at one dollar. The funds of the Society 
were to be invested, and only the income from the in- 
vestments could be used for the benefit of "itinerant 
ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, their 
wives, widows and children." Appropriations were to 
be made "in proportion to the length of time such min- 
isters have been effective traveling preachers, and the 
extent of their labor and sacrifice in the service of the 
Church/' Rev. G. W. Brush was the first Agent the 
Society put in the field, and he collected in cash a little 
more than enough to pay his salary and traveling ex- 
penses, and secured pledges of approximately $4,500. 
He was succeeded by Carlisle Babbitt, who, during the 
two years of his agency, slowly added to the funds. It 
was quite a while before the Society gathered sufficient 
endowment to yield enough to divide among those for 
whom the Society was established. 

The Conference was visited by Eev. B. T. Kava- 
naugh, a brother of Bishop H. EL Kavanaugh; Rev. 
Burr H. McCown, and Rev. T. W. Bottomley. Dr, 
Kavanaugh was then of the Rock River Conference, 
and a missionary to the Indians. He became one of the 
well-known ministers of the connection. Dr. McCown 
was then in Augusta College, while Mr. Bottomley is 
still remembered by the older people of the Louisville 
Conference. He was an Englishman, and was con- 
verted and licensed to preach before coming to Amer- 
ica in 1827. In the spring of 1840, he was admitted on 
trial in the Baltimore Conference, and transferred to 
Arkansas. On his way to that Sate, his wife was 
taken ill, and he was detained in Louisville. While 
here he filled a vacancy in one of the churches of that 
city, and in the fall became a member of the Kentucky 



Methodism in Kentucky 237 

Conference. For many years lie was a most devoted 
member of the Louisville Conference. 

At this Conference the names of George McNelly 
and Elijah M. Bosley were enrolled among the sainted 
dead. James J. Harrison was discontinued. George 
S. Gatewood, John C. Hardy, Daniel S. Barksdale, Rob- 
ert F. Turner, William B. Maxey, Matthew N. Lasley, 
Solomon Pope, John Nevius, and H .B. Pilcher located. 

A class of nineteen was admitted on trial at this 
session, and a larger proportion than usual continued 
with the Conference for several years. 

Henry F. Garey was discontinued at the end of one 
year, while Charles Hendrickson and John Atkinson 
remained only two years. William D. Minga died in 
1841. 

Fielding Bell was a Virginian, educated at St. 
Mary's College, in Maryland, and was for a time a 
practicing physician at Floydsburg, Kentucky. Enter- 
ing the Conference this year, he served Carrollton, 
Burlington, and Newport, then located in 1844. He 
was afterwards readmitted and transferred to Louis- 
iana, where he died in 1867. 

Francis M. English gave most of his ministerial 
life to what is now the Louisville Conference. In 1848, 
he was transferred to the Kentucky Conference and 
sent to LaGrange, but located the next year. He was 
later readmitted into the Louisville Conference, where 
he remained until 1855, when he again retired to the 
local ranks. 

James I. Ferree, John Miller, W. C. Atmore, and 
William R. Price came to us this year, bearing recom- 
mendations from Ohio, where there was a surplus of 
preachers. Price remained in the Kentucky Confer- 
ence until 1855, when he located. Ferree located in 



238 Methodism in Kentucky ___ 

1858, after giving seventeen years of service to- what 
is now the Louisville Conference and one year to 
Cynthiana. 

John Miller was said to have been an excellent 
physician before he entered the ministry. Coming to 
Kentucky in 1840, he was admitted on trial, and was 
soon filling such charges as Shelbyville, Cynthiana, 
Lexington, Scott Street (Covington), Fourth Street, 
(Louisville), and, in 1852, was sent to Paris and Mil- 
lersburg. "The support of his family being doubtful, 
he opened the Millersburg Male and Female Academy 
as a Methodist school, in September." He had asso- 
ciated with him five or six teachers, and the school was 
a success from the beginning. At the end of two years, 
having reached the limit of his pastorate, he was as- 
signed to Versailles and Georgetown, and his school 
was taken over by Dr. George S. Savage. Out of this 
school grew both Kentucky Wesleyan College and the 
Millersburg College for girls. An account of these 
schools falls in a later period of our history. 

W. C. Atmore was a native of Old England, the son 
of a Wesleyan preacher, who dedicated him to God in 
infancy by baptism. He was converted when only 
eight years of age. At eighteen he was licensed to 
preach by the Quarterly Conference in Manchester, 
England, and in 1820 was recommended to the British 
Conference. Coining to America in 1886, he settled at 
New Richmond, Ohio, and, bearing a recommendation 
from the Quarterly Conference of that circuit, was ad- 
mitted on trial in the Kentucky Conference in 1840, in 
which Conference "he continued a faithful and worthy 
member until Ms death. .. .During the years of his 
Christian pilgrimage he was a man of God, enjoying a 
high degree of communion with God and the fellowship 



Methodism in Kentucky 239 

of the saints. Well read In theology, he was a faithful 
expounder of the Scriptures. Rich in Christian expe- 
rience, he was a wise and good pastor. Artless as a 
child, he was unsuspecting as he was unsuspected* As 
a preacher, he was plain and practical, and always 
spiritual." Memoir. He was greatly afflicted in his 
later years, being totally blind and having to be led to 
church by his daughter. He died at his home in Lou- 
isville, August SO, 1880.* 

Zachariah M. Taylor was the son of George W. 
Taylor. He was a member of the Louisville Conference 
until 1874, filling some of the best charges and Dis- 
tricts. We have but little information concerning him, 
but in The Illustrated History of Methodism, a picture 
of him is given in a group of "Leaders of the M. E. 
Church, South, in the Fifties/* In the Minutes of the 
Louisville Conference of 1874, it is stated that his 
"name was stricken from the roll." There is no expla- 
nation, no charges against him are mentioned, and no 
complaints of inefficiency or unacceptability. Just 
why this unusual action was taken we do not know. 

At this same Conference of 1874 it is stated that 
the preachers' "names were called over, one by one, 
and their characters examined and passed, except J. 
S. Wools, who was expelled." He had filled some of the 
leading appointments in the Louisville and Kentucky 
Conferences, and for thirty-four years seems to have 
been an acceptable preacher. Upon what ground his 
expulsion was based we are not informed. 

William D. Trainer was a man of good preaching 
ability and of many excellent qualities. He was as- 
signed to some of our best circuits and stations until 

*He was the father of C. P. Atmore, many years the Presi- 
dent of the Louisville and Nashville railroad. 



240 Methodism in Kentucky 

1855, when complaints growing out of the conduct of 
some of his family were brought before the Confer- 
ence. Brother Trainer was exonerated of all "wicked 
intentions," but owing to embarrassments that would 
beset his ministry because of these matters, he was 

located. 

Leroy C. Danley, a nephew of Jonathan Stamper, 
seems to have been a man of ordinary ability, but "a 
faithful minister of Christ, ever ready for his work/' 
He was not a robust man, and was, for several years, 
on the supernumerary or superannuate list. During 
an epidemic of cholera which visited Kentucky in 1873, 
he was stricken with that disease, and died at his home 
in Garnettsville, Kentucky, July 27th. "He died in 
faith." 

After several years on hard circuits and missions 
in the Kentucky Conference, William Eeed was trans- 
ferred to T^xas in 1852, where we lose sight of him 
after ten years of itinerating in the Lone Star State. 

James E. Nix had what might be called a checkered 
career. After six years of work in the Conference, he 
retired to the local ranks, but in 1853 was readmitted 
and gave three more years to Floydsburg and Owenton. 
By some means he was forced into bankruptcy, failed 
to comply with the disciplinary requirements in such 
cases, and complaints were brought against him. The 
matter was pending in the Conference for five or six 
years. His character was finally passed, and he asked 
for and received a location. 

During a ministry of more than sixty years, George 
W. Crumbaugh found his way into the hearts and af- 
fections of multitudes. A native of Eussellville, he 
was converted under Peter Akers when only ten years 
of age. He had been a local preacher ten years when 




'"* '' f f ' 




TM M TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY, 

JJiJXINUTON, KENTUCKY 

IMshop 11. I!. Ifjiscoiu was its President, 1,S'12-'| ; 7, It; 
is ("lie jn'osoiit "Morrison Hall" of Tnuusylvaniji 



MetJiodism in Kentucky 241 

he was admitted to the Itinerant ranks, and few men 
have been more beloved in the charges he served. Sweet 
spirited, a good preacher, moving among the people 
with kindly helpfulness, he was indeed a messenger 
sent from God. "As a man no breath of suspicion ever 
soiled the pure white of his character. As a preacher 
he ranked above the average in the days of his 
strength. He was a great revivalist, and will have 
many stars in his crown. He was a diligent worker, 
impressing the people everywhere as a man of God. 
He was modest, loving, trustful, faithful." Jubilee 
Addresses. He died March 12, 1895, a member of the 
Louisville Conference. 

It is not easy to write a short sketch of Drummond 
Welburn*. He lived seventy-nin-e years; his ministry 
extended over fifty-seven years, and his life and 
achievements were eventful. Born on the Eastern 
Shore of Virginia, October 22, 1818 ; brought up under 
the influence of a godly mother; with deep religious 
impressions from early childhood; a merchant's clerk 
at the tender age of eight; denied the privileges of even 
a poor school after he was eleven-and-a-half; with de- 
cided literary tastes and an insatiable thirst for 
knowledge ; taking advantage of every opportunity to 
learn ; writing poems that were published in The SI9C- 
urday Evening Post before he was twenty ; coming to 
Lexington, Kentucky, in 1838; entering the Kentucky 
Conference in 1840; serving missions and circuits, sta- 
tions and Districts in the Kentucky and Louisville Con- 
ferences until 1880, when he retired to a supernumer- 
ary relation this is a brief summary of a very busy 
life up to this time. During his long ministry he was 
Presiding Elder of the Louisville, Shelbyville, Coving- 
ton, Maysville and Harrodsburg Districts, and was 



242 Methodism in Kentucky 

pastor of leading stations In both Conferences. After 
Ms retirement, he wrote and published The American 
Epic, an epic poem which passed through four edi- 
tions during his lifetime. The book possessed high 
merit, and contained passages which would not have 
been tame if found in Milton. When Brother Welburn 
died, more Church history was buried with him than 
with any other man in the Kentucky Conference. The 
writer of these lines is indebted to him for many facts 
which appear in these pages. We knew him well, and 
still have in our possession many letters from him 
bearing on historic matters. He died in Nashville, 
Tennessee, and is buried in Cave Hill Cemetery, at 
Louisville, 

We have already spoken of Thomas Bottomley. His 
name will be before us again as we proceed with our 
narrative, and we leave further account of this good 
man until then. 

1841. No Bishop was present at the Conference 
of 1841, affliction in the family of Bishop Andrew 
making it impossible for him to be present., The Con- 
ference met in Maysville, September 15th, and Jona- 
than Stamper was elected to preside. K&lston and 
Crawford were again the Secretaries, 

Several things were done at this Conference whicM 
demand our attention. A committee consisting of H. 
S. Bascom, F. A. Savage, and David Herran, was ap- 
pointed to draft a charter for the Preachers' Aid So- 
ciety, and secure its passage by the Legislature of Ken- 
tucky. Another committee was appointed to collect 
materials for a History of Methodism in Kentucky, 
and at a later Conference Bascom was requested to 
write such a history, but failed to do so. It was nearly 
thirty years later that Redford's volumes were placed 



Methodism in Kentucky 24S 

before the public. 

Another very Important matter was brought for- 
ward. On Wednesday, September 22nd, "It was moved 
and seconded that a special committee of three be ap- 
pointed on the subject of a communication received by 
Brother Bascom from a certain corporation." That 
corporation was the Board of Trustees of Transylva- 
nia University, -at Lexington, and the communication 
contained an offer that the 

"control of Transylvania University, so far as the nomination 
of the faculty in the College proper, the Principal of the Pre- 
paratory Department, together with the direction of the Course 
of Studies, and internal government of said College is con- 
cerned, be, and the same Is hereby made to the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church in the United States, and especially to said Church 
in Kentucky, upon such terms as shall be agreed upon between 
said Church and this Board." 

A committee was appointed, consisting of H. B. 
Bascom, B. T. Crouch, and H. H. Kavanaugh. This 
committee was afterwards enlarged by the addition of 
J, S. Tomlinson and T. N. Ralston. On the following 
day they brought in a report, recommending the ac- 
ceptance of the offer, upon certain prudential condi- 
tions, and the report was unanimously <adopted. 

The country had just passed through a severe fi- 
nancial crisis, and both Transylvania and Augusta 
College were in bad way. One of the stipulations of 
the committee's report was, that the Church should not 
be responsible for any of Transylvania's debts. Au- 
gusta College was suffering for want of adequate 
funds, and the controversy over slavery between the 
North and the South (the Ohio River being the line 
between the two sections) was becoming so acute that 
its patronage was seriously affected. Its professors 
had not been paid even the small salaries that had been 
promised them, and the conviction had begun to set- 



244 Methodism in Kentucky 

tie down upon the Conference that Augusta would have 
to be abandoned. This offer from Transylvania seemed 
a happy solution of the educational problem of Ken- 
tucky Methodism, and the vote to accept the tender of 
the Lexington institution was unanimous, and was 
taken by a rising vote. At the next session it was re- 
ported that a contract had been made with the trustees 
of Transylvania, by the terms of which the "control 
of the literary division of the University has been se- 
cured to the M. E. Church in the United States, and in 
the State of Kentucky especially." An Educational 
Commission had been appointed by the General Con- 
ference with power to take over for the Church insti- 
tutions tendered it, and this commission had agreed to 
adopt Transylvania. The Conference pledged its 
whole-hearted support, and requested the presiding 
Bishop to appoint Dr. B-ascom as Acting President; 
R. T. P. Allen, Burr H. McCown, J. L. Kemp, and 
Thomas H. Lynch to professorships in the institution. 
And thus Transylvania, the oldest school in the West, 
passed under Methodist control. No formal with- 
drawal from Augusta had yet been made, but this ac- 
tion of the Kentucky Conference was understood as a 
virtual abandonment of that institution. The Ohio 
Conference, though attendance from that State had 
fallen off, had not yet abandoned the College, and at its 
following session, passed resolutions censuring the Ken- 
tucky Conference for its action. The following state- 
ment of Dr. Bedford sets forth the matter in clear 
light: : 

For many years the Augusta College was: a^ brilliant success, 
Its halls were crowded with young men destined to occupy a 
commanding eminence in the higher circles of life. Some of 
the finest intellects of the age presided over its fortunes, and 
many of the brightest lights of the medical profession, at the 
bar, and in the pulpit, claimed Augusta College as their alma 



Methodism in Kentucky 245 

mater. Circumstances, however, for which the Kentucky Con- 
ference was not responsible, and over which it had no control, 
broke the power of this once popular institution. The agitation 
of the questions of slavery and abolition exerted an influence 
for harm upon its fortunes that no faculty, however learned, 
could counteract. The Ohio Conference practically f withdrew 
its patronage, because of its location in a slave-holding State, 
while the South, from whence a large proportion of its support 
had been received, declined to send her sons so near the border, 
or to have them educated in the same school with young men 
who held views, and so openly advocated them, adverse to an in- 
stitution that was peculiarly Southern. Before the proposition 
made by the Trustees of Transylvania University, the location 
of the College at Augusta was the subject of comment in Meth- 
odist circles throughout the State, and the opinion was com- 
monly expressed that a removal to some more eligible point 
was requisite, if the Church desired to maintain an institution 
of learning of high grade. The proposition, therefore, to turn 
over Transylvania University to the Conference was not deemed 
otherwise than opportune for the Church. 

The following were admitted on trial in 1841: 
Samuel P. Cummins, Garrett Davis, John B. Ewan, 
Charles B- Parsons, Munford Pelly, Mitchell Land, 
James N. Temple, Moses M. Henkle, William M. 
Humphrey, William Conway, William Lasley, James 
G, Williams, Samuel Glassf ord, John W. Fields, Josiah 
Godbey, Ransom Lancaster, William C. Kimberlin, 
Charles Duncan, Alexander B. Sollars, Samuel Kelly, 
Ajax E. Triplett, George Riach, and Marcus L. King, 

a class of twenty-three. Four were readmitted, viz., 

John Sandusky, EL E. Pilcher, Samuel Veach, and John 
C. Hardy. 

Among those admitted were several splendid men, 
who rendered most valuable service during long terms 
in the Master's vineyard, though five retired after only 
one year William Conway, Charles Duncan, William 
Humphrey, William H. Kimberlin, and James G. 
Williams. Some of these were most useful after drop- 
ping back into the local relation.* 

*William Conway lived in Bath county. His grandson, Dr. 
Seth Conway, was a physician in Sharpsburg, Kentucky. Mrs. 
Seth Conway was very active in missionary ana other C/nurcn 



246 Methodism in Kentucky 

A. IL Triplett located after three years, and John 
W. Fields was transferred to Texas. Garrett Davis 
died during his fourth year, and 'Georgre Rlach retired 
after five years. Marcus L. King was the grandson of 
Rev. John King, who preached the first Methodist ser- 
mon ever delivered in the city of Baltimore. For six 
years he traveled in Kentucky, and located in 1847. 
Samuel P. Cummins gave but six years to the active 
itinerancy, though he was a member of the Kentucky 
and Western Virginia Conferences until 1873, most of 
this time on the supernumerary and superannuate 
lists. 

The first charge served by John B. Ewan was the 
Winchester circuit. After this he was assigned to 
Midway, Bowling Green Station, Orangeburg, George- 
town, Carrollton, and Jessamine and Woodford. He 
located in 1855, a'nd established his residence in Mason 
county, where the writer knew him in his old age. 
He was a member of our church at Helena, and some 
of his sons and daughters are counted among our 
warmest friends. 

Samuel 'Glassford and Alexander B. Sollars each 
spent twelve years as members of the Conference, lo- 
cating in 1853'. Both were good men, but neither took 
rank among the strongest of our preachers. 

After successful pastorates at Albany, Burkesville, 
Somerset, Perryville, and Mackville, Josiah Godbey 
transferred to Missouri, where he labored extensivly, 
and suffered much during the terrible times of the War 
Between the States. He was the father of Dr. John E. 
Godbey, one of the great preachers, editors and think- 

work. William Humphrey lived at Bloomfield until he had 
reached a ripe old age. He was one of the best of men, and one 
of the most careful, painstaking, accurate Recording Stewards 
we ever knew. 



Methodism in Kentucky 247 

ers of our western Methodism. Also the father of Dr. 
Samuel Godbey, at one time assistant editor of the 
Christian Advocate, at Nashville* 

Samuel Kelly was one of four brothers who entered 
the Kentucky Conference. There were few better 
men. His labors in Kentucky and West Virginia were 
greatly blessed. During the trying times In the latter 
State which followed the division of the Church in 
1844, he was Presiding Elder of the Parkersburg Dis- 
trict and pastor at Parkersburg, In the very center of 
the confusion and strife. During the troublous times 
of the Civil War, he was driven out of West Vrginia, 
and came back to Kentucky. In 1862 he was stationed 
in Oynthiana, where he died, September 21, 1864. ^ His 
death was a glorious triumph. He gave to our minis- 
try a son, Rev. Gilby C. Kelly, D. D., who has been pro- 
nounced "the greatest pastor of Southern Methodism." 
From the memoir of Samuel Kelly we take these 
words : "Brother Kelly had but few equals in the pul- 
pit. Sound in theology, bold in conception, and often 
brilliant in fancy appealing no less to the heart than 
to the head he stood a prince among pulpit men. In 
his varied ministerial relations, he proved himself wise 
in counsel, earnest in life, and successful in preaching 
Christ and him crucified/' 

Munf ord Pelly was in the work seven years, Will- 
iam Lasley and Mitchell -Land eight years, and in 
1849, after filling some of the leading stations In the 
Louisville 'Conference, James N. Temple was trans- 
ferred to the Memphis Conference, from which he lo- 
cated in 1851. 

A remarkable man was Charles Booth Parsons. 
Redf ord says he was born in Enfield, Connecticut, July 
28> 1805. Bishop Simpson says he was born near Lou- 



248 Methodism in Kentucky 

isville, in 1799. Whether one or the other is correct, 
Mr, Parsons was a man of unusual ability and a 
preacher of great power. In early life he chose to^be 
an actor, and achieved great success in rendering 
Shakesperean plays. One of Ms favorite portrayals 
was the character of Othello. Converted in Louisville 
under the ministry of John Newland Maffitt, he start- 
led the congregation by rising from his seat, and with 
majestic figure and with voice that thrilled through 
his audience, he dramatically proclaimed, "Othello's 
occupation's gone!" He joined the Church and im- 
mediately felt that he was called to preach. Before the 
six months' probation was ended, by permission of the 
Presiding Elder, he began to declare the gospel of sal- 
vation. For a little while he returned to the stage to 
fulfill an engagement he had previously made, -but soon 
came back to the Church, in deep penitence and humil- 
iation that he had left it for a moment. He had great 
success from the beginning. Admitted into the Con- 
ference this year, he was sent, with Joseph D. Barnett, 
to the Jefferson circuit. By th<j close of the year, three 
hundred persons had been brought into the Church 
under their labors. While on this circuit, he reorganized 
the church at Jeffersontown, and reported fifty-six ad- 
ditions at Middletown. Bedford says : "In him were 
combined all the requisites of the true orator great 
emotion, passion, a correct judgment of human nature, 
genius, fancy, imagination, gesture, attitude, intona- 
tion, and countenance, with a commanding presence, 
all united in blended strength to accomplish the mighty 
purpose which moved his heart/ 1 After two years on 
Jefferson circuit, he was stationed at Frankfort two 
years, then was transferred to St. Louis. Prior to 
1865, he had served First Church and Centenary In 



Methodism in Kentucky 249 

St Louis, Soule Chapel in Cincinnati, Brook Street 
(twice), Walnut Street, Shelby Street, and Twelfth 
Street in Louisville, and was for one year Presiding 
Elder of the Louisville District. Being a strong Union 
man, in 1865 he went to the M. E. Church, and died a 
member of the Kentucky Conference of that Church, 
in 1866. 

From 1841 to 1893, a period of fifty-two years, 
Ransom Lancaster went in and out before the people 
of the Kentucky and Western Virginia Conferences, 
presenting to the world a spotless character, a life lived 
as in the presence of his Lord, and winning hundreds 
of souls for the kingdom. When at Somerset in 1843, 
he reported "one hundred and eighteen received on 
probation up to May 28." He was abundantly success- 
ful in other places. When the Chii/ch was divided in 
1844, he was in West Virginia, and "took no small part 
in the discussions and alignments that followed that 
historic strife of border Methodism." He came back 
to Kentucky in 1858, and about I860, he located his 
family in the little village of Oddville, in Harrison 
county, and never after moved from this place. He 
was much beloved in his community, and was in great 
demand, especially for funeral occasions. He died Sep- 
tember 23, 1893. 

One other man was received at this Conference 
Moses M. Henkle. He was born in Virginia, but went 
to Ohio, where he was received into the ministry. For 
a while he was missionary to the Wyandotte Indians, 
laboring with James B. Finley, the superintendent of 
this, the first mission of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He then located, and when the Methodist 
Protestant Church was organized, connected himself 
with that organization. Later, he felt that he had 



250 Methodism in Kentucky 

made a mistake, and, having removed to Louisville, 
placed his membership in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. This year he was recommended and received 
into the Kentucky Conference 

His brief and very imperfect memoir in the General 
Minutes describes Mr. Henkle as commanding in per- 
son, tall, and athletic, with broad and strongly marked 
features. "His manner in the pulpit was calm and de- 
liberate, his enunciation clear and distinct, his dis- 
courses often powerful and impressive." Again it 
says: "He soon rose to eminence, and for many years 
held high rank as a preacher. He occupied many im- 
portant positions, and always did his work with abili- 
ty. Dr. Henkle's mind was highly cultivated. His 
literary attainments were superior a ripe scholar, a 
profound theologian." He was editor of the South- 
western Christian Advocate, and of The Ladies' Htm>e 
Companion, of Nashville, this latter a very popular 
magazine in its day. He wrote a Life of Bishop J3&S- 
com; a work on the Usages and Government of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and other works 
of merit. He died at Richmond, Virginia, in 1864. He 
was transferred to the Tennessee .Conference, and was 
a member of that body at the time of his death. 

It was in 1841 that John G. Bruce was transferred 
from the North Ohio to the Kentucky Conference, and 
stationed at Newport. Mr. Bruce was born in Vir- 
ginia, but his parents removed to Ohio when he was 
only a child. He entered the ministry in 1835. After 
coming to Kentucky, he was soon occupying our lead- 
ing appointments and proved himself in every way 
worthy of the confidence reposed in him. He was a 
strong preacher and an administrator of recognised 
ability. When, in 1845, the Kentucky Conference voted 



Methodism in Kentucky 251 

to adhere to the Southern Organization, he voted 
against this action, and for several days considered re- 
turning to the North. But in his diary he speaks of a 
trip he made with H. H. Kavanaugh from Shelbyville 
to Frankfort before the session of the Conference 
closed, and the conversation with Dr. Kavanaugh in- 
duced him to remain in Kentucky. He returned to the 
Conference room, gave in his adherence to the South- 
ern Church, and for twenty years was one of the lead- 
ing ministers in the Kentucky Conference. He was a 
member of the General Conference of 1858, and re- 
ceived a very complimentary vote for Bishop. In 1861, 
he was elected at the head of the Kentucky Conference 
delegation,but owing to the war which was then raging, 
no session of the General Conference was held. When 
the "Loyal Eighteen" located in 18-65, he was the rec- 
ognized leader of that movement. Uniting with the 
M. E. Church, he was at once sent to the Conferences 
of the Northern Church to collect funds for the sup- 
port of the seceding brethren until they could adjust 
themselves in new relationships. For a time he was a 
member of the Indiana Conference, but was soon 
transferred to the Kentucky Conference of the M. E. 
Church, where he was recognized as a leader. He pur- 
chased a small farm near Danville, moved his family 
to it, and lived on it to the time of his death. He or- 
ganized many of the M. E. Churches in Kentucky, and 
did more, perhaps, than any other man to build up 
that Church in this State. It was chiefly through his 
sacrifices that an M. E. Church was built in Danville, 
his home town. This church, like many others organ- 
ized by the "Eighteen/ 1 did not survive, but was aband- 
oned during Brother Bruce's lifetime. When the wri- 
ter was sent to Danville as pastor in 1890, Brother 



252 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

Bruce was still living on his farm, but died soon after- 
wards, and we were present at his funeral This ser- 
vice was conducted by Ms long-time friend, Rev. Dan- 
iel Stevenson, who was also of the "Loyal Eighteen." 
Brother Bruce kept a journal during most of his long 
ministry, and from it we have gathered many of the 
facts related in this History. He was a good man, and 
only by a narrow margin missed being a great man. 
No one ever questioned the purity of his motives, and 
all admired the strength of his convictions.* 

1842. The old Medical Hall, in the city of Lexing- 
ton, was the place of meeting in 1842. Bishop Waugh 
presided. "It was announced that, during the year, Pe- 
ter 0. Meeks and Edwin Roberts had been transferred 
from the Church militant to the Church triumphant. 
Both were excellent men. Both possessed abounding 
zeal and were unusually successful in winning souls, 
even in that day when this" was the supreme test of 
every man's ministry. Nine men were discontinued, 
viz., William M. Humphrey, William Conway, James G. 
Williams, William H. Kimberlin, Charles Duncan, John 
Atkinson, Charles Bendrickson, Aaron Moore (in or- 
der that he might improve his educational equipment) , 
and Mitchell Land. A few of these were lacking in 
adaptation to the itinerancy, but most of them retired 
because of physical disabilities. Several of them re- 
turned later and did Rood service, 

Several distinguished visitors were In attendance 
upon this Conference. Littleton Fowler, who, in 1837, 
had gone as a missionary to Texas, visited his old Con- 

*0ne of the neighbors who lived by Bro. Bruce said to the wri- 
ter, "I lived by Bro. Bruce for twenty years, and in that time I 
never heard him ask any man's advice. He was in the habit of 
thinking things through, and when he had reached a conclusion, 
h did not need advice," 



Methodism in Kentucky 253 

ference this year. "Bros. Miley and Foster, of Ohio/-' 
were also present. This was Dr. John Miley, the cele- 
brated theologian of the M. E. Church, and R. S. Foster, 
afterwards a Bishop in that Church. Authorities dif- 
fer with regard to the birthplace of Bishop Foster, but 
some claim he was born in Kentucky, where his father 
lived for many years and for whom the town of Foster, 
on the Ohio River, was named.* Both these men were 
students at Augusta College. Edmond S. Janes, after- 
wards Bishop Janes, was also present. R. T. P. Allen, 
well known by our people in Kentucky as the founder 
of Kentucky Military Institute, was transferred from 
the Erie Conference in order to take a place on the 
faculty of Transylvania University. 

We find this item in the Minutes : "Resolved, That 
Brother Stephen Harber, in standing on the bank, and 
saying the ceremony of Christian Baptism, while an- 
other put the subject into the water, acted without au- 
thority of the Discipline and contrary to the usage of 
the Methodist E. Church." Redford says that Brother 
Harber "was remarkable for the neatness of his ap- 
parel." He was also afflicted with a very serious throat 
affection, which doubtless was the reason for his adop- 
tion of this unusual way of administering the ordi- 
nance. 

A class of twenty was admitted on trial this year 
viz,, Wiliam C. Danley, Samuel L. Robertson, George 
W. Smiley, James H. Dennis, Hiram T. Downard, Sam- 
uel D. Baldwin, Isham R. Finley, Learner B. Davidson, 
Henry M. Linney, George Hancock, James Kyle, John 
Bier, Thomas H. Lynch, Josiah L. Kemp, David Wells, 
William Ahrens, John Page (an Indian), John Van- 

*John G. Bruce in his Manuscript Journal, states that Bishop 
Foster was born in Kentucky, near the town of Foster. 



254 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

pelt, George Taylor, and Allen McLaughlin. 

Of these, John Page, the Indian, was transferred 
at once to Arkansas. John Bier and James H. Dennis 
served only one year, and David Wells two years. Will- 
iam Ahrens was a German and was assigned to the 
Twelfth Street German charge, in Louisville, and in 
1844 was transferred to "the German District." 
Josiah L. Kemp and Thomas H. Lynch were appointed 
professors in Transylvania University and continued 
with this institution until 1848, 

Allen McLaughlin, after receiving assignments to 
Hodgenville, Manchester and Bowling Green, disap- 
pears from the Minutes. 

fGeorge Hancock died in 1848. George Y. Tay- 
lor located in 1850. James Kyle was assigned 
to good appointments until 1850, when his name 
disappears, without any explanation. Hiram T. 
Downard gave five years to work in Louisville Confer- 
ence territory, went to the supernumerary list, then 
located in 1849. Isham R. Finley after assignments 
at Maysville and Morgranfield, went to Funk Seminary, 
at LaiGrange, where he remained until 1848, when he 
went to the Bardstown Female Institute. Leaving 
here in 1851, he was transferred to the Tennessee Con- 
ference, where he had charge of Soule College and the 
Tennessee Conference Female Institute. 

John F. Vanpelt was born in Carrollton, Kentucky. 
!Here he was licensed to preach, and in 1842 was re* 
ceived into the Kentucky Conference. From the begin- 
ning he received appointments to the better class 
charges, such as Winchester, LaGrange, Williamsbur, 
and Covington and Newport. He was then sent into 
Western Virginia, where he served Charleston, Park- 
er&bur# f and other important places until 1853, when 



Methodism in Kentucky 255 

he returned to Kentucky. In 1864 he removed to Illi- 
nois. While in Kentucky he was married to Miss Mary 
E. Wight, of Frankfort. Two of their sons entered 
the ministry. The older, Dr. Samuel Vanpelt, was a 
prominent pastor and District Superintendent in the 
Illinois Conference, was a delegate to the Ecumenical 
Conference in London in 1901, and a delegate to several 
General Conferences of his Church. He is, at this writ- 
ing, a retired minister, living in Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia. The younger of the two brothers, Dr. John R. Van- 
pelt, graduated from Illinois Wesleyan University, took 
his Ph.D. at Jena, has held the chair of Systematic 
Theology in Iliff Theological School, at Denver, and has 
taught for twelve years in each Cornell College, Iowa, 
then in Gammon Institute, at Chattanooga, from which 
he has recently resigned. 

George W. Smiley was a man of considerable talent. 
He was appointed first to Richmond, then to M^ysville, 
Covington, Frankfort, and Nicholasville, in the Ken- 
tucky Conference, was transferred to Louisville, and 
placed in charge of Middletown circuit, Third Street, 
and Brook Street in the city. In 1857 he withdrew 
from the Church. 

We have but little information concerning William 
C. Dandy beyond the meager facts given in the General 
Minutes. He was said to be a man of ability and cul- 
ture. He had a fine figure, but voice was effeminate. 
He was rather retiring in disposition, and seldom was 
heard on the Conference floor. His appointments were 
among the best in the Conference Flemingsburg, 
Cynthiana, Harrodsburg, Winchester, Shelbyville, 
Maysville, Lexington, and Parkersburg, West Virginia. 
He, too, was one of the "Loyal Eighteen/* But he left 
Kentucky, and the last information w^ had of him, he 



256 Methodism in Kentucky 

was pastor of a church in Chicago. 

Of course, many of our readers know of Armaged- 
don, the place mentioned in the 16th of Revelations as 
the place where the last great battle between the forces 
of good and evil will be fought, and where God and His 
people shall be forever triumphant. A reference to 
this place by Theodore Roosevelt a few years ago, ex- 
cited a good deal of interest in it We now introduce 
a man who wrote a book called "Armageddon/' Rev. 
Samuel D. Baldwin, D. D. He was a man of unusual 
learning and .ability as a preacher, and his book, pur- 
porting to unravel the mysteries of the future as por- 
trayed in the book of Revelations, created widespread 
interest. Born of Presbyterian parents in Worthing- 
ton, Ohio, November 24, 1818; supporting himself by 
his labor on a steamboat when only a youth; gradua- 
ting from Woodward College with highest honors, he 
entered upon a notable career. "He is said to have 
been one ol if not, indeed, the most thorough Greek 

scholar who ever graduated in Woodward College 

He mastered many languages. Indeed the facility with 
which he acquired knowledge was a wonder to his 
friends." Happily converted, he united with the Meth- 
odist Church. From his Memoir we take the follow- 
ing: 

Being impressed that be was called to preach the gospel, he 
entered upon a course of theological study, and in the autumn of 
1842, he was admitted on trial in the Kentucky Conference .... 
For four years he continued in the Kentucky Conference. When 
the Louisville Conference was set off he was among the number 
yhp constituted that body, and was stationed in the city of Lou- 
isville. From Louisville he was transferred to tlie Tennessee 
Conference in 1848; and he has been a member of this Confer- 
ence ever since, filling many of the most important stations in 
our field of labor. . . .He was ever popular and always in de- 
mand.... He was always useful he built up the Church, and 
was instrumental in the conversion of thousands. As a preacher 
lie excelled. His person was comely, and bis presence command* 



Methodism in Kentucky 257 

ing, his voice clear, mellow, and full of compass. His store oi 
knowledge was vast, and Ms learning varied. His manner was 
solemn and pleasing, his diction toe, his imagination lofty, and 
his zeal fervent. He was always interesting in the pulpit and 

at times very eloquent As a laborer in his Masters work, 

he was indefatigable, untiring; reading, studying, preaching 
everywhere and on all occasions, night and day, and throwing 
before the world several large volumes, evincing much thought 
and great research. He visited the sick, comforted the dis- 
tressed, and was a messenger of consolation in the house of 
sorrow. Many a poor prisoner, Federal and Confederate, was 
visited by him in his hours of loneliness. He carried bread, 
and clothing, and money, and words of comfort, to the cell, and 

mitigated the horrors of prison life He gave away a large 

portion of his slender income His brethren in the ministry 

held Mm in high esteem. He never was the subject of envy, 
never considered as a rival, but was honored by the whole neigh- 
borhood, and was promoted by them on all occasions. Hence, 
he was several times, by an almost unanimous vote, selected as 

their representative in the highest councils of the Church 

He had been engaged day and night for weeks in a gracious re- 
vival. The cholera appeared in Nashville. Howard-like, B he 
was in the midst of disease and death, and finally he was strick- 
en down. Now better, now worse; now hope of his recovery 
gladdened every heart, now a gloom spread over the community. 

Finally the good man fell asleep in Jesus He died m the city 

of Nashville, October 8, 1866. 

Thus lived and thus died this remarkable man. His 
book, Armageddon, created a sensation at the time of 
its appearance, but like all other books we have seen 
which undertake to open up the mysteries of Revela- 
tions, time has proven it to be in error. But undoubt- 
edly this book evinced great erudition and profound 
thinking- 
Henry M. Linney was the son of pious parents, and 
his early life was spent in what is now Boyle county, 
Kentucky. Educated at Augusta College, he was con- 
verted and entered the ministry, being received on trial 
in 1842. In 1844 he was transferred to the Virginia 
Conference, Here he was married and reared a highly 
reputable family near Gordonsville. His wife dying, 
he returned to Kentucky after the War Between the 
States, but was soon placed upon the supernumerary 



258 Methodism in Kentucky 

list, and remained upon this and the list of superan- 
nuates until his death in 1895. His last years were 
spent in Virginia, where he was engaged in mission 
work in the city of Richmond. 

Samuel L. Robertson was born in Fleming county, 
Kentucky, February 6, 1818, and died July 9, 1880. He 
joined the Church when fifteen years of age, was con- 
verted at a camp meeting near ML Sterling, and was 
licensed to preach in 1842. In the Kentucky Confer- 
ence "for thirty-eight years he filled all the grades of 
the ministry from the lowest to the highest. His re- 
ligious experience was of the happy, buoyant type, pro- 
fessing and living the sanctified life. He was firm, his 
integrity was uncompromising, and he always had an 
abiding faith in Jesus Christ His preaching was ex- 
pository rather than hortatory. He was not considered 
a revivalist, yet he gathered many into the Church. 
His end was triumphant. Glory, and heaven, and all is 
right, were his last words.'* At one time he was Agent 
for Kentucky Wesleyan College, and Professor of He- 
brew and Biblical Literature in that institution.* 

Learner B. Davidson was another plain, dependable, 
substantial man, who lived long and wrought well In 
his beloved work. Beginning his ministry in 1842, he 
was a member of the Conference fifty-six years. His 
work was always in the bounds of the Louisville Con- 
ference. He was a good circuit preacher. He never 
reached what we call the first class stations, but had 
good appointments among those of the second class. 
He was Presiding Elder of the Hopkinsville, Prince- 

*It was tinder the ministry of this good man, at old Cassidav 
Creek church, in Nicholas county, that the writer united with 
the Church. We were then only six years and six months of 
age, but it was a glad day for the little boy when admitted to 
tlae fellowship of the people of God. 



Methodism in Kentucky ^ 259 

ton, and Elizabethtown Districts, and could always be 
depended on to do efficient work wherever he 
Much beloved, much revered, he entered the heavenly 
world In 1898. After all, It is men of this type who 
build up the Church and do most in promoting the 
kingdom of Christ The architect who plans the struc- 
ture usually gets the applause, but it is the humble 
toiler who builds the house. Men like Learner Black- 
man Davidson have built the temple of the Lord, and 
the Lord of the temple knows and will reward the 
toils of his faithful workmen* 

About 1839 1 work was begun among the Germans of 
Louisville and other places in the State. In 1840 Peter 
Schmucker was transferred from the Ohio Confer- 
ence and placed in charge of the Louisville German 
Mission. The following year his field of labor was ex- 
tended to include "The Louisville and Maysville Ger- 
man Mission.'' In 1842, Schmucker was transferred 
to Indiana, while William Ahrens took his place in 
Louisville, and John Bier was sent to "Maysville and 
West Union Mission/' In 1843, Drummond Welburn 
was assigned to the German work in Louisville, while 
in 1845 this work was transferred to the Ohio Confer- 
ence, and Peter Schmucker was made Presiding Eld- 
er of "German Work, Cincinnati District/' this District 
including Louisville and parts of Indiana and all South- 
ern Ohio. Out of this German work have grown strong 
German churches in Louisville, Covington, and New- 
port. 

1843, The Kentucky Conference in 1843 met in the 
Masonic Hall, in the city of Louisville, Bishop Thomas 
A. Morris in the chair. Having served in the Kentucky 
Conference for seven years, Bishop Morris was at home 
the I^tttcJ brethren* The Conference was 



2 gQ Methodism in Kentucky^ 

not particularly eventful The losses were not as many 
as usual John Denham, Kichard Corwme, and Elihu 
Green had died; A. C. DeWitt and James J. George lo- 
cated, and James H. Dennis and James Kyle were dis~ 
continued. These losses were more than compensated 
by the re-admission of L. D. Huston and George S. 
Gatewood, and the admission of twenty-four new men. 
These new men were, John Earth, Henry Koch, Larkm 
F Price, John McGee, John N. Wright, James Penn, 
Edmund P. Buckner, Timothy C. Frogge, Warren C. 
Pitts, George B. Poage, Joshua Wilson, William J. 
Chenowith, B. A. Basfaam, William Butt, Edward A. 
Martin, Alexander McCown, M. G. Baker, S. P 
Chandler, Stephen K. Vaught, Thomas J. Moore, Orson 
Long, George W. Burriss, Samuel D. Roberts, and 
William Neikirk. 

Of those re-admitted, we have already mentioned 
George S. Gatewood, the flame of evangelistic fire. Few 
men have been more useful. Lorenzo D. Huston^ was 
a man of splendid ability. Reared in Cincinnati, he 
was a graduate of Woodward College. He united with 
the Ohio Conference in 1839, and after serving three 
years in that Conference he located, and this year came 
to the Kentucky Conference, and was sent to Harrods- 
bun*. He continued m this Conference, serving such 
charges as Richmond, Winchester, Parkersburg, Shel- 
byville. Lexington. Scott Street in Covington, and the 
Southern charge in Cincinnati. On 1854 he was elected 
Editor of the Home Circle, a monthly magazine of the 
Church, and The Sunday School Visitor* He continued 
to edit these journals until 1864, when the federal 
armies occupied Nashville and took possession of the 
Southern Methodist Publishing House. He then be- 
came a Chaplain of the 18th Kentucky Volunteer In- 



Methodism in Kentucky 261 

fantry in the Confederate army. In 1865, he returned 

to Kentucky and was assigned to Newport, where one 
of the most unpleasant episodes in our history oc- 
curred. This, however, belongs to a later period and 
will receive attention when we come to that period, 
Suffice it to say, that the trouble grew out of the War 
which had so recently closed, and that Dr. Huston bore 
himself with dignity and discretion, and came through 
the ordeal without blemish to his character as a minis- 
ter. He was then transferred to Baltimore, where, for 
five years he filled the leading charges in that city. 
We wish we could close the record here, but the truth 
of history compels us to say that, in 1867, charges were 
brought against him, and in 1868, he was expelled from 
the Conference. What the charges -were we do not 
know. The Minutes do not give any information at 
this point, and we have seen no statement as to the 
nature of the complaints against him,. 

Of the men received on trial, John Earth and Henry 
Koch were assigned to German work. After one year 
at Hardinsburg, B. A. Basham was discontinued, and 
M. G. Baker went from Georgetown to the Ohio Con- 
ference. At the end of two years, William Butt was 
discontinued, and at the end of three years, S. P. 
Chandler and John M. Wright located, and the names 
of Samuel D. Roberts, Larkin F. Price, and James Penn 
disappear from the Minutes. William Chenowith lo- 
cated after four years. 

Warren M. Pitts was from the Elkton and Logan 
circuit, and had been a local preacher for several years, 
serving quite a number of charges as a supply. He was 
said to have been a man of good ability. After assign- 
ments to Greenville, Princeton and Glasgow, he located 
in 1848. The ministerial life of Edward A. Martin 



262 Methodism in Kentucky 

was spent in the bounds of what is now the Louisville 
Conference. He superannuated in 185.1, and located in 
1855. 

"Thomas J, Moore, at his best, was very far above 
the ordinary as a preacher. Considered rather dull at 
the start, his growth was marked and steady, and at 
the time of his death he stood abreast of the strongest 
men of the Conference. On occasions he rose to 
sublime heights of impassioned eloquence. Of an im- 
pulsive nature, he was warm in his friendships and 
pronounced in his antagonisms. In his private associa- 
tions with his brethren he was simple-hearted, child- 
like, and companionable His death occurred Sep- 
tember 14, 1867." Jubilee Addresses. 

William Neikirk, after a year at Burlington, fell 
into the bounds of the Louisville Conference where his 
life was spent. His appointments indicate that he was 
an average preacher, and no doubt a faithful, useful 
man. He located in 1866. 

It is very difficult to get information concerning 
men who joined the itinerancy, then located, and died 
in the local ranks. Our church papers at the time of 
which we write were few and published a long way off. 
The only information we have concerning John McGee 
is that which we glean from the Minutes, and this is 
very meager, We only know that he began his work 
"on the Warren circuit, then was switched away to the 
Greenupsburg and Little Kanawha circuits, in the 
bounds of the Western Virginia Conference, then back 
to Shannon, Paris and Mfllersburg, then to Shelby cir~ 
cuit in the Kentucky Conference territory, and was 
after this transferred to Texas, His name disappears 
after 1865. 

It is interesting to note how even a long life in the 



Methodism in Kentucky 263 

Methodist itinerancy, may, without design, be cast in 
a small section of country. Such was the case with 
Timothy C. Frogge. He came Into the Conference from 
the Bowling Green District, was a minister for fifty- 
six years, and all these years were spent in the western 
and southwestern parts of the Louisville Conference. 
While he gave fifteen years to the Presiding Eldership, 
he was pf e-eminently a circuit preacher, and few men 
have wielded the influence in the part of the State in 
which he labored that was wielded by him. He loved 
Methodism and was a defender of its doctrines and 
usages. The name of Timothy C. Frogge is inscribed 
on the scroll of Louisville Conference's best men. 

While Timothy C. Frogge was from the western 
part of the State, George B. Poage was from the north- 
eastern part- Born in Greenup county, January 18, 
1823, he joined the Kentucky Conference when he was 
only twenty years of age. * His first appointment was 
to the Minerva circuit as the colleague of A. H. Red- 
ford. He was next assigned to Lexington with Moses 
M. Henkle, and after one year in that place was trans- 
ferred to Arkansas, but soon returned and filled several 
appointments in West Virginia, where he was for some 
time a Presiding Elder. His throat became affected, 
and he took a supernumerary relation in 1867, and re- 
tained that relation to the end. He established his home 
in Brooksville, Kentucky, and was clerk of the circuit 
court for many years. He was a good preacher and 
his neighbors held him in high esteem. He died April 
12, 1902. 

Stephen K Vaught gave most of his life to the 
Western Virginia Conference. He was a Virginian by 
birth, though in early life he came to Kentucky and 
united with the Kentucky Conference, After a few 



264 Methodism in Kentucky 

years here he went to West Virginia, and was one of 
the fifteen who composed the Western Virginia Con- 
ference at its organization in 1850. Subsequently his 
field of labor embraced almost the whole of that Confer- 
ence. He was thrice elected to the General Conference. 
"Brother Vaught was a man of fine personal appear- 
ance. His mind was strong and active, and his spirit 
noble and generous He had great versatility of tal- 
ent. He was an excellent preacher, and commanded 
the attention of both the educated and the illiterate." 
Memoir. 

We have but little information concerning Alexan- 
der McCown. He began his work at Flemingsburg in 
1843, but the next year was sent to Columbia and con- 
tinued in the bounds of the Louisville Conference until 
his death in 1893. He filled quite a number of circuits 
in that Conference, and was on the superannuate list 
after 1860. 

George W. Burriss traveled five years, and was then 
made a supernumerary, and located the following year. 
Joshua Wilson was transferred to Missouri in 1845, 
where he was soon superannuated, and located in 1848. 

Orson Long was born in New York, November 23, 
1816; graduated from Pottsdam College in 1843; came 
to Kentucky in 1840 ; was received on trial in the Ken- 
tucky Conference in 1843, and continued a mem- 
ber of this body until his death, January 10, 
1887, "In this Conference he labored with the 
heroism and self-sacrificing devotion characteris- 
tic of the men of that day, until the organization of 
the Western Virginia Conference in 1850, when he 
became one of the charter members." For several 
years he lived in his own home at Fort Thomas, preach- 
ing as he could and teaching school. He was unable 



Methodism in Kentucky 265 

to perform active service after 1880, when he retired 
to the supernumerary list. 

Perhaps the strongest man admitted on trial this 
year was Edmund P. Buckner. Born near Big Spring, 
now Meade county, Kentucky, in 1822, his father died 
when he was only thirteen years old, leaving him the 
care of his mother, and four sisters and a brother 
younger than himself. When about fifteen he was con- 
verted, and entered the Kentucky Conference in 1843. 
With the exception of one year when he was stationed 
at Parkersburg, West Virginia, his work was in the 
bounds of the Kentucky Conference, serving such sta- 
tions as Danville, Harrodsburg, and Lexington, and the 
Covington District. Physically, he was almost a per- 
fect specimen of manhood, having a most striking and 
attractive appearance. His mental endowments were 
of highest order. "Application rapidly developed abil- 
ity to percfeive clearly, judge correctly, reason forcibly, 
remember tenaciously, and execute promptly." "A 
voracious reader, a laborious and accurate student, he 
amassed a large store of literary, scientific and theo- 
logical wealth/' He studied medicine and had he given 
himself exclusively to the practice of this profession, 
he would have attained eminence among the leading 
practitioners of the day. He died May 4, 1883. The 
writer remembers him as one of the men who greatly 
impressed him during his boyhood. 

It was about this time that the world witnessed 
a very interesting development among some of the fol- 
lowers of Christ. We refer to what is commonly known 
as the "Millerite Movement." About the year 1782, in 
Pittsfield, Mass., William Miller was born. His educa- 
tion was limited. In the war of 1812, he was captain 
of a company of volunteer infantry along the Canadian 



266 Methodism in Kentucky 

border. Converted and entering the ministry, he be- 
came interested in the millenarian doctrine, and about 
1830 began lecturing on the Second Coming of Christ. 
Basing his calculations on certain passages in the book 
of Daniel, he predicted that the world would come to 
an end in the year 1843. Miller was a good man, and 
no one doubted his sincerity or his intense earnestness. 
He gained many followers toward the last it was esti- 
mated that not fewer than 50,000 accepted his teach- 
ings. The excitement about Cincinnati and in northern 
Kentucky was great. The "Millerites," as they were 
called, first opened their services in the Cincinnati Col- 
lege building, but as the crowds increased, they erected 
a crude tabernacle, eighty feet square, which seated 
about two thousand people. They issued a paper called 
"The Midnight Cry" and announced that, according to 
prophecy, the end of all things would occur December 
31, 1843, But as this date passed and nothing out of 
the ordinary took place, they revised their calculations 
and fixed upon March the 23rd as the time. This date 
passing, they then confidently announced that Christ 
would come at midnight of October 22, 1844. Cist's 
Miscellany for November, 1844, gives the following ac- 
count : 

All these periods were referred to in succession in "The 
Midnight Cry," and so firmly was the faith of the Millerites 
fixed on the last calculation, that the number published for Octo- 
ber 22nd was solemnly announced to be the last communication 
through that channel to the believers. In the progress of things, 
both in the press and tabernacle, as might have been expected, 
deeper exercises of mind among the Millerites was the result, 
and within a few days of the 22nd, all the brethren had divested 
themselves of their earthly cares, eating 1 , drinking 1 , and sleeping 
alone excepted. Chests of tools which cost forty dollars were 
sold for three. A g-old watch worth one hundred dollars was 
sacrificed for one-fifth the value. Two brothers of the name 
of Hauselmann, who owned a steamboat in company with Cap- 
tain Collins, abandoned to him their entire interest in it, al- 
leging they had nothing further to do with earthly treasures. 



Methodism m Kentucky 267 

John Smith, an estimable man, once a distinguished member of 
the Baptist Church, and a man of considerable property, left it 
all to take care of itself. A distinguished leader in this move- 
ment placed a card on the door, "Gone to Meet the Lord," which 
in a few hours was irreverently replaced by some of the neigh- 
bors with "Gone Up!" 

One of the believers, a clerk of our county court, made up 
his business papers on the 22nd, and left later business to those 
who were willing* to attend to it. A clerk in one of the city 
banks resigned his position in order to devote all his attention 
to the Second Advent preparations; and others settled up their 
worldly business, paying their debts so far as was in their pow- 
er, and asking forgiveness of their unpaid creditors, when they 
were unable to discharge the account. Others again spent 
weeks in visiting relatives for the last time, as they supposed. 
In short, after all these things, all ranks and classes of the be- 
lievers assembled at the tabernacle on the nights of the 22nd and 
23rd successively, to be ready for the great event. 

From other sources we learn that many prepared 
"ascension robes" of white, and wore them on these 
nights. It is stated in the Cincinnati papers that, as 
the hours for the appearance of the Lord drew near, 
the scenes at the tabernacle beggared all description. 
When the time had passed without the coming of the 
Lord, some of the believers lapsed into stark infidelity. 
Others dropped back into their old places in the 
churches, while still others, confessing their disap- 
pointment, fixed another date for the great event, or 
else looked confidently to some indefinite time in the 
future for the fulfilment of the prophecies. Miller 
died in 1849. 

The quadrennium closing with the Conference of 
1843, was a time of great progress in Kentucky Meth- 
odism. Great revivals were held, churches were or- 
ganized, new circuits established, and an unprece- 
dented increase In membership was reported. The 
*' Abolitionists," discouraged in their attempts to secure 
favorable action by the General Conference, were none 
the less active, but they had changed their tactics and 



268 Methodism in Kentucky 

were putting forth their efforts along other lines. The 
agitation in the Church was not so persistent. Lead- 
ers, like Orange Scott, had gone off to the Wesleyan 
Methodists. Presses of their own were established. 
Speakers and quiet workers were sent into every part 
of the land, and their propaganda had penetrated 
every nook and corner of the States, but in the Church 
there was greater quiet arid rest During the calm be- 
fore the storm, the Church made wonderful progress 
in everything pertaining to the kingdom. The mem- 
bership as reported in 1839 was 29,163 whites, and 
5,743 colored. In 1843 the numbers had grown to 
40,220 white, and 9,951 colored members. This was a 
total increase in tEe four years of 15,265. 



CHAPTER X. 

METHODIST UNITY DESTROYED 

We are now ready to consider the memorable ses- 
sion of the General Conference held in New York In 
1844. It was the action of this General Conference in 
the case of Bishop James 0. Andrew that brought on 
the division of the Methodist Episcopal Church. This 
is not the place for a full history of this tragic affair, 
but in order that our readers may be able rightly to 
appraise the action of that General Conference; that 
they may understand the part taken by Kentucky Meth- 
odists and the effect of the division upon the Method- 
ism of our State, it will be necessary to set forth, at 
some length, the facts connected with this unfortunate 
occurrence. In doing this we shall try to be perfectly 
fair. We shall state only facts. We do not think that 
censure should be heaped upon the actors in this Gen- 
eral Conference, for on both sides, they were great and 
good men, acting upon the light they had and with a 
sense of their responsibility to God. They may have 
erred, but they did it in all good conscience. In our 
opinion, they met a most distressing situation with 
"Christian kindness and the strictest equity/' They 
did about the only thing they could have done to con- 
serve the interests of the Church in the two sections 
involved. 

Of course the issue over which the Church divided 
was slavery. It has often been said that slavery was 
not the cxmse, but only the occasion, of the division. 
We shall not debate this matter with any who think 
this is true, but for our own part we are quile sure 

269 



270 Methodism in Kentucky 

that the rock upon which the Church was split was not 
some subsidiary question growing out of the discussion 
as it proceeded, but slavery itself. This question had 
vexed the Church for years, and the Church had earn- 
estly sought its solution; but matters had now drifted 
to a point where it could no longer temporize or evade 
the issue thrust upon it. 

Slavery is very old. Abraham was a slave-holder. 
The Israelites were slaves in Egypt. When the chosen 
people of God were brought into the Promised Land, 
and Moses had given them a form of government, the 
existence of slavery among them was recognized and 
laws were given for its regulation and control. Chris- 
tianity was born in the midst of a slave-holding world. 
It is said that there were sixty million slaves in the Ro- 
man Empire. Christ did not denounce the institution, 
and in giving instructions to the early Church, the 
Apostle gave directions to both master and slave- In 
their relation to Christ there was neither Jew nor 
Greek, bond nor free, but in their relation to one an- 
other, some stood as masters and others as bond-ser- 
vants to their Christian brethren. This does not mean 
that early Christianity approved the institution of 
slavery, but it does mean that both master and slave 
might be Christians and that the early Church did not 
assail the social order under which it existed. 

When Methodism came to America it found slavery 
already here. It existed and was legalized in every one 
of the thirteen colonies. At the outbreak of the Rev- 
olution, Massachusetts had six thousand slaves, and 
each of the other colonies- had more or less. The mid- 
dle colonies had more slaves than their more northern 
neighbors, chiefly because they could be more profitar 

used in these colonies* In the South, where un- 



Methodism in Kentucky 271 

skilled labor could be employed the year round in pro- 
ducing and caring for the crops of sugar cane, rice, 
and cotton, they were more numerous still, and that 
section finally became the home of nearly all the negro 
slaves. By the time the American Constitution was 
adopted, which bound the States together into a nation, 
the Northern States had either abolished the system, or 
else adopted measures for its gradual abolition. The 
Encyclopedia Britdnnioa, is authority for the statement 
that this last measure consisted chiefly In the transfer 
of northern slaves to southern markets! When the 
Constitution was adopted, upon the insistence of South 
Carolina and Georgia, the existence of slavery was rec- 
ognized and its regulation and control left to the sev- 
eral States. Under this Constitution, it was not a mat- 
ter for national legislation, but of State control. 

It is difficult for us of this day to realize how very 
complicated this matter became. It was not simply 
that the people of one section favored slavery, while 
the people of another section opposed it. There were 
many in the South who held the institution in abhor- 
rence and groaned under the burden it imposed; yet 
they were connected with it! Men like George Wash- 
ington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Kobert E. 
Lee, the Clays of Kentucky, and many others, while 
they held slaves, opposed the system and often ex- 
pressed their wish for some feasible method by which 
it could be driven from the land* The conditions un- 
der which the Southern people lived were an inheri- 
tance from preceding generations. The whole struc- 
ture of social and economic life in the South was based 
largely on slave labor. Homes were cared for, farms 
were cultivated, business of every kind was conducted 
on the basis of this labor. People inherited slaves 



272 Methodism in Kentucky 

from their parents; became owners of slaves through 
marriage ; had slaves bequeathed to them by friends In 
order that these slaves might be protected and provided 
for; able-bodied slaves must be kept in order to make a 
living for other slaves that were aged and infirm, or 
else were little children ; often the only way to secure 
necessary help for the home or on the farm was to 
purchase a slave; and thus many who had no liking 
for the institution were, by force of these and other cir- 
cumstances, brought into connection with it when 
they most heartily despised it. To further complicate 
matters, the laws of many of the States forbade eman- 
cipation. These laws were not for the purpose of 
riveting the chains of slavery upon the people of those 
States, but to protect them from evils which would in- 
evitably follow if emancipation were allowed. Un- 
scrupulous owners would, if permitted, turn out their 
old and infirm and otherwise unprofitable slaves who 
would have to be cared for at public expense. Any slave 
thus liberated was likely to become a public charge. 
Where there were two or three times as many blacks as 
whites, this would be an intolerable burden. There 
were many other reasons why ignorant, undisciplined 
multitudes, who could not make their own way under 
the disadvantages to which freemen were subjected, 
should not be thrown upon the people among whom 
they must live. 

This is in no sense an apology for slavery. It is 
only a statement of facts with which the people of that 
day were confronted. To this writer slavery is a most 
hateful thing. While we cannot go as far as the ex- 
tremists and say that the holding of slaves is, under 
all circumstances, a sin; and while we can see in it 
certain noteworthy benefits to an uncivilized and back- 



Methodism in Kentucky 273 

ward people, yet the evils of the system cry to high 
heaven. Apart from the idea of one man owning an- 
other and looking upon him as a mere chattel, the hor- 
rors of the slave traffic ; the inhumanities of the slave- 
driver and of the heartless master ; the heart-breaking 
severance of family ties by reason of the sale of men 
and women, and the immoralities that so often attend- 
ed it, these things brand the whole institution as a 
curse both to the slaves and, to their masters. During 
the days of slavery in the South, there were many kind 
masters who treated their slaves with greatest consid- 
eration and affection. This fact must never be for- 
gotten. But at the same time there were cruel masters 
who treated their slaves more like brutes than like 
human beings. There were also many Legrees who dis- 
graced humanity by their brutal treatment of the 
helpless blacks who came under their power. 

Methodism opposed slavery from the beginning. 
Wesley denounced the slave traffic as "the sum of all 
villainies/' From the time of the Conference of 1780, 
down to the time of Lincoln's Emancipation Procla- 
mation, the Church, in the South as well as in the 
North, bore its* testimony against the institution as an 
evil that must sooner or later be extirpated. On the 
General Conference floor in 1844, Peter Cartwright 
stated that "in all my long years of relation to, and 
acquaintance with, Methodism and Methodist preach- 
ers, I never heard one who did not oppose slavery." 
(Debates in the General Conference, 1844, P. 157). 
In the Kentucky Conference, in 1835, a committee 
made the following report: 

Although citizens of Kentucky, we are not advocates of sla- 
very. We believe it to be morally wrong and relatively mischiev- 
ous in all its tendencies. We consider it an evil, even in its most 
tolerable aspects. We deeply regret and anxiously deplore its 



274 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

existence in this or any country, and in relation to OUT own i par- 
ticularlv we pledge our exertions and influence, m an appeal to 
S jSt knd iSSfffl means and methods for ite removal, when- 
ever such exertions and influence can be brought to bear without 
Infringing the rights of others, constitutionally secured in the 
construction of the federal government. 

This report was written by Henry B. Bascom^and 
is signed by him and by Jonathan Stamper, J. Little- 
ton, J. S. Tomlinson, BL H. Kavanaugh, R. Corwine, J. 
Tevis, and J. Beatty. It was unanimously adopted. 

While holding slavery to be a great evil, the Church 
never regarded it as necessarily a sin. In the discus- 
sions in the General Conference of 1844, Dr. Nathan 
Bangs, of New York, said: "I never did believe, nor 
do I now believe, that holding slaves under all cir- 
cumstances is a sin/ 5 Dr. John A. Collins, who prose- 
cuted the case against F. A. Harding in that Confer- 
ence, said: "The views of the Discipine on the evil of 
slavery are absolute and positive. It pronounces it an 
evil, and a great evil And in fact it asks the ques- 
tion, What shall be done for the extirpation of the great 
evil of slavery? and then specifies measures by which 
its purpose shall be effected. But it does not regard it 
as sin under all circumstances." While there were 
among the people of the South many who were blinded 
by self-interest into thinking slavery a blessing, we 
believe the above quotations rightly represent the sen- 
timents of Methodism in that section as well as that 
of the conservative element in the North, 

The supreme question, (and the one at which the 
difference began), was, How to get rid of this ac- 
knowledged evil? 

Two general plans took form in the public mind 
that of gradual emancipation, as the slaves were ready 
for freedom ; and immediate and unconditional emand- 



Methodism in Kentucky 275 

pation, brought about by edict, or by force, If need be. 
The first of these plans found embodiment In the or- 
ganization of the American Colonization Society, the 
purpose of which was to encourage emancipation and 
remove the liberated to the shores of Africa ; the second 
took form in the various anti-slavery societies and the 
abolition movement. Both plans were beset with dif- 
ficulties. The first was too slow and uncertain of ever 
reaching its ends; the other left out of consideration 
the evils that would follow if three millions of ignorant 
and indigent slaves should be turned loose upon the 
people of the South. William Lloyd Garrison opposed 
the colonization of the slaves in a foreign land, but in- 
sisted on their "immediate and uncompensated" liber- 
ation upon the soil, and their immediate investment 
with all the rights of citizenship. Some extremists ad- 
vocated the amalgamation of the two races ! 

For many years the Church by an overwhelming 
majority favored the plan of gradual manumission. 
The General, and most of the Annual Conferences en- 
dorsed the American Colonization Society. In the 
Western Christian Advocate of September 11, 1835>, is 
an editorial in which the editor says: "It is believed 
that the preachers of the Ohio Conference are unani- 
mous on the following propositions : 1. 'Slavery is an 
evil. 2. It ought to be abolished in a gradual and 
constitutional way. 8. The remedy proposed by the 
'Abolitionists* is worse than the evil itself/' The Ken- 
tucky and other , southern Conferences time and again 
heartily endorsed the purposes and methods of the 
Colonization Society, and many of their members were 
appointed agents of that organization. They deemed it 
their duty, instead of directly attacking the institution, 
to preach the gospel alike to master and slave, to -soften 



276 Methodism in Kentucky 

by Christian principles the rule of the one, and to miti- 
gate as much as might be the lot of the other, until 
such time as Christian conscience would make possible 
the easy and constitutional abolition of the system. By 
reason of this "hands off" policy in dealing with tha 
institution, they had access to the slaves, and accom- 
plished a great work among them. 

From 1835 a great and very rapid change took place 
in the minds of the people, especially in New England 
and the North. Abolition sentiment grew apace. Men 
like Garrison and Lundy, Phillips and Whittier set out 
the evils of slavery in such way that the people were 
greatly aroused. It got on the consciences of men. 
These abolitionists were in dead earnest. They estab- 
lished presses, and from Nassau Street, New York, 
they poured tons of free tracts and pamphlets and pa- 
pers out upon the country. Speakers were sent into- 
every part of the country, speaking against slavery and 
in favor of abolition. Anti-slavery societies were organ- 
ized both in the Church an'd out of it. The matter was 
put into politics, and was the pivotal question in many 
a heated campaign. In 1840, James G* Birney, a Ken- 
tuckian, and for some time a professor in Centre Col- 
lege, was a candidate for the Presidency of the United 
States on an out-and-out Abolition ticket. Of course 
when it became a political issue it took on all the prej- 
udices and bitterness that go with political partisan- 
ship. In the course of time the two sections, North 
and South, were arrayed the one against the other, and 
misunderstandings, misrepresentations, and unreason- 
ing prejudices took possession of the minds of the peo- 
ple of both sections. These things naturally drove peo- 
ple into extremes in both North and South. 

Unfortunately the efforts In behalf of abolition 



Methodism in Kentucky 277 

were not confined to arguments and appeals to reason 
and right Fanaticism became rabid, and men and 
women in their earnestness resorted to many things 
that were lawless and that enraged the opposite party. 
Many undertook to liberate the slaves by stealing them 
away from their masters and running them off, by the 
"underground railroad," to Canada, or some other 
place from which their owners could not recover them. 
Rev* John B. Mahan, of Ohio, was indicted by a grand 
jury in Mason county, Kentucky, and at his trial it was 
proved that fifteen slaves had been abducted by him. 
In 1843, John Vansant, a son-in-law of Benjamin 
Northcott, who had moved to Ohio, was sued by Whar- 
ton Jones in the United States Court, and a judgment 
was found against him for $1,200 for slaves he had 
spirited away. A little later he was fined $500 for a 
similar offense. In 1845, Miss Adelia Webster, of Ver- 
mont, was arrested and confined in the jail at Lexing- 
ton, charged with abducting slaves and aiding in their 
escape across the Ohio River. She was convicted and 
sentenced to two years in the penitentiary ; but the jury 
that convicted her, petitioned the Governor to pardon 
her because she was a woman, which he did. But her 
companion and accomplice, Rev. Calvin Fairbanks, 
was less fortunate. He was sentenced for fifteen years. 
A little later, one Patrick Doyle was leading a party 
of forty-two slaves from Bourbon and Fayette coun- 
ties, but was overtaken in Bracken county, the negroes 
were captured and Doyle was taken to Lexington and 
given twenty years in prison. Doyle had contracted to 
take the negroes to a place of safety for $10 per head! 
One of the slaves belonged to Cassius M. Clay. Of 
course such things created great bitterness in the 
South, and riveted the bonds more firmly uDon 



278 Methodism in Kentucky 



. 

Some of the agents of the anti-slavery societies, 
caught distributing what was termed Incendiary liter- 
ature for the purpose of arousing the slaves and non- 
slave-holders of the South, were lawlessly and severe- 
ly dealt with. It was reported that a Mr. Dresser, of 
Lane Seminary, at Cincinnati, a member of the Ohio 
Anti-Slavery Society, was apprehended while scatter- 
ing these incendiary tracts in Western Tennessee, was 
brought before a vigilance committee, tried, convicted, 
and given twenty lashes on his bare back. It was 
further reported that a plot on the part -of the negroes 
in Mississippi, below Natchez, was revealed by a faith- 
ful slave. 'On a given night in the summer of 1885, the 
white masters were to be killed and their property and 
women seized. The plot was instigated by white men. 
A Dr. Cotton is said to have confessed the plot and he 
and several whites and negroes were hung. A young 
man named Donavan, from Mason county, Ky., was 
accused of complicity in the fiendish plot, and was 
hung, though he protested his innocence. One Robin- 
son, an Englishman, on a tour of agitation through 
the South, was hung by a mob near Lynchburg, 
Va. When the United States mail arrived at Charles- 
ton, S. C., bearing its load of abolition literature from 
the North, a mob broke into the Post Office, carried this 
mail into the .street and made a bonfire of it These are 
but instances of the regrettable outbreaks of fanaticism 
and lawlessness which might be greatly multiplied. 
We <are now far enough away from these untoward 
events to look upon them merely as historic incidents, 
without exciting our own passions or prejudice. They 
are put down here solely for the purpose of enabling 
the reader to understand the tense situation through* 



Methodism in Kentucky 279 

out the land when the General Conference of 1844 con- 
vened. When we add to this the fact that the country 
had just passed through a bitter presidential campaign 
In which the annexation of Texas as a slave State* was 
the principal issue, and that the matter of annexation 
was then pending, we can better understand how the 
minds of partisans were inflamed and how very ready 
they were to turn every occasion Into an opportunity to 
press, or resist, anything that touched their sensitive 
interests. 

When the General Conference met, there were 
many memorials before it demanding that the Church 
purge itself of all complicity with slavery. Bishop An- 
drew, one of the most able and lovable men in the col- 
lege of Bishops, had, by inheritance and marriage, be- 
come connected with slavery some time before. An old 
lady of Augusta, Georgia, had, several years before, 
bequeathed to him, m trust, a mulatto girl, that she 
might be cared for until she was nineteen ; then, with 
her consent, he should send her to Liberia ; and in case 
of her refusal to go, he was to keep her and make her 
as free as the laws of Georgia would allow. When 
she reached the age indicated, she refused to go either 
to Liberia or to a free State. The Bishop placed her in 
a home of her own on his lot, derived no pecuniary ad- 
vantage from her services, and made her as free as a 
slave could be in that .State, whose laws forbade eman- 
cipation* 

IB 1839, the mother of the Bishop's first wife left 
to her daughter, not to him, a negro boy. The wife dy- 
ing without a will, according to the laws of Georgia the 
boy became her husband's property. Unable to set 
him free in 'Georgia, the Bishop expressed willingness 
that he should go to a free State, just as soon as he was 



280 Methodism in Kentucky 

able to care for himself and be protected. Then in Jan- 
uary previous to the assembling of the 'General Confer- 
ence, Bishop Andrew had married again, and his wife 
had inherited from her former husband five slaves. The 
Bishop, unwilling to become their owner, executed a 
deed of trust, making these slaves the absolute prop- 
erty of his wife, to whom they belonged by the will of 
her first husband. 

Thus was Bishop Andrew unfortunately connected 
with slavery. His case is an example of the complica- 
tions which beset the people who lived in the midst 0f 
such conditions. For many years the Church, in trying 
to deal with the problem, had acted under the follow- 
ing rule of the Discipline : 

We declare that we are as much as ever convinced of the 
great evil of slavery ; therefore no slaveholder shall be eligible to 
any official station in our Church hereafter, where the laws of 
the State in which he lives will admit of emancipation, and per- 
mit the liberated slave to enjoy freedom. 

When any traveling preacher becomes an owner pi a slave or 
slaves, by any means, he shall forfeit his ministerial character 
in our Church, unless he execute, if it be practicable, a legal 
emancipation of s-uch slaves, conformably to the laws of the 
State in which he lives. (Black-face ours.) 

Whatever we may think of the Church's inconsist- 
ency in applying such a rule to official members and not 
to all members making that a bar to office which was 
not a bar to membership such was the rule, and in the 
Kentucky Conference many preachers and church offi- 
cials were required to execute bonds for the liberation 
of their slaves before receiving ordination or being in- 
ducted into office. The rule did not apply in States 
where the laws forbade emancipation. The Church, in 
trying to deal with a recognized evil which it could not 
control, went as far as it could, and this compromise 
measure was accepted by both sections, and held for 



Methodism in Kentucky 281 

more than thirty years, 

As Bishop Andrew lived In a State whose laws 
made it Impossible for him to liberate the slaves that 
had come, without Ms wish, Into his possession, It 
would seem that his case was fully covered by the spe- 
cific exception to the rule. But the feeling against 
slavery had grown so intense in the North that the peo- 
ple of that section would not tolerate the idea of a 
slave-holding Bishop. It was not, with them, a ques- 
tion of how he became entangled with the Institution, 
or how his case might be covered by the rule. He was a 
slave-holder and, law or no law, he was unacceptable 
as a general superintendent of the Church. Mr. Cass, 
of the New Hampshire Conference, said in the discus- 
sion, "Sir, I tell you that, in my opinion, a slave-holder 
cannot sit in the Episcopal chair in New England ; and 
if Bishop Andrew holds his office, there will be large 
secessions, or whole Conferences will leave.' 1 Already 
something like twenty thousand had withdrawn from 
the M. E. Church and formed the Wesley an Methodist 
Church. Unless the Church took advanced grounds 
on this vexed question, they were confronted with the 
loss of other thousands, congregations would be broken 
up, and whole Conferences would secede ! 

In the South the tension was just as great the other 
way. The people were greatly stirred by the aggres- 
sions of the abolitionists of the North, They had ac- 
cepted the compromise rule of the Church, and were 
asking for no change in the Disciplinary require- 
ments. It was evident to them that if Bishop Andrew 
could not hold his office In the Church, neither could 
their ministers or official members. If Bishop Andrew 
were deposed as a Bishop, consistency required that 
Presiding Elders and preachers in charge and officials 



282 Methodism in Kentucky^ 

of every grade must likewise be debarred, and the 
whole work of the Church In the South would be de- 
moralized and destroyed. Dr. Stephen Olin, then of 

the New York Conference, but who had spent several 
years in the South, said : 

It appears to me that we stand committed on this question by 
our principles and views of policy, and neither of us dare move 
a step from our position. ... I will take it upon me to say freely 
that I do not see how northern men can yield their ground, or 
southern men give up theirs- I do indeed believe, that if our 
affairs remain in their present position, and this General Confer- 
ence do not speak out clearly and distinctly on the subject, how- 
ever unpalatable it may be, we cannot go home under this dis- 
tracting question without a certainty of breaking up our Conier- 
enees Your northern brethren, who seem to you to be ar- 
rayed in a hostile attitude, have suffered a great deal before they 
have taken their position, and they come up here distressed be- 
yond measure, and disposed, if they believed they could, without 
distruction and ruin to the Church, to make concessions..... 
With regard to our southern brethren, if they concede what the 
northern brethren wish- if they concede that holding slaves is 
incompatible with holding their ministry- they may as well go 
to the Rocky Mountains as to their own sunny plains. The peo- 
ple would not bear it. 

This sets forth the situation just as it was. If no 
action were taken in the 'ease of Bishop Andrew, there 
would be great losses in the North. If any action were 
taken, there would be great losses in the South. What- 
ever might be done, hurt would come to one or the oth- 
er section of the beloved Church, As some one illustra- 
ted it, it was like two drowning men, both holding to 
a plank that was not large enough to save both, and it 
became a question of which should be pushed from his 
only hope of safety. 

After a rambling and somewhat inconclusive pre- 
amble, a resolution was offered requesting Bishop An- 
drew to resign his office as Bishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. This he was strongly inclined to do, 
for the sake of peace, but his southern brethren unaii- 



Methodism in Kentucky 283 

imously besought him not to do it, as it would outrage 

the feelings of the South and be of untold hurt to- the 
Church in that section. After considerable discussion, 
a substitute was offered by Dr. James B. Finley (a for- 
mer Kentuckian) and J. M. Trimble to the effect "That 
it is the sense of this General Conference that he 
(Bishop Andrew) desist from the exercise of his office 
so long as this impediment remains." The first resolu- 
tion requested the Bishop to take the responsibility up- 
on himself of tendering his resignation ; the substitute 
puts the initiative in the hands of fhe 'General Confer- 
ence, declaring it the sense of that body that he desi&t 
from the exercise of his office. 

This was debated for several days. All efforts to 
compromise or postpone the matter failed. The ex* 
citement in both sections of the country was great. 
Upon the issue seemed to hang the welfare of the 
Church in one section or the other. The delegates from 
these sections had not misgauged the sentiments of 
their people. When the vote was taken the substitute 
was adopted, 110 yeas and 69' nays. The South was 
pushed off the plank. 

Shortly after this vote was taken, William Capers, 
of South Carolina, offered a series of resolutions, look- 
ing to the division of the Church, not into two church- 
es, but Into two jurisdictions under two General Con- 
ferences. These resolutions were referred to a select 
committee of nine, and they were soon after instructed 
that, if they "cannot in their judgment devise a plan 
for the amicable adjustment of the difficulties now ex- 
isting in the Church on the subject of slavery, to de- 
vise, if possible, a constitutional plan for a mutual and 
friendly division of the Church." This last resolution 
was offered by J. B. McFerrin, of Tennessee, and To- 



284 Methodism in Kentncky 

bias Spicer, of New York, the North joining the South 
in the proposal. In the meantime the delegates from 
the South had gotten together, and presented to the 
Conference a "Declaration," to the effect that it would 
be impossible, after the action taken in the Bishop An- 
drew case, for the Church in the slave-holding States to 
carry on their ministry with success under the juris- 
diction of the General Conference as then constituted. 
This Declaration was signed by fifty-two of the south- 
ern delegates. These delegates also united in a Pro- 
test against the action of the majority. This Protest 
was a masterly paper, and was written by H. B. Bas- 
eom, of the Kentucky Conference, 

The Committee of Nine to whom had been referred 
the resolutions of Drs. Capers and McFerrin, failing 
to find any way by which an amicable adjustment of 
the difficulties might be reached, brought in the famous 
Plan of Separation, providing for a division of the 
Church, in case the Conferences in the slave-holding 
States should find it necessary. It may be well to bear 
in mind that this Committee was composed of six dele- 
gates from the North, and three from the South. Hence, 
the Plan of Separation really came from the northern 
delegates. When this Plan came to a vote in the Gen- 
eral Conference, of course it was favored by the south- 
ern delegates. But hud every delegate from the South 
voted against the Plan, the votes from the North would 
have carried it. Of the 169 votes cast, 147 were for 
the adoption of the Plan, and 22 against The north- 
ern men fully realized the situation in which their 
southern brethren were placed, and they met the issue 
"with Christian kindness and strictest equity/' If the 
Church in the South was to be saved, this was the only 
way to do it. 



Methodism in Kentucky 285 

It may be well to remind the reader that the ma- 
jority in their virtual deposition of Bishop Andrew did 
not claim that it was because of any violation of the Taw 
of the Church. The whole matter was on the ground 
of expediency. Bishop Andrew had violated no law of 
the Church, but in so far as this law was concerned, 
he was fully protected by it. But the sentiment of the 
North had so changed and was now so strong against 
slavery that a slave-holding Bishop, however he might 
have become such, would not be tolerated by the people 
of that section. If he held his office, there would "be 
large secessions, or whole Conferences would leave." 
It was, therefore, expedient for him to "desist from the 
exercise of his office." 

This is not intended as a discussion of the northern 
position, whether these delegates were right or wrong. 
We are merely stating a fact that is fully borne out by 
the debates as published by the Church. It will not be 
amiss to remind the reader of the fact that the dele- 
gates from the South did not ask for a division into 
two Churches, but for two jurisdictions within the one 
Church f or two General Conferences. This idea seems 
to have been well understood at the time, for in moving 
the adoption of the Plan of Separation, Dr. Charles 
Elliott "referred to the churches at Antioch, Alexan- 
dria, and Jerusalem, which, though they continued as 
one, were a$ distinct as the Methodist Episcopal 
Church would be if the suggested separation took 
place. The Church of England was one under the 
Bishops of Canterbury and York, connected, yet dis- 
tinct. , . -The measure contemplated was not a schism, 
but separation for their mutual convenience and pros- 
perity." Dr. Elliott changed his attitude afterwards, 
but this shows Ms thinking at the time. 



286 Methodism in Kentucky __ ^ 

In all these matters the delegates from the Ken- 
tucky Conference were a unit. None of them made 
speeches on the floor of the General Conference, but In 
every Yea and Nay vote they were the first from a 
slave-holding State called upon to express their senti- 
ments, and they invariably and unanimously -stood with 
the South. The Protest of the minority was written 
by Dr. Bascom, and signed by -all the Kentucky dele- 
gation. They joined the other southern delegates in 
the "Declaration ;" voted together on the Plan of Sep- 
aration, and were the first to sign the Address Issued 
by the southern delegates to ministers and members of 
the Church in the South, calling for a Convention of 
delegates from that section to decide whether or not 
separation was necessary. 

When our delegates returned to Kentucky, they! 
found intense excitement among our people. Many 
were opposed to division, hoping that some means 
might yet be discovered by which the unity of the 
Church might be preserved. Some thought it better to 
endure the hurt occasioned by the action of the Gen- 
eral Conference rather than separate. Some fully en- 
dorsed the course of our delegates, yet hoped against 
hope that some way out of the difficulties might be 
found. Several congregational meetings were held, 
and several letters addressed to the Conference at 
Bowling iGreen, expressing opposition to division. 

When the Kentucky Conference met in September, 
they very promptly called on their delegates to give a 
'report of their actions and the reasons for the same. 
Dr. Bascom did what he seldom did, made a lengthy 
speech on the Conference floor, explaining the situation 
to the Conference. He was requested to furnish the 
addreas for publication, but if he did so we have not 



Methodism in Kentucky 287 

been able to find a copy of It. A committee of nine 
members was appointed to take the whole matter under 
consideration and report their findings to the Confer- 
ence the next day. Their report is found among the 
papers belonging to that year. After a suitable preamble 
they offered for the consideration of the Conference a 
series of resolutions, embracing the following points: 
1. That the action of the General Conference in the 
case of Bishop Andrew is not sustained by the Disci- 
pline. 2. "That we deeply deplore the prospect of di- 
vision growing out of the proceedings, and that we do 
sincerely hope and pray that some effectual means 
may be suggested and devised" to avert such a calam- 
ity. 3. That the holding of the Convention at Louis- 
ville be approved. 4. That should a division be found 
indispensable, it shall not be regarded as a seces- 
sion but that the Southern branch of the Church be 
recognized as a co-ordinate branch of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in the United States, simply acting 
under a separate jurisdiction. No change in the Dis- 
cipline is to be made. 5. "That unless we can be as- 
sured that the rights of our ministry and membership 
can be effectually secured according to the Discipline, 
against future aggression, and reparation be made for 
past injury, we shall deem the contemplated division 
unavoidable/' The sixth resolution approves the course 
of the Kentucky Conference delegates, and the seventh 
provides for the publication of the resolutions. This 
report is signed by M. M. Henkle, G. C Light, H. H. 
Kavanaugh, J. S. Tomlinson, W. B. Kavanaugh, C. B. 
Parsons, B. H. McCbwn, J. Tevis, and T. Bottomly. 
These resolutions were adopted by the Conference, and 
the following delegates to the Louisville Convention 
were chosen: Ev Stevenson,, H. H. Kavanaugh, H. B. 



288 Methodism in Kentucky 

Bascom, B. T. Crouch, William Gunn, G. W. Taylor, 
G. W. Brush, J. C. Harrison, B. H. McCown, James 
King, John James, and T* N. Ralston. 

In the Address of the Southern delegates to the 
Ministers and Members of the Church in the South, the 
preachers were urged to consult freely their members 
upon the subject of division, and get their views upon 
it. Between the close of the Kentucky Conference of 
1844 and the meeting of the Convention in Louisville 
the following May, the matter was submitted to many 
congregations in Kentucky, and while quite a number 
of them favored division, it was found that a very large 
number were opposed to it They still entertained 
hopes that the necessity of division might be avoided. 
No Creek Chapel, in Ohio county, passed strong resolu- 
tions condemning the proposed division. Bethesda 
on the Jeffersontown circuit; Campbellsville, and near- 
ly all the congregations in Louisville opposed It. In the 
Kentucky Conference, nearly every congregation In 
the Maysville District recorded its vote against divi- 
sion. The District was then under John C. Harrison 
as Presiding Elder. In the Minerva circuit, of which 
Augusta was a part, Dr. J. S. Tomlinson, then Presi- 
dent of Augusta College, and A, H. Bedford, the pastor 
of the circuit, publicly debated the question in a num- 
ber of the congregations, and when the time to deter- 
mine their adherence came, only the church at Augusta 
&dhered to the North. In the interior of the State 
the sentiment was more favorable to division, but there 
was a very considerable minority in all these churches 
who were bitterly opposed to the separation. Some 
refused to go into the M. B. Church, South. Many of 
these united with other denominations, and they and 
their families were lost to Methodlam* The number so 




Kourdt S(nH Mrlhodisi. riiurrh, Louisville, Ky,, in \\hirh (lu M'fho<UH! 
M|iltfco|wl (Mnirrh, SouUi, W!K or^nniy,<<l, Mn.\, JSi;. 



Metjiodism in Kentucky 289 

lost, with their families, ran into the thousands. When 
we remember the strong opposition that existed in 
Kentucky, we can the better understand some of the 
events which afterwards occurred. 

When the Convention met in Louisville on May 1, 
1845, all the delegates from the Kentucky Conference 
were present. Dr. Lovick Pierce, of the Georgia Con- 
ference, and Rev. T. N. Ralston, of the Kentucky Con- 
ference were elected temporary chairman and secre- 
tary. Bishops Andrew, Soule, and Morris were pres- 
ent, and were requested to preside over the Convention. 
Bishops Andrew and Soule consented to do so, but 
Bishop Morris declined. Thomas 0. Summers was 
elected permanent secretary, and T. N. Ralston, As- 
sistant. A Committee on Organization was appointed, 
consisting of two from each Annual Conference rep- 
resented, the members from the Kentucky Conference 
being Dr. Bascom and Rev. Edward Stevenson. Dr. 
Bascom was chairman of the committee and wrote the 
very lengthy and able document, the adoption of which 
brought into being as a separate ecclesiastical connec- 
tion the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. As Dr. 
E.. H. Myers, in his book, "Disruption of the M. E. 
Church/ 9 gives an admirable summary of the action 
of this Convention we give his statement in preference 
to our own. 

A Committee on Organization was appointed to canvass the 
acts of the several Annual Conferences; to consider the propriety 
and necessity of a southern organization, according to the "Plan 
of Separation," and to report the best niethod of securing ths 
objects contemplated in the appointment of the Convention; and 
were instructed, also-, to inquire if anything- had taken place dur- 
ing the -year to render it possible to maintain the unity of Meth- 
odism under the same General Conference jurisdiction without 
the ruin of So-uthern Methodism, After a free interchange of 
views from day to day, on the 15th of May this committee re- 
ported at length. Their report covered much ground, but they 



290 Methodism in Kentucky ^^ ^...-^ 

readied these conclusions: That the General Conference of 1844 
gave full, and express, and exclusive authority to the Annual 
Conferences in the slave-holding States" to judge of the pro- 
priety, and decide upon the necessity, of organizing ^separate 
ecclesiastical Connection in the South; that sixteen such. Confer- 
ences were here represented; that it is in evidence that the min- 
istry and membership of the South, nearly five hundred thou- 
sand in the proportion of about ninety-five in the hundred, deem 
a division of jurisdiction indispensable an urgent necessity; 
that unless this is effected, about a million slaves, now hearing: 
the gospel from our ministers, will be withdrawn from -their 
care; that a mere division of jurisdiction cannot affect the moral 
unity of the great American Methodist family the ^Methodist 
Episcopal Church as this expressly authorized division only 
proposes to invest the general jurisdiction in two great organs ot 
Church-action and control instead of in one, as at present ; that 
not only will the moral oneness and integrity of the great body 
not be affected by it, but peace and unity will be restored to the 
Church; and that while thus taking their position on the f^und 
assigned them by the General Conference of 1844, as a distinct 
ecclesiastical Connection, the Southern Conferences are ready 
and willing to treat with the Northern division of the Church 
at any time, in view of .adjusting the difficulties upon terms and 
principles that may be satisfactory to both; and then these dele- 
gates did "solemnly declare the jurisdiction hitherto exercised 
over the Annual Conferences represented in the Convention by 
the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church en- 
tirely dissolved; and that said Annual Conferences are hereby 
constituted a separate ecclesiastical Connection under the Pro- 
visional Plan of Separation adopted by the General Conference 
of 1844; and, based upon the Discipline of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, comprehending the doctrines and entire moral, 
ecclesiastical, and economical rules and regulations of said Dis- 
cipline, except only in so far as verbal alterations may be neces- 
sary to a distinct organization, which is to be known 'by the style 
and title of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

At its session in 1845, the Kentucky Conference al- 
most unanimously aligned itself with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. Among the ministers the 
opposition to the separate organization practically dis- 
appeared. Dr. J. S. Tomlinson, who joined the Ohio 
Conference of the M. E. Church without the courtesy 
of -a formal withdrawal from the Kentucky Confer- 
ence, and without waiting to avail himself of the privi- 
lege of adhering to the M. E. Church as provided for in 
the Plan of Separation, drew off the Augurts society 



Methodism in Kentucky 291 

with him, and created considerable disturbance in that 
section of the northern border of the Conference. But 
for him we think It will be conceded that there would 
have been but little trouble in that section. At Mays- 
ville, under the leadership of John Armstrong, a part 
of the church drew off and established an M. E. Church 
at that place. The Presiding Elder of the Cincinnati 
District appointed the Rev. William H. Lawder as 
preacher in charge of Augusta and Maysville. Suit 
was brought, claiming possession of the church build- 
ing at Maysville, which finally was decided by the 
Court of Appeals of Kentucky in favor of the Southern 
Church. This Maysville Church Case is an interesting 
bit of history into which we have no inclination to 
enter here. Let the past bury its dead! 

Suffice it to say that the division of the Church 
brought great excitement and confusion to the Method- 
ists of the Kentucky Conference. Many refused to go 
into the Southern organization, and joined with others 
of the Holston, Western Virginia, and Missouri Confer- 
ences in petitioning the General Conference of the M. 
E, Church to send them preachers from that Church. 
Strong efforts were made by that Church to hold the 
Conferences along the border, but failing in this, we 
doubt if the M, E- Church would have come into Ken- 
tucky but for this dissenting element among the laity 
who refused to be identified with the Southern Church. 
It was at their solicitation that ministers were sent in- 
to this territory. If that part of the M. E. Church 
which composed the majority of the 'General Confer- 
ence of 1844 could have retained the leadership in that 
Church, there would have been no more trouble over 
the division of the Church than attends the division 
of an AnooftJ {fcuference. But radicalism gamed the 



292 Methodism in Kentucky 

ascendency. Comparatively few of the northern men 
who voted for the Plan of Separation were elected to 
the General Conference of 1848, This Conference re- 
pudiated the action of the General Conference of 1844, 
and then the trouble began. But that is a story which 
belongs to a later period of the history of Methodism. 

We have tried, in the above account, to faithfully 
set forth the conditions under which the General Con- 
ference met in 1844, and to give the views as held by 
each side of that memorable controversy. We must 
ask the reader to remember that we are not giving our 
personal opinions, but are trying to set forth those of 
the North and South as these attitudes are revealed in 
the public records. Methodism was not the only de- 
nomination which split upon that rock of slavery. The 
Baptists divided in 1845, and the Episcopal and Pres- 
byterian Churches at a later period. The Episcopal 
Church was not long in getting together again, and the 
Presbyterians and Methodists are now trying to effect 
a unification of the branches, North and South. 

From what has been said, we think the following 
points are clear: 1. Slavery, the cause of the separa- 
tion, was firmly established in America before Method- 
ism was introduced. 2. The institution was recog- 
nized by the Constitution of the United States, and 
placed by that instrument under the control of the 
several States. 3. The Church, from the beginning, 
in both the North and the South, regarded slavery as 
an evil, but not until a later period did any part of the 
Church regard it as necessarily a sin* 4. The Church 
in the South, where its labors were carried on among 
a slave-holding people, recognizing the fact that it was 
powerless to do awa,y with the institution, and felt it 
their duty to follow tj^ 6 example of th^ Apostles, preach 



Methodism in KentucJcy 293 

the gospel alike to master and slave, and save as many 
of both as they possibly could, patiently waiting until 
the time for the abolition of slavery should come. 5. The 
abolition sentiment in the North, out of the Church as 
well as in It, and the pro-slavery sentiment among the 
people of the South, brought about such a situation in 
1844, that division was a necessity if the Church was to 
be saved in the two antagonistic sections. 6. The ac- 
tion by the majority against Bishop Andrew In 1844, 
was prompted by a desire to save the Church from se- 
vere losses in the North; while the measures adopted 
by the minority were equally necessary to save the 
Church in the South from what they believed was cer- 
tain ruin. 7. Division was looked upon by the dele- 
gates from both North and South as the only way out 
bf a most distressing situation. The future proved the 
correctness of their godly judgment. Both sections of 
the Church have greatly prospered. The North was 
saved from the disasters which threatened it, and the 
South was saved from the calamities it felt sure would 
befall if it continued under the jurisdiction of a Gen- 
eral Conference dominated by such strong anti-slavery 
sentiment 

But what about the turmoil and strife between the 
two branches of the Church? It was not the Separa- 
tion, but the unwise and unbrotherly conduct of future 
years which brought about these unhappy events. We 
believe that all parties now see and lament these re- 
grettable happenings, and again recognize the fact that 
we are brethren, parts of the same great family; and 
that there is now in the breasts of all a great longing 
to sit again at the same fireside and to partake of the 
joys of the same family life* 



CHAPTER XI 

ENTER THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH. 

When the Kentucky Conference met In the fall of 
1844, it was In the Presbyterian Church at Bowling 
Green. Bishop Edmond Storer Janes was in the chair. 
Bishop Janes had been elected to office at the preceding- 
General Conference, and was a favorite with the dele- 
gates from the South. It was perhaps their vote that 
elected him. He had been Agent for the American 
Bible Society, had visited many of the Southern Con- 
ferences, and had won the confidence of these men. He 
was a native of Sheffield, Massachusetts, but a member 
of the Philadelphia Conference. Bishop Sampson says 
of him : "Bishop Janes was one of the most remarkable 
men in the history of Methodism with no superiors 
and few equals." Some one else has pronounced him 
"as practical as James, as cautious as Peter, as tender 
and loving as John, and as many-sided and comprehen- 
sive as Paul" This was the only time he presided over 
the Kentucky Conference, for before another session, 
the Conference was under the jurisdiction of the ML E, 
Church, South. 

On the motion of Drummond Welburn, the Minutes 
of this session were ordered published in pamphlet 
form the first time this was done* 

The number of schools under the patronage of the 
Conference at this time is rather surprising. Augusta 
College was practically abandoned. Dr, J. S, Tomlln- 
son was still its President, and had a corps of instruc- 
tors in the various departments, though the Ohio Con- 
ference was now building Ohio Wesleyan at Delaware, 

294 



Methodism in Kentuky 295 

Ohio. Transylvania was in successful operation, and 
had the support of the Kentucky Conference. Dr. and 
Mrs. Tevis were in charge of Science Hill; Dr. T. N. 
Ralston was Principal of the Lexington Female High 
School; the Green River Seminary for Young Ladies, 
at Greensburg was under the management of Rev. R. 
R. Peebles ; Funk Seminary, at LaGrange, was conduct- 
ed by Rev. I. R. Finley; the Richmond Female Semi- 
nary was superintended by ''Brother Smith ;" and there 
was the Morris High School in Louisville, and the 
Bardstown Female Academy at Bardstown. 

Lewis S. Marshall had been a member of the Hols- 
ton Conference, Having located, he was this year re- 
admitted into the Kentucky Conference, but after one 
year at Eddyville, was transferred first to the East 
Texas, then to the Arkansas Conference, where he was 
an efficient worker until his death in 1862. Those who 
are familiar with the record of "Parson Br'ownlow" of 
East Tennessee, will be interested to know that Mar- 
shall was the officiating clergyman at the wedding of 
this very unique character. 

Fifteen new men were received on trial. Of these, 
Mitchell Land had been on trial in 1841, and has had 
notice in the record of that year. Ashbel Parcel 
dropped out of the ranks after serving one year, not 
wishing to adhere to the M. E. Church, South. After 
two years on Owsley Mission and Livingston circuit, 
Robert McNutt IB allowed "to travel for his health." 
We are informed that he died at New Orleans the fol- 
lowing March. Anthony Cannon was discontinued at 
the end of one year, but was again admitted into the 
Louisville Conference at its first session in 1846. He 
located in 1853. John McCullough was in the work 
only four years. Aaron Moore had been admitted In 



296 Methodism in Kentucky 

1839, but was discontinued in 1842, in order to improve 
his education. He is again admitted and gave thirteen 
years of effective service in the bounds of the Louis- 
ville Conference. He was called to his reward on the 
15th of October, 1863. "He was singularly gifted in 
prayer/' 

Until 1861, when he became a chaplain in the 
United States Army, the work of James H. Bristow 
had been altogether in the bounds of the Louisville 
Conference, except one year in Arkansas. He held his 
position as chaplain until 1864, then located, and after- 
wards entered the Kentucky Conference of the M. E. 
Church, and died a member of that Conference in 1870. 

John Bowden was a native of Baltimore. He is 
said to have been a superior preacher, very successful 
and greatly beloved by young and old. He was among 
the number who were transferred from the Kentucky 
to the Louisville Conference in 1846, and was stationed 
at Bowling Green for two years. At the end of that 
time "he was allowed to travel southwardly, at will, 
on account of 111 health." He was never able to take 
up regular work in the ministry again, but studied 
medicine and practiced for some time in Bowling 
Green. He removed to Russellville, and there died, 
August 5, 1854. 

With the exception of one year, the ministry of 
Jack W. Kasey was spent in the Louisville Conference. 
In his memoir it is said that "while he was effective 
among us, he labored with great acceptability to the 
people in his various charges. He was a man of fine 
address in the pulpit, and unusually interesting In the 
social circle. Among the poor, he was a comforter; 
among the sick, an angel of mercy; among his flock, a 
pastor indeed* As a preacher he was concise and prac- 



^ Methodism in Kentucky 297 

tical a workman approved of God, rightly dividing the 
- word of truth. Truly he was a good man, a good 
preacher, a good pastor, and through Ms labors many 
were added to the Church.' 9 His translation occurred 
August 2, 1859: 

Hugh Eankin, after a few years in Kentucky, 
went to West Virginia. His name stood among the 
superannuates in 1861, but the War between the States 
came on, and such was the disturbed condition in that 
section that no sessions of the Western Virginia Con- 
ference were held until 1866. His name does not ap- 
pear in the Minutes that year, and we have been unable 
to find further trace of him. It is probable that he was 
called away from the turbulent scenes of conflict to 
that land where peace forever reigns. 

In our childhood, while living with our uncle in the 
eastern part of Bourbon county, his home was one of 
the preaching places on the Sharpsburg and Bethel cir- 
cuit. One of our earliest recollections is of William 
Bickers, the pastor of that circuit, holding services in 
our home. He was born in Scott county; joined the 
Church and was converted before he was out of his 
teens; was licensed to preach and admitted into the 
Kentucky Conference in 1844, and was a saintly man. 
Most of his ministry was spent in the Western Virginia 
Conference of which he was a charter member* but 
during the troubles incident to the war, he, with other 
Southern Methodist preachers, was driven out of West 
Virginia, and came back to Kentucky. Tall, slender, 
with clear marks of tuberculosis, he did not live long 
after leaving the Sharpsburg and Bethel circuit He 
died February 22, 1875, and at his own request was 
buried in the cemetery at Danville, 

William G, Johns was a very delicate man. Sev- 



29S Methodism in 



eral times during Ms twenty-one years of service did 
he have to stop and recruit his strength. But his la- 
bors were .greatly blessed, and gracious revivals 
marked Ms efforts to the last. His end was peace- 
Death found him ready, October 23, 1866. 

The name of John W. Cunningham was very famil- 
iar to the readers of The Central Methodist forty years 
ago. He had a facile pen, and wrote much for the 
church press. He was always interesting, and his mind 
was a perfect storehouse of historical information. For 
several years he edited a "Kentucky Page" in the St. 
Louis Christian Advocate, when that paper was recog- 
nized as the organ of the Kentucky and Louisville Con- 
ferences, and he made of it a lively department. He 
was for some time a member of the Kentucky, then of 
the Louisville, then of the Missouri Conference. After 
he had gone to Missouri, and when publishers had un- 
dertaken to publish a history of the Churches of Lou- 
isville, Mr. Cunningham was asked to write that of the 
Methodist churches of that city/ With no written data 
at hand, he wrote, out of his memory, a history of these 
churches which is equal to any in the volume. He 
finally went to California to make his home with a 
daughter, and died in that State when in the ninety- 
sixth year of his age. We have in our files quite a 
number of very interesting letters from him bearing on 
the history of Methodism in Kentucky* He died Jan- 
uary 13, 1920, having been a minister for nearly 
seventy-six years, 

184&. More things happened at the session of the 
Kentucky Conference of 1845 that are of interest to the 
reader than is usual in such a gathering. The new or- 
ganization was just getting under way, various matters 
must be arranged, and incidents of general and per- 



Methodism in Kentucky 299 

sonal interest occurred. The session was held in the 

Hall of Representatives at the State Capitol, and 
Frankfort entertained the Conference in splendid style. 
Travelers reached the Capitol either by horse back or 
stage coach, as there were no railroads entering Frank- 
fort, except the short line from Lexington, and this 
was not a very inviting means of reaching the city. 
The road was rather dangerous, and the speed was 
from twelve to fifteen miles an hour. The boats then 
on the Kentucky River were slow and not very attrac- 
tive. There were no lights on the streets prior to 1841, 
except such as the pedestrians carried, and even in 
1845 the streets were dimly lighted and the pavements 
difficult to negotiate. The city was full of visitors. The 
re-interment of the remains of Daniel Boone and his 
wife, Rebecca Bryan Boone, took place during the ses- 
sion of the Conference, and the Bishop and all the min- 
isters marched in a body to the cemetery, and took part 
in the ceremonies. The prayer offered by Bishop Soule 
was pronounced most eloquent and appropriate and 
made a profound impression on the multitudes who 
had gathered. 

Daniel Boone had died about twenty-five years be- 
fore this and had been buried in Missouri. His wife 
had died five years earlier. The State felt that the 
ashes of the old pioneer should rest in the State which 
he had rescued from the wilderness, and the Legisla- 
ture made an appropriation sufficient to remove the re- 
mains of both Boone and his wife, and re-bury them in 
the beautiful cemetery overlooking the Capitol and the 
country stretching for miles up and down the Ken- 
tucky River. On the first day of the Conference, an 
invitation was received from the -committee on ar- 
rangements, asking that the Conference attend upon 



300 Methodism in KentucTcy ^_ 

the burial, and the invitation was accepted. It is stated 
that "when the coffins were opened it was found that 
the large bones were perfect in size and shape, but of a 
very dark color and so far decomposed in substance as 
to have lost their strength and weight, to a considera- 
ble extent; a number of the small bones were rotten 
and could not be raised in form. Their coffins were en- 
tirely rotten except the bottom planks/' So ends the 
strength and glory of all flesh! 

Bishop Joshua Soule was in the chair at the open- 
ing of the Conference, but Bishop Andrew was present 
and presided much of the time. He alone signed the 
Minutes as President of the Conference. T, N. Ralston 
and W. M. Grubbs were elected Secretaries. 

Of course it was necessary that the Conference 
should make such readjustments as would put them 
legally and fully into the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. "Bishop Soule addressed the Conference at 
some length on the subject of Methodism, especially 
concerning the great agitation through which the 
Church has recently passed, terminating in a separa- 
tion of jurisdiction between the North and the South. 
Dr. Bascom presented and read a preamble and reso- 
lutions connected with the subject of division. It was 
resolved to take up and act upon the resolutions/* 
Minutes- 

We think our readers will be interested in this pa- 
per of Dr. Bascom's, the adoption of which placed the 
Kentucky Conference, the first Conference to take ac- 
tion on the matter, formally and finally in the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, South, We give it entire: 

Whereas, the long continued agitation and excitement on the 
subject of slavery and abolition in the M. E, Church, and espec- 
ially such agitation and excitement in the last General Confer* 
ence, in connection with the civil and domestic relations of 



Methodism in Kentucky 301 

Bishop Andrew as the owner of slave property by inheritance 
and marriage, assumed such foron in the action in the case of 
Bishop Andrew as to compel the Southern and Southwestern 
delegates to believe, and formally and solemnly declare, that a 
state of things must result therefrom which would render im- 
practicable the successful prosecution of the objects and pur- 
poses of the Christian ministry and church organization in the 
Annual Conferences within the limits of the slave-holding 
States, upon the basis of which resolutions the General Con- 
ference adopted a provisional Plan of Separation, in view of 
which said Conferences might, If they found it necessary, form 
themselves into a separate General Conference jurisdiction; 

And whereas, said Conferences, acting first in their sep- 
arate Conference capacity as distinct ecclesiastical bodies, and 
then collectively by their duly appointed delegates and repre- 
sentatives in General Convention assembled, have found and 
declared such separation necessary, and have further declared 
a final dissolution in fact and in form of the jurisdictional con- 
nection hitherto existing between them and the Genefal Con- 
ference of the M. E. Church as heretofore constituted, and have 
organized the Methodist Episcopal Chprch, South, upon the un- 
altered basis of the Doctrines and Discipline of the M. E. Church 
in the United States, as authorized by the General Conference; 

And, whereas, said Plan of Separation as adopted by the 
General Conference and carried out by the late Convention of 
Southern delegates in the city of Louisville, Kentucky, and also 
recognized ^by the entire Episcopacy authoritative and of bind- 
ing obligation in the whole range of their administration pro- 
vides that Conferences bordering on the line of division between 
the two Connections, North and South, shall determine by vote 
of the majority of their members respectively, to which juris- 
diction they will adhere, therefore, in view of all the premises, 
as one of the bordering Conferences, and subject to the above- 
named rule, 

1. Resolved by the Kentucky Annual Conference of the M. 
E. Church, that, in conformity to the General Conference Plan 
of Separation, it is necessary that this Conference decide by 
vote of a majority of its members to which connection of the 
M. E, Church it will adhere, and that we now proceed to make 
such decision. 

2. Resolved, that any member or members of this Confer- 
ence declining to adhere to that connection to which the majority 
shall, by regular official vote decide to adhere, shall be regarded 
as entitled, agreeably to the Plan of Separation, to hold their 
relation to the other ecclesiastical connection, North or South, 
as the case may 'be, without blame or prejudice of any kind, 
unless there be grave objections to the moral character of such 
member or members, before the date of such formal adherence. 

3. Resolved, that, agreeably to the provisions of the General 
Conference Plan of Separation and the decisions of the Epis- 
copacy with regard to it, any person or persons from and after 
the dat and act of non-concurrejac with the majority* as above. 



g02 Methodism in Kentucky 

cannot be entitled to hold membership, or claim any of the 
rights or privileges of membership in this Conference. B 

4. Resolved, That as a Conference claiming all the rights, 
powers and privileges of an Annual Conference of the M. E. 
Church, we adhere to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; 
that all our proceedings, records, and official acts hereafter be 
in the name and style of the Kentucky Annual Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Chtfrch, South. ^ ^ BASCOM. 

Frankfort, Ky. 
Sept. 10th, 1845. 

The vote on the adoption of these resolutions was 
taken by the yeas and nays, and only five, viz., James 
Ward, A. Kelly, R. G. Gardiner, J. G. Bruce, and Allen 
S^ars, voted against its adoption. These voting in the 
negative were allowed certificates of their standing in 
the Conference so that they might go to the M. E- 
Church without blame or censure of any kind. J. IG, 
Bruce afterwards changed his decision, and announced 
his adherence to the M. E. Church, South. In the case 
of the old veteran, James Ward, it was agreed that his 
allowance from the fund for superannuates should be 
continued to him. He later placed his membership In 
the Baltimore Conference of the M. E. Church. Allen 
Sears went to Indiana. Gardiner continued in the M. 
E. Church, South, until 1864, when he united with the 
Kentucky Conference of the M. E. Church. Albert 
Kelly remained until his transfer to Oregon some time 
later. William Butt and Ashbel Parcel, not being full 
members of the Conference, but preferring connection 
with the North, were simply dropped from the roll. 

When the name of Joseph S. Tomlinson was called* 
it was announced he had gone to the Ohio Conference 
of the M. E'. Church, without waiting to comply with 
the provisions of the Plan of Separation. On motion of 
Jonathan Stamper it was unanimously resolved that, 
"in the opinion of this Conference, the conduct of Dr. 



Methodism in Kentucky S03 

Tomlinson has been Improper and highly injurious to 
the peace of the Church and in violation of the Plan of 
Division adopted by the General Conference of 1844." 
A. J. McLaughlin had also joined the Ohio Conference. 

Resolutions were adopted approving the conduct of 
Bishops Soule and Andrew in resisting the alleged ille- 
gal action of the 'General Conference at New York; and 
Rev. Dr. Joseph A, Waterman, the venerable William 
Burke, and Rev. Isasic Ebbert, all of the Ohio Confer- 
ence, made application through Bishop Soule for ad- 
mission into the Kentucky Conference. They were 
admitted by a unanimous vote in each case. E.. W. 
Sehon, S. A. Latta, and G. W. Maley, after notifying 
the Ohio Conference that they would adhere to the 
Church, South, were received into the Tennessee Con- 
ference, but subsequently transferred to the Kentucky 
Conference. 

On motion it was requested that the General Con- 
ference to meet at Petersburg, Virginia, in May, 1846, 
would locate the Book Concern of the M. E. Church, 
South, in Louisville. It was further requested that, 
as soon as a Book Concern should be established, the 
Agents would publish a work of Thomas N. Ralston, 
entitled, "Theological Lectures." This book was, in 
due time, published by Morton and Griswold, under the 
title, "Ralston's Elements of Divinity," a standard 
work on theology which held a place in the Course of 
Study for undergraduates for many years. 

As the General Conference was to meet the follow- 
ing May, an election of delegates was in order. H. B. 
Bascom, H. H. Kavanaugh, B, T. Crouch, J. Stamper, 
G. W. Brush, Edward Stevenson, T. N. Ralston, N. B. 
Lewis, C. B. Parsons, and John C. Harrison were elect- 
ed in the order given. Joseph A. Waterman and James 



304 Methodism in Kentucky ^ 

King were elected reserve delegates. A day or two 
after this election, In view of his transfer to the Mis- 
souri Conference, C. B. Parsons tendered his resigna- 
tion as a delegate, but the Conference voted to make no 
change, but to recognize Dr. Parsons as their represen- 
tative, even though he was a member of another Con- 
ference at the time the General Conference met; 
thus again endorsing the English plan of representa- 
tion rather than the American plan. 

The Southwestern Christian Advocate, edited by 
Dr. J. B. McFerrin and issued from Nashville, had tak- 
en the place of the Western Christian Advocate as the 
organ of the Conference, and, upon the request of Dr. 
McFerrin, the Bishop was requested to appoint Moses 
TM Henkle as Assistant Editor. Dr. Henkle was a man 
of splendid ability, of fine equipment, and was well 
fitted for the position. He remained as editor of va- 
rious Church periodicals until our publishing inter- 
ests were broken up by the Civil War. 

At the session of 1844, the Conference had ap- 
pointed Rev. Thomas BL Lynch an agent to investigate 
the title of the Methodist Church to certain real estate 
which had been granted to the Church for educational 
purposes. His report contains facts which we think 
our readers will be glad to have. We therefore give the 
report; 

In the year 1797, John Lewis conveyed 100 acres of land, ly- 
ing on the Kentucky Biver, to Francis Poytkress and others as 
trustees of Bethel School, in trust, that a school or seminary of 
learning- should be established and continued thereon, under 
the control and general supervision of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church* According to the provisions of said deed of trust, a 
school was commenced 'and continued for a few years, when the 
school was moved from the land conveyed as above, to Nicho- 
lasville. The removal of th school to Nicholasvllle was con- 
sidered a breach of trust, and thereupon said land reverted 
to the heirs of Lewis, and has sinc^ by legal conveyance, pass- 



Methodism in Kentucky 305 

ed into the hands of third persons. The trustees- of said s-chool 
were thn incorporated by an act of the Legislature, under the 
name of The Trustees of Bethel Academy. By a subsequent act 
of the Legislature of Kentucky, 6,000 acres of land lying on the 
Ohio, in the lower part of Kentucky, were granted to said 
Academy. The Trustees under the authority of law have sold 
5,000 acres of said grant, and after defraying the expenses at- 
tending the sale of said land, have loaned at six per cent the 
purchase money arising from said sales. It does not appear 
from any act of the Legislature or from any public record, that 
the Methodist Episcopal Church have possessed or exercised 
any control over said Academy since the reversion of the one 
hundred acres to the heirs of Lewis, as before stated. Believ- 
ing (from) the history of said Academy (that it) was the in- 
tention of the original founders of the Academy to establish a 
literary institution under the control and patronage of the Meth- 
odist E. Church, and that such control has passed from the 
Church by a non-exercise of authority, it is respectfully sug- 
gested to this Conference that Commissioners be appointed by 
the body to address a memorial to the Legislature, praying that 
the act of incorporation of Bethel Academy be so amended as 
to give this Conference the appointment of the Trustees of the 
Academy, or that such Commissioners be authorized and em- 
powered to negotiate with the present Board of Trustees on 
behalf of the Church for the general control and management 
of said Academy, according to the intention of the original 
founders. 

This gives us the clearest answer we have seen to 
the question of what became of the title and control of 
Bethel Academy, though it does not tell us what be- 
came of the money received from the sale of the land 
granted by the Legislature, nor does it inform us of the 
sale of the 1,000 acres which, at that time, remained 
unsold. After the school had been removed to Nicho- 
lasville it ran under the name of Bethel Academy. As 
suggested by Dr. Lynch, a commission was appointed 
to pursue the matter further, but nothing came of it. 

At this session of the Conference, Clinton Kelly of- 
fered a resolution asking for the division of the Con- 
ference- This resolution was referred to a committee, 
who reported favoring the division and asking that the 
line separating the two Conferences to be established, 
begin "at the mouth of Second Street, Louisville, thence 



Methodism in Kentucky 



with said street south to the corporate limits of the 
city, thence with the line of corporate limits to the 
Bardstown turnpike/' thence through Bardstown, 
Springfield, Haysville, Liberty and Jamestown, to the 
Cumberland River, etc. A motion was made to amend, 
so that the line of division would begin at the mouth 
of Salt River. Still another motion would place it at 
the mouth of Harrods Creek, which motion was adop^ 
ted. Later it was moved to reconsider, and the original 
report of the committee, recommending that the city 
of Louisville be divided between the two Conferences, 
was approved. However, a committee was appointed 
to confer with the members of the Church in Louisville 
about the line of separation, and no doubt that they op- 
posed the division of the city between two Conferences. 
When the General Conference made the division, the 
mouth of Harrods Creek was made the point of begin- 
ning. 

Isaac W. B. Taylor, Caleb T. Hill, Peter V. Ferree, 
Titus C. Briggs, Henry Hobbs, Thomas F. Vanmeter, 
John T. Crandell, John S. Noble, Samuel D. Aiken, 
Stephen Noland, William M. Riddle, and Sam'L L. Reed 
were admitted on trial, while W. M. Crawford and Alan- 
son C. DeWitt were readmitted. Of those admitted 
Stephen Noland and William M. Riddle were discon- 
tinued at the end of the year. Noland was a lawyer, 
and his business as Commonwealth's Attorney pre- 
vented his continuing in the work at this time. He 
was one of the leading men of his day. His home was 
at Nicholasville, and no man in his county wielded a 
greater influence for good, He took up the work again 
in the Conference, and we will have occasion later to 
speak of his labors. Riddle was a member of the Ir- 
vine family of Riddles, and at a later period went 



Methodism in Kentucky 807 

South and was lost sight of. 

Titus Briggs disappears after one year, and Samuel 
L. Reed after two years. Peter V. Ferree located in 
1852. John T. Crandell located in 1851, but we are 
not sure that he did not return to the Conference at a 
later date. After thirteen years of service, mostly in 
northeastern Kentucky, Caleb T. Hill located in 1858 
and settled near Salem, Mason county. His son, Rev. 
E-. B. Hill, was an honored member of the Kentucky 
Conference of the M. E. Church, Henry Hobbs located 
several times on account of health, but succeeded in 
giving a good many years to the work, mainly in the 
Louisville Conference. After three years in Kentucky, 
John S. Noble went first to Arkansas, then to the In- 
dian Mission Conference, where he taught a school 
among the Indians. He finally went to Texas, and lo- 
cated in 1855. Samuel D. Aiken was also transferred 
first to Arkansas, then to the Indian Mission Confer- 
ence. After teaching for a while among the Indians, 
he returned to Kentucky and was a member of the Lou- 
isville Conference for many years. The name of Isaac 
W. B. Taylor is not found after 1851. 

The member of this class who remained in the 
work longest was Thomas F. Vanmeter. He died a _ 
member of the Kentucky Conference after forty-two 
years. As the result of an accident which happened to 
him in early life, he was compelled to take a supernu- 
merary relation, which he maintained for several years 
before his death, though he remained active. He was 
Secretary of the Kentucky Conference for twenty-one 
years, the longest term of service in that office ever 
held by one man. His business qualifications were of 
high order. He was a man of affairs and was always 
very systemtic and orderly in all he did. He was not 



308 Methodism in Kentucky 

a man who would make himself prominent but his 
sterling dualities made him useful He was a native 
of New Jersey, but came to Kentucky in early life, and 
was soundly converted while yet a young man. Our 
Impression of him when, as a young man, we met him 
In the Kentucky Conference, was, that he was solid 
and capable rather than brilliant, which is far better. 
One of his sermons appears in the "Kentucky Confer- 
ence Pulpit/ 9 a volume of sermons published by Dr. 
Robert Hinter in 1874. It exhibits good ability and 
much evangelistic fervor. He died in his own home in 
Louisville, September 20, 1887. 

The session of the Kentucky Conference held in 
Frankfort, In 1845, was the last session in which the 
preachers who had hitherto composed it ever met to- 
gether. The General Conference of 1846 established 
the Louisville Conference, and, according to the rule, 
those ministers who had served charges in the bounds 
of the new Conference the preceding year, became 
members of that Conference, So in the fall of 1846, 
those in the western part of the State met in their first 
session at Hopkinsville, while those of the eastern part 
held their session in Covington. The history of the 
Louisville Conference during the ninety years that 
have passed since its organization, is rich in Its achieve- 
ments and in the character of its men. But this his- 
tory must be told in another volume- A brief sum- 
mary of the work of the quarter of a century since the 
organization of the Kentucky Conference must close 
this number of the series we have planned* 

In 1820 the Kentucky Conference was made to in- 
clude -all the State of Kentucky, all that part of Ten- 
nessee lying north of the Cumberland River, (together 
with the Dixon aad Dover circuits, lying between the 



Methodism in Kentucky 309 

Cumberland and Tennessee rivers) , and at least half of 
the present State of West Virginia.* In 1824, that 
part of the Conference lying in Virginia was cut off 
and added to the Ohio Conference. In 1828, the State 
line between Kentucky and Tennessee was made the 
dividing line between the Kentucky and Tennessee Con- 
ferences, limiting the Kentucky Conference to this 
State. At its next session the Bishop was requested by 
vote of the Conference to transfer to the Tennessee 
Conference the Clarke's River circuit, which embraced 
practically all that part of the State west of the Ten- 
nessee River, and known as " Jackson's Purchase." This 
was done. The Kentucky Conference from this time 
until 1846, embraced all of Kentucky east of the Ten- 
nessee River. 

That part of the State west of the Tennessee River 
has been a fruitful field for Methodism, It became a 
part of the Memphis Conference in 1840, and. by 1845, 
its membership had steadily grown until there were 
more than five thousand members in that field. It 
would be a pleasure to follow the development of the 
work in that section, but this must be postponed for 
the present. 

Due largely to the intense political excitement and 
factional strife among the people of Kentucky, the 
growth of membership during the first years of the 
Kentucky Conference was slow. Beginning with a 
little less than 16,000 members, there were in 1830 
only 22,402 white members and 5,284 colored. Most of 

*The State of West Virginia was not formed until 1863. 
When the Conference which now embraces the greater part of 
that State was established in 1860, most of its territory was in 
Virginia, hence the Conference was called, not the West Vir* 
gima Conference, but tlie Western Virginia Conference, the 



Methodism in Kentucky 



this increase was made during the last two. or three 
years of the decade. Soon after that time, there was a 
season of refreshing and the number of members rap- 
idly enlarged. Toward the last of this second decade 
of the Conference, the number and sweep of the revi- 
vals were most gratifying. In 1835 there was reported 
a net increase of 1,927 members; in 1836, 1,908; in 
1837, the increase was 1,675; in 1838, it was 3,95<8; in 
1839, it was 2,318. This revival influence continued 
until' 1844, when the agitation over the subject of 
slavery sapped the spiritual vigor and brought about 
an actual decrease of mote than 1,500 members. In 

1837, Edward Stevenson reports a great work in Lex- 
ington, where he had the assistance of John Newland 
Maffitt. Over one hundred were converted* A little 
later, Maffitt went to Georgetown where there was a 
most gracious work. In Louisville, Francis A* Digh- 
ton, Agent of the American Bible Society, assisted 
Richard Tydings in a great meeting. In February, 

1838, Absalom Wooliscroft reports over 500 added in 
the Madison circuit. From the Minerva circuit, F. A. 
Savage reports over two hundred added, a new ap- 
pointment established at Lawrence Creek, a new 
church building dedicated at Minerva, -and another at 
Dover. At Harrodsburg, John Newlaiid Maffitt was 
with George McNelly, and one hundred and thirty pro- 
fessed conversion, with sixty more at Durham's camp 
ground. Edwin Roberts reports a gracious meeting at 
Bell's Chapel; E. M. Bosley, one hundred professions' 
in Wayne circuit; John Denham, a gracious work -at 
Burkesville; A. C. DeWitt reports thirty $aved on Eliz* 
abethtown circuit; A. L, Alderson eighty conversions 
at Madisonville; G* W. Brush two hundred and twenty 



Methodism in Kentucky 311 

were visited by great works of grace during this period. 
In 1841, Edwin Roberts and Richard Deering held a 
meeting at Salvisa, Mercer county. There had been 
no regular Methodist preaching at that place, and only 
six Methodists were found in the vicinity. A church 
was organized with eighty members, and placed in a 
circuit at the following Conference. 

It would seem from such reports as these that the 
increase in membership would be greater than it was. 
But it must be remembered that for a long time, Ken- 
tucky was a gateway through which people passed to 
newer States. Not only did many preachers go from 
this State into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Ten- 
nessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, 
but likewise a proportionately large number of Meth- 
odist members migrated to these States. A man who 
knew the field as well as any other man, said to the 
writer, "As many Methodists 1 , who were converted in 
Kentucky, can be found in other States as there are 
Methodists left in Kentucky." 

When the Kentucky Conference was established in 
1820, there were four Presiding Elders 1 Districts; in 
1845 there were eleven, viz., the Maysville, Coving- 
ton, Lexington, Shelbyville, Louisville, Hardinsburg, 
Morganfield, Hopkinsville, Bowling Green, Harrods- 
burg, -and Barboursville. The Conference began with 
about thirty charges ; in 1845 there were one hundred 
and thirteen. In 1820, there were, all told, ninety-six 
preachers employed; in 1845 there were one hundred 
and forty-nine. The very incomplete statistics of the 
first Conference session do not inform us how many 
local preachers there were at the beginning, but in 1835 
there were four hundred and fifty. The number of 
church buildings in 1845 was four hundred und eight, 



312 Methodism in _ 

with only twenty-five parsonages. There were no Sun- 
day Schools reported at the first session in Lexington, 
and we doubt if more than a very few were then in 
operation in the Conference. In 1845-, there are one 
hundred -and nineteen Sunday Schoods, with 796 teach- 
ers, and 5,988 scholars. There was no other young 
people's work. 

While it was attempted to cover the territory of the 
State with a gospel ministry, and this made necessary 
the appropriation of some missionary money to poor 
charges in the mountains and elsewhere, the mission- 
ary operations of the Conference were confined al- 
most entirely to the slave population. Ministers every- 
where were charged to give attention to the slaves, 
and a few men were appointed exclusively to this work. 
The gathering into the Church of nearly ten thousand 
colored people was no small achievement* It should be 
remembered by our readers that the M. E. Church, 
South, always showed a deep interest in the salva- 
tion of the slaves. In 1860, there was a colored mem- 
bership in this Church of 207,766. Our statistical ta- 
bles carried a column for colored members until 1896* 
The total amount of the contributions by the Confer- 
ence for Missions in 1845 was $2,277.18. 

In educational matters the Methodists of Kentucky 
have never been fortunate. We have undertaken to do 
great things when our resources were too small for 
the tasks. It was not for want of students, but for lack 
of money that Bethel Academy failed, and had been 
entirely abandoned when the Kentucky Conference 
came into being. With Augusta College it was the 
same story. This institution, founded in 1822, accom- 
plished wonderful things upon very small capital Some 
of the best men that could be found in all Methodism 



Methodism in Kentucky 313 

were brought Into its faculty, but they bankrupted 
themselves in serving the Church in this capacity. They 
could not long endure the sacrifice, and left the institu- 
tion for want of financial support- Its halls were full 
of students, and some of the finest men in all the walks 
of life were trained in Augusta College, By 1845, it 
was obvious that the College was doomed. It could not 
continue without adequate endowment, and there was 
no hope of securing the money with which to endow 
it. When the offer of the control of Transylvania was 
made, the Kentucky Conference with alacrity gave up 
the sinking enterprise and accepted the offer of the 
trustees of the Lexington institution. Even Dr. Tom- 
linson voted for its acceptance. 

Transylvania had been anything but a success up 
to this time, yet it was well located, and with proper 
management and with adequate resources it gave 
promise of great things. It had been under Presby- 
terian, Baptist, Episcopalian, and Unitarian control, 
but had been a disappointment in every case. Near the 
end of the financial panic through which the country 
had passed, the institution was far from prosperous, 
and the Trustees decided to put the University in the 
hands of the Methodists. The tender was for the con- 
trol of the Academic and Preparatory Departments 
only, while the Schools of Medicine and Law remained 
under the control of the Board of Trustees. The plan 
was for the Kentucky Conference to take over the in- 
stitution, then as soon as the General Conference could 
act upon it, have the entire Methodist Episcopal 
Church adopt it as its University. The Kentucky 
Conference unanimously accepted the tender, and the 
Educational Commission appointed by the General 
Conference of 1840 agreed to take over the Institution 



314 Methodism in Kentucky 

for the Church, but the terms of the agreement were 
not yet ratified by the parties concerned. When the 
General Conference met in 1844, the division of the 
Church was so probable, and as the University was in 
southern territory and must draw Its support mainly 
from that section, the matter was not submitted to that 
General Conference, but reserved to be presented to 
the first General Conference of th M. B. Church, South. 
When this body met in Petersburg, Virginia, in May, 
1846, the tender was again made and accepted. Dr. 
Bascom, who had been Acting President of the insti- 
tution since 1842, was made President and a very ex- 
cellent faculty was secured. Under Dr. Bascom's ad- 
ministration, Transylvania flourished for a while, but 
internal dissensions, denominational jealousies, and 
the failure of the other Conferences to give the neces- 
sary support, compelled Its abandonment in 1848. 

Transylvania never had greater prosperity than 
during Dr. Bascom's administration. In 1844, the 
combined enrollment in the various schools was 552. 
Dr. James B. Dodd, who had been Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy, and who was the au- 
thor of a series of mathematical text-books, succeeded 
Dr. Bascom as President pro tern, and held the posi- 
tion until 1856. The faculty during Dr. Bascoin's In- 
cumbency included such men as Dr. Dodd, R. T. P. 
Allen, Thomas Lynch, J. L. Kemp, W. H. Anderson, 
Rev. Joseph Cross, Dr. Robert Peter, Francis W- Cap- 
ers, Rev. Wright Merrick, and others. While we grieve 
over another educational failure, the University accom- 
plished a splendid work while under our control, and 
was a credit to the Church that fostered It. 

We have called attention to the fact that the public 
school system of Kentucky was not then developed, 



Methodism in Kentucky 315 

and that there were no public high schools. It de- 
volved upon the Church to supply this need, and Ken- 
tucky Methodism did its part. Rev. John Tevis and 
his excellent wife made of Science Hill School one ol 
the finest institutions for girls in all the South. Dr. 
T. N. Ralston established another excellent school for 
girls in Lexington. A girls' school was established in 
Mt, Sterling by the daughter of Jonathan Stamper 
and continued it for several years. Rev. R. T. P. Allen, 
the founder of Kentucky Military Institute, put his 
school under the supervision of the Church and visitors 
were appointed to it. Schools at LaGrange, Richmond, 
Bardstown, Greensburg, Louisville, Glasgow, and oth- 
er places did excellent work until their existence was 
made unnecessary by larger and more permanent insti- 
tutions. 

Of the one hundred and forty-nine preachers given 
appointments in 1845, only twenty-five of them had 
parsonages furnished them. Salaries had advanced but 
little during the twenty-five years since the Conference 
was established. The highest salary paid to any Pre- 
siding Elder for the year 1844-5, was to B. T. Crouch, 
on the Lexington District, in the sum of $320. William 
Holman on the Louisville District was paid only $200. 
R. D, Neale received from the Hardinsburg District, 
$124. James King served the Harrodsburg District for 
the munificent sum of $162. The salaries of pastors 
was on the same level. Fourth Street, Louisville, paid 
Rev. John Miller all of $282, which was the largest 
salary paid a pastor that year! Brook Street paid 
$200. A. H. Redford received from the Minerva cir- 
cuit $119.30, while his colleague, J. W. Cunningham, 
was paid $51* The pastor of the Morgantown circuit 
was paid $14, while the man on the Warsaw charge 



816 Methodism in Kentucky 

received $35. We do not wonder that many of our men 
located, or else transferred to other fields. Some of 
Its very best men were lost to Kentucky Methodism be- 
cause of failure to give them a necessary support 

END OF VOLUME IL 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX A 
CONSTITUTION OP THE PREACHERS' AID SOCIETY 

Article 1. This society shall be known by the denomination, 
The Preachers* Aid Society of the Kentucky Conference. 

Article 2. Any person, by the payment of one dollar an- 
nually, on or before the annual meeting of the society, and hav- 
ing regularly subscribed the Constitution of the society, may be- 
come a member; and any person paying fifteen dollars at one 
time, shall be a member for life. 

Article 3. The affairs of the society shall be conducted by 
fifteen managers, ten of whom shall be members of the Ken- 
tucky Conference and five, well-known laymen or local preach- 
ers within the limits of the Conference, to be chosen annually 
by a majority of the society, present at each anniversary, ex- 
cept that the first board of managers shall be chosen by the 
Kentucky Conference, And from among the managers, the Con- 
ference first, and subsequently the society, shall elect a Presi- 
dent, two Vice-Presidents a Treasurer and Secretary. 

Article 4, The President, or in his absence the Vice-Presi- 
dents, or in their absence a President pro tern, shall preside at 
all meeting's of the Board. The President and any three Mana- 
gers may at any time call a special meeting of the Board. 

Article 5. The Treasurer shall take charge of and hold all 
the funds of the society, subject always to the control and direc- 
tion of the Board of Managers; and shall, wherever called upon 
to do so, deliver over to his successor in office all the funds, 
books, papers, and property, of whatever kind, belonging to the 
society. 

Article 6. An Exeeutice Committee of three, of which the 
Treasurer shall be chairman, shall be appointed annually by 
the society, for the investment of its funds, all of whom shall be 
members of this society and of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and two, including the Treasurer, members of the Kentucky Con- 
ference; and the interest of the funds so invested, shall be held 
by the Treasurer, subject only to the Board of Managers, except 
the interest on such donations or subscriptions as may have re- 
ceived a specific direction by the deviser or donor. 

Article 7. The funds of this society shall not be appropriated 
for the relief or assistance of any person or persons whatsoever, 
except itinerant ministers of the Methodfat Episcopal Church, 
their wives, widows or children; and thefje shall be assisted in. 
proportion to the length of time such ministeirs have been ef- 
fective traveling preachers, and the extent of their labor and 
sacrifice in the service of the Church, upon a plan of distribu- 
tion, to be agreed upon by the Managers; and every appropria- 
tion not made upon this principle, shall be regarded as special, 
and shall only be made by a vote of three-fourths of all the 

317 



APPENDIX 



Managers of the* society. 

Article 8. Societies may be formed anywhere within the 
limits of the Kentucky Conference, auxiliary to the Parent So- 
ciety, upon such terms and conditions, and adopting such con- 
stitutions, as may be deemed most advisable provided always 
that the funds raised by the auxiliaries be transferred to the 
Treasurer, and subject to the control and disposition of the 
Parent Board of Managers. 

Article 9. The annual meeting of the society shall be held 
in the place, and at a suitable time during the annual session of 
the Kentucky Conference, when the society shall receive from 
the Board of Managers a statement of the affairs of the society 
shall elect its Managers for the ensuing year, and transact all 
such business as may be deemed necessary to accomplish the 
objects of its institution. 

Article 10. This constitution may be altered or amended at 
any annual meeting of the society, by an affirmative vote of 
two-thirds of the members present provided nevertheless, that 
no such alteration or 'amendment shall be deemed valid or in 
force, until it shall receive the sanction of the Kentucky Con- 
ference, then and there in session. 

FIEST BOARD OF MANAGERS 

Members of the Conference H. B. Bascom, Jonathan Stamp- 
er, H. H. Kavanaugh, William Gunn, Isaac Collard, Richard Ty- 
dings, B. T. Crouch, John Tevis, George W. Taylor, R. Corwine. 
Lay and Local Managers Lewis Parker, Wayne county, Ky.; 
John Armstrong, Maysville; David Herran, Louisville; F, A, 
Savage, Minerva, Mason county; Charles Campbell, Hopkins 
county. 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 

John Armstrong, President; B. T. Crouch, 1st Vice-presi- 
dent; J. Stamper, 2nd Yice-President ; H. B, Bascom, Treas- 
urer; F. A. Savage, Secretary. 

818 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX B 

THE PLAN OF SEPARATION. 

The select committee of nine to consider and report on the 
declaration of the delegates from the Conferences of the slave- 
holding States, 'beg leave to submit the following report: 

Whereas, a declaration has been presented to this General 
Conference, with the signatures of fifty-one delegates of the 
body, from thirteen Annual Conferences in the slave-holding 
States, representing that, for various reasons enumerated, the 
objects and purposes of the Christian ministry and Church or- 
ganization cannot be successfully accomplished by them under 
the jurisdiction of this General Conference as now constituted; 
and 

Whereas, in the event of a separation, a contingency to which 
the declaration asks attention as not improbable, we esteem it 
the duty of this General Conference to meet the emergency with 
Christian kindness and the strictest equity; therefore, 

Resolved, by the delegates of the several Annual Conferences 
in General Conference assembled, 

1. That, should the Annual Conferences in the slave-hold- 
ing States find it necessary to unite in a distinct ecclesiastical 
connection, the following rules shall be observed with regard to 
the northern boundary of such connection: All the societies, 
stations and Conferences adhering to the Church in the South, by 
a vote of a majority of the members of the said societies, sta- 
tions and Conferences, shall remain under the unmolested pas- 
toral care of the Southern Church; and the ministers of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church shall in no wise attempt to organize 
churches or societies within the limits of the Church, South, nor 
shall they attempt to exercise any pastoral oversight therein; it 
being understood that the ministry of the South reciprocally ob- 
serve the same rule in relation to stations, societies, and Confer- 
ences adhering, by vote of the majority, to the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church; provided also, that this rule shall apply only to 
stations, societies and Conferences bordering on the line of divi- 
sion, and not to interior charges, which shall in all. cases be left 
to the care of that Church within whose territory they are sit- 
uated. 

2. That ministers, local and traveling, of every grade and 
office in the Methodist Episcopal Church, may, as they prefer, 
remain in that Church, or, without blame, attach themselves to 
the Church, South. 

3. Resolved, by the delegates of all the Annual Conferences 
in General Conference assembled, That we^ recommend to th 
Annual Conferences, at their first approaching sessions, to au- 
thorise a change of the sixth restrictive article, so that th first 
d&uee (diall read thus: **Tlxey shall not appropriate tbe produce 

S19 



APPENDIX 



of the Book Concern, nor of the Chartered Fund, to any other 
purpose other than for the benefit of traveling, supernumerary 
superannuated and worn out preachers, their wives, widows and 
children, and to such other purposes as may be determined upon 
by the votes of two-thirds of the members of the General Con- 



*> 

4. "That whenever the Annual Conferences, by a vote of 
three-fourths of all their members voting on the third resolution, 
shall have concurred in the recommendation to alter the sixth re- 
strictive article, the agents at New York and Cincinnati shall, 
and they are hereby authorized and directed to deliver over to any 
authorized agent or appointee of the Church, South, should one 
be organized, all notes and book accounts against the ministers, 
church members and citizens within its boundaries, with author- 
ity to collect the same for the sole use of the Southern Church, 
and that said agents also convey to the aforesaid agent or ap- 
pointee of the South all the real estate, and assign to him all the 
property including presses, stock, and all right and interest con- 
nected with the printing establishments at Charleston, Richmond. 
and Nashville, which now belong to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. , _, _ _ 

5. That when the Annual Conferences shall have approved 
the aforesaid change in the sixth restrictive article, there shall 
be transferred to the above agent of the Southern Church so 
much of the capital and produce of the Methodist Book Concern 
as will, with the notes, book accounts, presses, etc., mentioned in 
the last resolution, bear the same proportion to the whole prop- 
erty of said Concern that the traveling preachers of the Southern 
Church shall bear to all the traveling ministers of the Methodist 
Episcopal Chuch; the division to be made on the basis of the 
number of traveling preachers in the forthcoming Minutes. 

6. That the above transfer shall be in the form of annual 
payments of $25,000 per annum, and specifically in stock of the 
Book Concern, and in the Southern notes and accounts due the 
establishment, and accruing after the first transfer mentioned 
above; and until -the payments are made, the Southern Church 
shall share in all the net profits of the Book Concern, in the pro- 
portion that the amount due them, or in arrears bears to all the 
property of the Concern. 

7. That Nathan Bangs, George Peck, and James B. Pmlcy be, 
and they are hereby appointed commissioners to act in concert 
with the same number of commissioners appointed by the 
Southern organization, (should one be former!) to estimate the 
amount which will fall due to the South by the preceding rule, 
and to have full powers to carry Into tffect the Idiole arrange- 
ments proposed in regard to the division of property, should the 
separation take place. And if by any means a vacancy occurs in 
this board of Commissioners, the Book Committee at New York 
shall fill said vacancy. 

8. That whenever any agents of the Southern Chureh are 

820 



APPENDIX 



clothed with legal authority or corporate power to act in the 
premises, the Agents at New York are hereby authorized and 
directed to act in concert with such Southern agents, so as to 
give the provisions of these resolutions a legally binding force. 

9. That all property of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
meeting-houses, parsonages, colleges, schools. Conference funds, 
cemeteries, and of every kind within the limits of the Southern 
organization, shall be forever free from any claim set up on the 
part of the Methodist Episcopal Church, so far as this resolution 
can be of force in the premises. 

10. That the Church so formed in the South shall have a 
common right to use all the copyrights in possessions of the 
Book Concerns at New York and Cincinnati, at the time of the 
settlement by the commissioners. 

11. That the Book Agents at New York be directed to make 
such compensation to the Conferences South, for their dividend 
from the Chartered Fund, as the commissioners above provided 
for shall agree upon. 

12. That the Bishops be respectfully requested to lay that 
part of this report requiring the action of the Annual Confer- 
ences before them as soon as possible, beginning with the New 
York Conference. 



INDEX 



Abbott, W. McD., 208, 215 
Abolition Activities, 276 
Adams s Wm., 44, 289 
Ahrens, Wm., 250 
Aiken, Samuel D., 206, 207 
Akers, Peter, 53, 165, 168 
Alderaon, A. L., 178, 179, 208 
Allen Luke P., 33, 112, 208 
Allen, K. T. P., 253 
Alverson, Pleasant, 152, 15s 
American Colonization Socie- 
ty, 142, 168 
Anderson, Wm. H., 220 
Andrew, Bishop J. 0., 165, 

189, 242, 279 
Ashley, Edward, 120 
Askins, Wm. H., 97, 152 
Atherton, Wm., 100 
Atkinson, John, 252 
Atmore, W. C., 237, 238 
Atterbury, Thomas, 57,120,133 
Augusta College, 62, 87, 101, 

111, 226, 244, 312 
Augusta Herald, 103 
Babbitt, Carlisle, 157, 162 
Bailey, Andrew, 229 
Baker, Abraham, 121, 152 
Baker, Hiram, 113, 207, 224 
Baker, M. G., 260, 261 
Baldwin, S, D., 253, 256 
Bardstown, Conf., at, 235 
Barger, John S., 83 
Barker, Greenup, 204, 208 
Barksdale, D. S.,-180, 237 
Barnett, Joseph D,, 157, 161 
Barth, John, 260, 261 
Bascom, Henry B., 67, 156, 203, 

226, 800 

Bashara, B. A., 260 
Basket, John C., 229 
Beatty, John, 152, 153 
Bell, Fielding, 237 
Belt, Wm., 113, 120 
Berryraan, N. G., S3, 112, 189 
Bethel Academy, 20, 304 
Bickers, Wm., 297 
Bier, John, 253 
Big Sandy Valley, 42 
Biographical Sketches, 1S1 
Bird, Bicbard* 135 188 



Bkck, Daniel, 78, 113 
Blades, Foster H., 171, 224 
Book Concern, Cincinnati, 14 
Booker, Simon L., 54 
Boone Daniel, Burial, 299 
Borrowed Churches, 198 
Bosley, E. M., 178, 180, 237 
Bottomly, T. W., 236 
Boundaries Ky. Conf., 12 
Bowden, John, 296 
Bowling Green, Conf. at, 294 
Bowman, W. G., 171, 188 
Bradford Bequest, 118 
Briggs, Titus C., 306, 307 
Bristow, J. H., 296 
Brooking-, J. H,, 171 
Browder, James., 55, 104 
Browder, Josiah, 70 
Browder, Thomas, 120 
Brown, George, 96 
Brown, Horace, 121 
Brown, Samuel, 70 
Brown, Wm., 105, 143 
Bruce, John G., 250 
Brush, G. W., 1S8 
BucMiannon, J. M., ISO. 203 
Buckner. K P., 260, 265 
Burke, William, 202, 303 
Barns, Wm., 191, 203 
Burris, G. W., 260, 264 
Butt, Wm., 260, 261 
By-Laws 65 

Campbell, Alexander, 1,18, 174 
Campbell, Lowell, 157, 163 
Cannon, Anthony, 295 
Capell, Daniel, 1%$ 
Capers, Wm., Resolutions of, 

283 

Carrick, John D., 184, 144 
Carter, Joseph, 97, 112, 184 
Cass, Mr, Statement of, 281 
Centenary, 225 
Chambers, Wm., 57 
Chandler, S. P., 2RO, 261 
Chandler, Thos, W., 121. 122 
OhenowitK W. J., 260, 261 
OlioVra 16$, 17T 
Christian Advocate, 195, 200 
Circuits iaiKf Station*, 40 
Clark, Mi<5ajals 9 IBS 



INDEX 



Clampet, Moses, 121, 178 
Clifton, Clement, 78, 189 
Cole s Cheslea, 75 
Cook, Valentine, Deatli of, 66 
Conway, Wm. C., 245, 252 
Corwine, Richard, 188, 260 
Cosby, Minor, 157, 162, 189 
Cram, Caleb* 55 
Grain, Eli B. s 178, 179 
Crain, Wm. s 133 
Crandle, John T., 306, 307 
Cravens, Nehemiah, 105 
Crawford, W. M., 191 
Crews, Hooper, 146 
Cromwell, Jesse, 229 
Cropper, Thos. C., 145, 188 
Crouch, B. T. 8 39 9 120 
Crow, James C, 107, 152, 171 
Crumbaugh, G, W., 240 
Crutchfteid, S., 204, 208 
Culp, James, 121, 133 
Cumberland District, 13, 43 
Cummins, S. P., 245 
Gunditt; Win., 113, 114, 189 
Cunningham, John W. B 298 
Dance Turned into Revival, 24 
Dandy, W, C., 253, 255 
Daniey, Leroy C., 240 
Danville, Conf. at, 224 
Davidson, L. B., 253, 258 
Davis, David H., 219 
Davis, Fdanklin, 153, 171 
Davis, Csrarrett, 245 9 246 
Davis, Tiiomaa, 171, 208 
Deering Eichard, 172 
Deering, Seriah S., 230 
DeMoss, Thomas, 191 
Denham, John, 33, 260 
Dennis, J. H., 263, 260 
Denton, John G., 105, 152 
DeWitt, Alamon C,, 204 9 205, 

260 
Deposition of Bishop Andrew, 

283 

Dillard, Alien B,, 30 
Dills, Nelson, 77, 113 
Disciples Church Founded, 174 
Dluenting Votes, 1845, 802 
District ConffWUMftB* 18 
Division of Ckmf , P?9Md 227 



Downard, H. T, 253, 254 
Drake, B. M., 36 
Drunkenness, 170, 227 
Duke, Henry S., 108, 203 
Duty, Simpson, 121, 144 
Duncan, Charles, 245 
Duncan, Peter, 218 
Dungan, Richard I., 78, 189 
Eads, Martin L., 147, 20S 
Earthquake, 36 
Ebbert, Isaac, SOS 
Edmundson, Henry, 180 S 208 
Elliott, Allen, 104 
Ellis, John W., 113, 114, 133 
Emory, Bishop John, 166, 167 
English, Francis M., 237 
Evans, Hooper, 136, 189, 208 
Evans, John, 30 
Evans, Moss, 178, 179, 208 
Evans, William, 152, 153 
Ewan, John B., 245, 246 
Fagg, Washington, 121, 122, 

188, 204 

Farmer, Thos. P., 146, 189 
Fam&, Buford, 146, 203, 208 
Farrow, Joseph, 120 
Farrow, William, 55, 70 
Ferree, James L, 237 
Ferree, Peter V., 306 
Fields, John W., 245 
Finley, Isham R., 253, 254 
Finley, John P., 73, 104 
Finley, Robert W., 73 
Fisk, John, 106, 143 
Fisk, Robert, 180, 186 
Fiak, Wilbur, 199 
Foster, Jedidiah, 208, 213 
Foster, Bishop R. S., 253 
Fowler, Littleton, 113, 115, 120, 

252 

Fox, A. D., 204, 208 
Frankfort, Conf. at, 206, 298, 

308 

Frazee, Bradford, 208 
FroKge, Timothy C,, 260, 262 
Funk, Abraham, Bequest of, 

206 

Gardiner, R. G. 204, 205 
Gm.ry, H. F., 287 
Gftrrett, iiswte, 200 

ssa 



INDEX 



Gatewood* George S., 204 S 205, 

237 

General Conferences, 1820, 27; 
1824, 88; 1828, 128; 1832, 
165; 1836, 199; 1840, 234; 
1844, 269 

General Conferences Dele- 
gates, to, 1824, 87; 1828, 
119; 1832, 156; 1836, 191; 
1840, 228; 1844, 268; 1846, 
303 
General Conference of 1844, 

269 

General Conference at Peters- 
burg, Va. f in 1846, 303 
George, Bishop Enoch, 44, 75, 

130 

George, James L, 229, 260 
George, Leonard, 134, 144 
German Work, 259 
Gibbons, Thomas, 148, 188, 224 
Gillispie, S. P. V., 48 
Glassford, Samuel, 245, 246 
Godbey, Josiah, 245, 246 
Goslin, Harrison, 144, 152 
Gospel Herald, 131 
Gray, v David, 30, 43 
Green, Elihu, -218, 260 
Greensburg 1 , Conf. at, 178 
Green River District, 13 
Greenup, James L., 106, 171 
Gregg, Henry, 33, 104 
Grover, Joel, 144, 152 
Grubbs, Wni. M., 180, 185 
Gninn, James, 77 
Half, Charles, 134, 144 
Hall, Thomas, 157, 162 
Hancock, Georsre, 253, 254 
Farber, Obadiah, 56, 113 
Harber, Stephen. 56, 13,3 
Hardy, John C., 208, 215, 237 
Harlan, Creor#e. 13, 153 
Harlan, L. D., 208, 209 
Harris, Nathaniel, 75 
Harrison, John Csrr, 178, 179 . 
Harrison, John Christian, 152, 

154, 168 
Harrison, J. J,, 204, 208. 229, 

237 
Harrison, Samuel, 121, 126 



$24 



Harrodsburg,- Conf. at, 167 

Haw, Uriel, 72 

Head, Jesse, 90 

Hedding, Bishop B., 95, 96, 

155, 199 

Heliums,, Samuel 140, 152, 178 
Helm, Wm., 146, 224 
Hendrickson, Charles 252 
Henkle, M. M., 245, 249, 324 
Henry, BJuford, 148, 189 
Hill, Caleb T. 306, 307 
Hines, Pleasant, 121, 133 
Hobbs, Henry, 306, 307 
Holding:, J. D., 180, 181 
Holding, Richard, 172 
Holding:, Valentine, 217 
Holland, Hezokiah, 29, 70 
Holliday, Charles M., 109, 188 
Holliman, Thos. J,, 78, 112, 133 
Hopkinsville Station, 41 
Hopkinsville, Conf. at, 27 
Huffhey, Laban, 55, 97, 120 
Humphrey, Wm, M., 245, 252 
Hunt, Henry, 133 
Hunt, Henry W., 71 
Hunt, Jeremiah, 121, 133 
Huston, L. D. t 260 
James, John, 54 
Jarnes, Wm., 204, 205 
Jamison, Milton, 35, 152, 160, 

224 

Janes, Bishop K S,, 253, 294 
Johns, W, G , 297 
Johnson, Edmund, 208, 209 
Johnson, Elkanah, 221 
Johnson, John, 112, 189 
Johnson, Nathan, 113, 133 
Joiner, Thorvms, 59, 96, 120 
Jones, John, 71, 97 
Jnlian, Sam uol, 134 
TCnaey, Jack WM 290 
Kavanatig-h, B, T M 9M 
TCavunaiiffh, H. H., 84, 207 
TTRv.irianwh, W, B , 208, 216 
TMIv, /Tbrt, JRO 

, Clinton, ISO 

, Gilby, 171 

, GrceWp, 121, 152 

, Joseph, 121 
Kelly, Samuel, 245, 247 



INDEX 



Kemp, J. L., 253, 254 

Kennerly, Philip, 50 
Kenton, Simon Conversion 

of, 21 

Kentucky Conf. Establislied, 11 
Kentucky Conf. Members of 

1821, 44 
Kentucky Conf. Sessions of, 

1821, 43; 1822, 65; 1823, 75; 

1824, 96; 1825, 103; 1826, 

112; 1827, 117; 1828, 130; 

1829, 142; 1830, 149; 1831, 

155; 1832, 167; 1833, 177; 

1834, 180; 1835, 189; 1836, 

202; 1837, 206; 1838, 217; 

1839 224; 1840, 235; 1841, 

242; 1843, 259; 1844, 294; 

1845, 298. 

Kentucky Conf. Delegates, 286 
Kentucky Conf. Delegates Ee- 

port, 286 
Kentucky Conf. Committee of. 

Nine, 287 
Kentucky Conf. Adheres South, 

300 

Kentucky District, 12, 42 
Kenyon, Samuel, 121, 144 
Kessinger, A., 203 
Kiniberlin, W. C., 245, 252 
King*, James, 152, 153 
Kins:, Marcus L., 245, 246 
Knox, Elijah, 145, 171 
Kock, Henry. 260, 261 
Kyle, J. I,,, '253, 260 
Lacy, J. K, 121, 189 
Lambuth, John R,, 56 
Lambnfh, Bishop W, R., 56 
Land, Mitchell 245, 247, 252 
Landrum, Francis, 120, 140 
Landrum, R. W,, 180, 203 
Landrum, W. B , 136 
Lancaster, Ransom, 245, 249 
Lasley, Matthew, 180, 237 
Laatey, Thomas, 157, 224 
Lnsley, Wm., 245, 247 
Lntf-a, S, A., 303 
Leach, James 0,, 75, 76, 208 
Lee, N. H., 222, 224 
Lee, Silas, 118, 114 
Levi, Moses, 208, 210 



825 



Lewis, Calvin, 208, 209 
Lewis, Israel, 134, 144 
Lewis, N. B., 180, 186 
Lexington-Conf . at, 43, 65, 252 
Lexington Station, 41 
Light, George C., 51, 168, 188 
Lindsay, Marcus, 27, 66, 178 
Linn, John H., 224 
Linney, H. M., 253, 257 
Littlejohn, John, 157 
Long, Abram, 82, 143, 152 
Long, Orson, 260, 264 
Louisville Conf. at, 112, 155 S 

259, 292 

Louisville Convention, 289 
Louisville Trouble in, 70 
Lynch, Thomas, 253, 254, 304 
Maddox, Wm., 71 
Maffitt, John Newland, 193 
Maley, G. W., 303 
Malone, Benjamin, 97 
Malone, Green, 55, 133 
Malone, Isaac, 135, 178 
Malone, Thomas, 191 
Marsee, Joseph, 121 
Marshall, Lewis, S., 295 
Martin, Edward, 260, 261 
Martin, George W., 120, 121 

133 

Martin, William, 30 
Matting, Wm. D., 208 
Maxey, W. B., 204, 237 
Maysville Church Case, 291 
Maysville -Conf. at, 75 
Maysville Station, 42 
Moeks, Peter 0., 218, 252 
Members, 70, 87, 111, 126, 164, 

193 

Merrick, Wright, 208, 224 
Merritt George W., 180, 187 
Methodist Missions, 14, 312 
"Methodist Societies/* 90 
Miley, Dr. John, 258 
Miller, John, 237, 238 
Millerite Movement, 265 
Milliflran, James P., 71, 104 
Mdbley, Ezekiel, 180, 189 
Monroe, Andrew, 41 
Montgomery, W, G.< 208, 209 
Moore, Aaron, 229, 252 



INDEX 



Moore, T. J., 200, 262 

Morals, Presley, 77, 104 
Morris, Bishop T. A., 48, 133, 

199, 200, 224, 235 
Mount Sterling Conf. at, 180 
Murphy, Wylie B. f 204 
Murrell, Jesse P., 2Q8 5 224 
"Mutual Rights," 89 
Myers, E. H., Statement of, 289 
McComas, Wm., 77, 120 
McCown, Alexander, 260, 264 
McCown, Bur.r H., 121 f 122, 236 
McCullough, John, 295 
McDaniel, Henry, 224 
McGee, John, 260, 262 
McHenry, Barnabas, 66, 178 
McKendiree, Bishop Wm., 44, 

65, 118 

McKnight, W, P., 145 
Mclaughlin, A. J., 204, 205,303 
McLaughlin, Allen, 254 
McMahan, Wm., 171 
McMurray, Wilson S., 146 S 171, 

208 

McNelly, George, 51, 203, 237 
McNutt, Robert, 295 
McReynolds, John W., 32, 70 
McReynolds, Robert Y. f 135 
McReyaolds, Win. M., 31, 178 
Neale, Richard D., 60, 104, 133 
Neikirk, Wm., 260, 262 
Nevius, John, 171 237 
Niblack, John C., 180, 189 
Nichols, Thomas, Bequest, 87 
Nix, James E., 240 
Noble, John S., 306, 307 
Noland, Stephen, 306 
NTorfleet, Abraham, 113 
Offden, Benjamin, 101, 120, 189 
Old and New Court, 3 
Olin, Stephen, 282 
Opposition to Separation* 288, 

291 

Outen, William, 178, 189 
Pag-e, John, 253, 254 
Parcel, Ashbel, 295 
Parish, J. E., 118, 133 
Parker, Lewis, 58, 143 
Parker, Lorenzo, D,, 171, 224 
Parker, Nathan, 97, 112 



S26 



Parsons, C. B., 245, 247, 304 
Peace, Andrew, 135 207 
Peak, Joel, 208, 210 
Peeples, Benjamin, 29, 70 
Pelly, Munford, 245, 247 
Penn, James, 260, 261 
Perry, Hartwell J., 152, 154 
Perry, John B. f 208, 210 
Peter, Simon, 112, 133 
Peter, William, 133 
Phillips, Wm., 121, 152, 157, 

158 

Pilcher, H. E., 237, 245 
Pirtle, Claiborne, 178, 188 
Pitts, Fountain E., 99, 133 
Pitts, War.ren C. 9 260, 261 
Plan of Separation Text, 319 
Plan of Separation, Vote on, 

284 

Poage, George B,, 260, 263 
Pope, Solomon, 180, 237 
Porter, James, 75 
Powell, Theophilus, 204, 208 
Power, John B. 178 
Power, John H., 59 
Power, Joseph, 121 
Preachers' Aid Society, 285, 

242 

Preachers' Aid- Charter, 317 
Presiding Elder Question, 16, 

60, 88 

Price, Larkin, 260, 261 
Price, W. E., 237 
Ralston, T. N., 121, 124, 180, 

143, 204, 289, 803 
Hankin, Hugh, 297 
Rankin, Thomas, 180, 187 
Eathbtm, Stephen A., 219 
Ray, Edwin, 74 
Ray, John, 120 
Rearm, Nicholas, 1 
Bedford, A. H., 208, 212 
Reece, thos. G,, 97, 104, US 
Redman, John, 118, 114, 152 
Reed, Samuel, 306, 807 
Reed, Wm,, 240 
Revivals, 267, 810 
Reynolds, Isaac, 81 
Riach, George, 245* 246 
Rice, Aaron, 204 



INDEX 



Rice, Thomas, 144, 152 
Richardson, Geo., 79, 120, 189 
Riddle, Wm. M., 306 
Riggin, John W. f 178, 179 
Robbins, George, 59, 120, 152 
Roberts, Bishop R. R. 44, 178, 

206 

Roberts, Edwin 204, 252 
Roberts, Samuel, 260, 261 
Robertson, S. L., 253, 158 
Robinson, Abel, 48, 112, 143 
Robinson, Alexander, 180 
Ross, James, 55, 104 
Ross, Oliver B., 131 
Rule on Slavery, 280 
Russellville Conf,. at, 151,224 
Ruter, Martin, 119, 140, 156 
Salaries in 1821, 9; in 1830, 

150; in 1845, 315 
Salt River Dist, 13, 43 
Sampson, Aquila, 30 
Sandusky, John, 147, 245 
Savage, G. S., 192, 208, 229 
Savage, James, 134, 152 
Sawyers, Hervey, 52 
Schools, 294 
Science Hill, 101 
Scott, Orange, 201, 234 
Sears, Allen, 219 
Sehon, E. W. f 303 
Shearer, Walter, 208, 209 
Shelbyville Conf. at, 96, 130, 

189 

Shelton, Peter, 113, 120 
Sherwood, Daniel 178, 188 
Shreaves, George, 97, 104 
Shultz, Joseph W., 171 
Sidebottom, R. E., 180, 181 
Simcoe, G. W. t 180, 189, 218 
Simmons, Elisiha, 34, 97, 183 
Simmons, Esau, 34, 112 
Sinclair, John, 97, 152 
Slavery, 66, 142, 190, 201, 232 
Smiley, G. W., 253, 254 
Smith, J. M. S.. 97, 120 
Sotlars, A. B,, 245, 246 
Soule, Bishop Joshua, 18, 95, 

118, 151, 180, 199, 203, 225, 

300 
South, J. P., 230 



Southgate, E. L., 157, 158, 171 
Southwestern Chr. Adv., 195, 

200 

Spratt, W. A. EL, 145 
Spurlock, Burwell, 42, 75 
Stamper, Jonathan, 203, 242 
Stanfield, Major, 71, 11? 
Stateler, L. B., 157, 164 
Stemmons, A. H,., 108, 171 
Stevens, George, 71 
Stevens, Herrington, 171, 203 
Stevenson, Edward, 38 
Stevenson, Evan, 105, 112 
Stone, Barton W., 93, 118, 174 
Stribling, W. C., 75, 76, 120 
Strother, J. P., 121 
Sublett, Wm. 71 
Sunday Schools, 94, 152 
Suspended Resolutions, 88 
Sutton, Elijah, 157 
Sutton, Jesse, 147, 148 
Switzer, George, 180 
Talbot, Nathaniel, 105 
Taylor, Caleb J., 97, 104 
Taylor, George, 254 
Taylor, I. W. B,, 306 
Taylor, Michael, 106, 133 
Taylor, Peter, i- ,1 
Taylor, Z, M., 239 
Temple, J. N., 245, 247 
Tennessee Conf., 27 
Tevis, Benjamin, 106 
Tevis, Daniel, 57, 70, 77, 96, 

106, 113, 178 
Tevis, John 101, 120 
Tevis, J. W. P., 106, 171 
Tevis, Mrs. Julia A,, 101 
Thackston, Z. B., 50 
Thompson, J. C. C,, 191 
Thompson, T. E,, 178, 179, 203 
Tomlinson, J. S., 109, 288, 290 
Tract Society, 118. 
Trainer, W. D., 239 
Transylvania University, 243, 

812 

Triplett, A. H., 245, 246 
Tucker, Jonathan, 71 
Tunnell, David, 105, 152 
Turner, Robert P 152, 153,178 
Turner, Samuel P., 229 



827 



INDEX 



Tydings 1 , Richard, 126 
Ulin, Hamilton C., 134 
Vance, John, 229 
Vance, Thomas P., 145, 188 
Vandyke, Henry, 180 
Vanmeter, T. P., 306, 307 
Vanpelt, John, 253, 254 
Vaught, S. K., 260, 263 
Veach, Samuel, 113, 115, 152, 

245 

Versailles Conf. at, 117 
Wallace, Thomas, 135, 188 
Ward, James, 140, 168 
Ward, Joseph G., 135, 188 
Waring, John, 204 
Waring, Thomas, 135 
Waterman, J. A., 303 
Watson, John, 104 
Watts, John, 97, 104 
Waugh, Bishop Beverly, 199, 

224 



Welburn, Drumniond, 241 

Well's, David, 253 

Wesleyan Methodist Church, 

234 

Wesleyan Repository, 89 
Western Chr. Adv., 189 
Western Methodist, 195, 200 
West Virginia with Ohio Conf., 

88 

Williams, John, 145, 188 
Williams, J. G., 245, 252 
Wilson, Joshua, 260 
Wood, Blachley C., 34, 133, 189 
Woodson, Lewis M., 113, 133 
Wooliscroft, A., 137 
Wools, J. S., 239 
Wright, David, 78, 143 
Wright, J, N. 260, 261 
Young, John P., 147, 148, 188, 

203 
Young, William, 31, 75 



328 




130227